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MÜZİK ve Heyecanlarımız; Müzikle Tedavi

                                                  Müzik ve Heyecanlarımız

                                                         “Eğer “kat’iyet”lerle başlarsak, ‘şüphe’lerle biteriz,
                                                          fakat eğer ‘şüphe’lerle başlarsak, sebatlı olursak,
                                                          ‘kat’iyet’lerle sonlanırız.”
                                                                                                                        Bacon

                Önce size ünlü Dr. Emil A. Gutheil’in <Müzik Araştırma Fonu Başkanı; Psikoterapi Araştırma Enstitüsü Başkanı; Amerikan Psikoloji Dergisi sahip ve başyazarı Dr. Emil A. Gutheil’in, yukarki ismi taşıyan kitabının özetiyle başlayacağım, sonra diğer kaynaklar ve kendi deneyim ve hislerimi ifade edeceğim.

                Musiki’nin insan heyecanları üzerine olan etkisi uzun zaman deneysel olarak araştırılmıştır. Çok miktarda, hünerli olarak yapılmış gözlemler, okul-
larda, muayenehanelerde, hastanelerde ve endüstri merkezlerinden derlenmiş; bu bulgular, müziğin insan vücudunun fizyolojisi, beyni ve onun fonksiyonları üzerinde yaptığı etkiler yakından tetkik edilmiştir.

                 Bu gözlemler esas alınarak, müziğin, dolaşım, solunum ve diğer sistemler üzerinde birtakım psikosomatik tepkiler meydana getirebileceği ve halkın büyük bir kısmında, mizaç-huy ve diğer psikolojik ögeleri etkileyebi-
leceği kabul edilmiştir. Araştırmalar, musiki’nin gerektirdiği şekillerde uygulandığı takdirde, süportif (yardım edici, tamamlayıcı) psikoterapi tekniğinde kat’i olumlu bir rol oynayacağı sonucuna vardılar.

                 Böylece, nisbi bir kolaylıkla uygulanabilecek bu araç, geniş mik-tarlardaki hastalara şifa için sunulabileceği düşünülerek, musikişinastlara mesleki çalışmalarında yeni bir çalışma alanı açacağı gibi, tıbbi mahfillerde ve halk arasında çok ümitvar bir duygunun gelişmesine neden olabileceği ciddiyetle düşünüldü ve umuldu.       

                 Mamafih bu şevk, musiki’nin uygulanmasına ait ‘prensipler’ ve kişisel tedavi deneyleri için gereken ‘müzik ve insan materyali”ne ait birtakım soru-
lar sorulmaya başlandığında, başlangıçtaki hararetini biraz kaybeder gibi oldu. Nedenini görelim.
                 Sanatçı: “Biz, müziği size uygulamayı düşünüyoruz,” dedi.
                 Eleştirici: ‘Musiki?’, ‘Ne musikisi?’ diye yanıtladı; ‘melodi mi?’, ‘ritm mi? harmoni mi? ton mu? overton mu? perde mi? form mu? ses mi? alet mi?  solo ya da koro sesini kastediyorsunuz? Musiki’yi ‘dinlendiği’ gibi mi, yoksa ‘uygulandığı’ gibi mi anlıyorsunuz? Yoksa, dans veya marş müziği, halk türküleri ya da klasik müzik, bir Amerikan kızılderili annenin yavrusuna söylediği ninni ya da dünyaca ünlü bir bestecinin bir senfonisi’nin tamamından veya küçük bir kısmından bahsediyorsunuz? O takdirde ‘ne kadar bir parçası?’
                    Sanatçı: “Biz, musiki’nin, insani yaratıklar üzerindeki etkilerini, kayde değer düşük bir ton’la incelemek istiyoruz,” diye yanıt verdi.
                    Eleştirici -Alaylı bir ton’la-: ‘Bu deyimle: (1) fiziksel, ruhsal bir yanıt <yani, herhangi bir sesle, bir anda işitilen, fakat esasında daha tiz veya pest de olabilecek tek bir ses ve tek bir tepki>mi; yoksa (2) <‘davranışçı-behavioral': Sosyal, eğitsel, taslakçı, kantitatif (kemiyet-sayısal) veya kalitatif (keyfiyet-niteliğe ait) bir tepkiden mi bahsediyorsunuz? veya (3) ‘bütün’e şamil <entegratif>, yoksa (4) <synesthetic-secondary sensation-ikincil duyular-tali hissiyet> den mi söz ddiyorsunuz? Bilirsiniz ki, bu kabil ‘his’ler, başka cinsten hislerle beraber olarak görülebilirler. Örneğin birçok şahıslar her duygu hissini, ona refakat eden bir ‘görme’  hissi ile beraber alırlar; örneğin, ‘sol’ tonu kırmızı veya  ‘re’ tonu’nun mavi renklerle beraber sezileceği gibi. Güncel yaşamımızda, normal -hatta üstün- zekalı kimselere bile: “‘saçma… bu ne biçim etki-tepki araştırması böyle?” diye sorulara neden olabilecek ‘şüphe’ler, yazımızın başlangıcında, Bacon’ın sözlerini yakından incelediğimizde, gerçek bilimin, ancak şüphe, soru ve sebatlı çalışma sonucu artık güvenilebilir, yeni sorular sormaya gerek yok sonucunu ortaya çıkaracak veri tohumlarıdır. Her neyse, araştırma yaparken, şüphe ve sonuçları karşılıklı değerlendirme sürecini yorulmaksızın yürütmek, mantıki ve afaki kararlar vermemek gerekir.

                       Diğer yandan, hiç şüphe yok ki, ‘iş’ yapılmalıdır. İnceden inceye hesaplanmış ve sahih olarak kontrol edilmiş deneyler, iki -birbirinden ayrı- esaslı araştırma alanında: “Müzik” ve “İnsan aklı” esas olmak üzere, çeşitli düzeylerde, deneysel olarak çalışabiliriz.

                       Müzik eğitimi almış birçok psikiyatr’lar ve psikiyatr kafalı müzisyenler bu tür araştırmayla halen meşgul olmaktadırlar. Onlardan bazıları daha temel problemlerle, örneğin müziğin ‘analjezi’, ‘yorgunluk’, ‘adale tonüsü-nabız ve solunum sayısı’ gibi ‘ölçülebilir’ algı ve olgularla ilgilenmektedirler. Deneye tabi tutulanlar arasında, ‘normal’ ve ‘anormal şahıslar’ın, ergin ve çocuklar’ın da bulunduğunu anımsatalım.

                       Yukarda bahsettiğimiz çalışmaların sonuçlarını yorumlamak için, daha çok erken bir safhada bulunuyoruz. Fakat bir sonuç, daha şimdiden çok belirlidir: Yukarda sorulan soruların izlenmeslerine yönelecek ileri bir araştırma, şu noktaları dikkatle kale almalıdır:

             1) Proje, ‘uzun bir zaman’ı temel alan bir planla başlamalıdır;
             2) Proje’yi, küçük küçük birçok parçalara ayırıp, herbirini kendi
                  özerklikleri içinde yürütmeliyiz;
             3) Çok titiz ve yılmak bilmez bir şekilde, ‘kontrol’ süje’leriyle, ayrıntılı
                  bilgileri derlemek zorundayız;
             4) Bütün memleketi kapsayan (U.S.A.), hatta ulusal sınırların ötesine 
                  uzanacak bir “araştırma grupları şebekesi”  kurarak, bilimsel bulgu-
                 ları haiz veri’leri, birleştirerek, sağlamlaştırarak, onları, müziği,
                 yakın bir gelecek’te, güvenilebilir-ölçülebilir-deneysel olarak tekrar
                 başka bir yerde uygulanabilir (yani: bilimsel) bir tedavi yöntemi
                 olmaya hizmet edebilecek bir bilgi mozayiği haline getirmeliyiz.

                       Ancak o zaman, bütün plan, yani, iyi gözlemlenmiş ve kayıt edilmiş ‘ klinik gerçeklerin’, namı diğer: “Müzik Terapisi”nin, bu konuda rafları dolduran alelade nazari yansıtmalarla dolu kitaplardan daha anlamlı,
daha yararlı olabileceğine inanacağız.

                       Bu kitap, üç önemli gayeye yönelmiştir:
(1)  Okuyucuya, müziğin heyecan-duygu’larla olan ilişkilerini, geniş anlamda
        takdim etmek;
(2)  İlim adamlarının araştırmalarını, probleme uygun bir şekilde yaklaşmak
         gayesiyle, ana hatlarını net bir şekilde belirtmek; ve,
(3)  Özel müzik dürtü’lerine (stimulus) bağlı olarak oluşturulmuş mizah-huy
        değişimleri hakkında yapılmış iki geniş araştırmanın sonuçlarını vermek.

                 Frances PAPERTE ve arkadaşlarının “Walter Reed General Hospital” da bir hasta üzerinde yaptıkları öncü araştırmalar, müzik ve heyecani (teessüri) durumlar arasında yakın bir bağ bulunduğu konusunda inandırıcı sonuç vermiştir. CAPURSO’nun bundan esinlenen geniş çaptaki araştırmaları
tabir caizse ‘normal’ kabul edilen topluluklara da uygulanacak. Biz de aynı tür, yüksek düzeyde yapmayı planladığımız araştırmaya katılacak kimseleri kliniğimize davet ediyoruz. Bazı hususlar saklı kalmak şartıyla, toplanmış olan materyal, bu alanda çalışanlara esastan bir yardım olacağı gibi, “Capurso Listeleri” olarak bilinen psikolojik değerleri havi müzik seçeneklerinin bir indeks’ini sunmakla, Dr. Capurso bu alanda bilimsel ve aynı zamanda reçete gibi pratik, kolaylıkla uygulanabilecek bir liste sunumuyla gerçekten çok değerli bir hizmette bulunmuş oluyor. Zira, bizler, tüm gayretlerimize karşın, halkın genelinin bizlerden hemen işleyen, mükemmel tedavi reçeteleri beklemesinden doğan aşırı sıkıntının ve baskının olumsuz ağırlığı altındayız. Kendimizle birlikte bu alanda çalışan herkese biraz sabır telkin etmekteyiz. Bizlerin de zeki ve sempatik aydınların desteğine gereksinimiz var.

                 Kitabımızın son kısmı da, “Music Research Foundation-Müzik Araştırma Kurumu”nun, geleceğe ışık tutmak gayesiyle yaptığı araştırma projelerini, konuya kendilerini yakın hissedenlere bir teselli ve umut vermesi gayesiyle ayrı bir önem taşımaktadır.”

                                                                             *

                              Müzik ile terapi konusunda son on yılların en önemli ve aydınlatıcı kitaplarından biri de, Leslie BUNT’un, Routledge Basımevi (London-New York) tarafından 1994’de basılan “Music Therapy-Musiki Tedavisi”dir. Bunu da meraklı okuyucularımıza, bir özet halinde sunmayı bir zevk tellakki ediyoruz.

                             “Müzik ruhun gıdasıdır” çocukluğumuzdanberi Türkiye’de de bir ‘motto’ olmuş slogan’dır, ama bu ‘gıda’nın nasıl kullanılacağı, ‘neyin, kime ne şekilde yardım ettiği’ konusunda bilimsel çalışmalardan ziyade, hangi hastanede, bilmem kaç tarihlerinde, ne gibi faaliyetler gösterildiği, yani performans şekilleri gündeme getirilmiştir. İkinci Dünya Savaşını bir öğrenci olarak geçirmiş bizler, bu ‘gıda’yı almak üzere Batı Konseri salonlarına kitle halinde götürüldüğümüzde, genellikle uyuklardık; nağmeleri anlamak için kulaklarımızı ileriye doğru uzatır, sesleri içselleştirmeye çalışır, nerede başladığını ve nerede bittiğini bilmediğimiz dizileri dinler ve alkışlardık. Okullarda müzik programları bir teviye ‘çok seslilik’e kadar yanaştı ve fakat gerekn gerçek nüveyi veremedi. Bunlara karşın, Milli bayram günlerimizde ‘marş’larla göğsümüz kabarır, askerler gibi sert adımlarla kaldırımlardan onlarla yarışır, film müziklerinin birer kopyacı yıldızları olarak, okulda teneffüslerde Caruso kesilirdik. Demek ki içimize işleyen birşeyler vardı, ama sistemli bir eğitimin ulusal boyutlarda, toplum içinde filizlenmesi ve yeşermesi gerekiyordu. Şimdi sözü kitabın yazarına bırakıyorum.

                        Müziğin niteliklerine bir göz atarsak, onunkederli ya da keyifli, stili, zamanı ne olursa olsun, a) Ritim, b) Melodi, c) Şekil ve, 4) Sözlü ya da Sözsğz ‘içerik’ ögelerini en temel oluşumlar olarak tesbit ederiz. İnsan, yalnız başına da müzik dinler, hoşlanabilir, ama, grup halinde dinlenen müziğin, örneğin konser, parti, kilise, ordu-alay ortamları, bambaşka bir duyum ve enerji, haz uyandırır içimizde. O; geçmişi ve geleceği, yenilgiyi ve zaferi, yokluğu ve varlığı, yaşadığımız ve yaşayabileceğimiz tüm hazları, anıları, insanlığımızı, tüm kişisel farklılıklara karşın,  sihirli bir alaşımla bambaşka alemlere götüren sihirli bir flüttür. Bu nedenlerle ki, gitgide artan yeni spor çeşitleri, örneğpin yamaç paraşütü, planör eğitimi, buz pateni, bisiklet ve motorsiklet yarışları, türlü av ve su sporlarının hiçbirinde, müzik kadar insan ruhunu hemen kavrayan, kucaklayan, adeta manyetize eden başka bir eleman yoktur dünyada. O, hayatımızın temel kimyasıdır.

                        M ü z i k   T e r a p i’de, traihçesi insan sesinin varolduğu en eski devirlere kadar uzanan; sesin, sonra da insanların kendilerinin yaptıkları müzik aletleriyle sanat eseri olarak organize edilmesine karşın, toplumda mevcut psiko-sosyal yetmezliklerin, karmaşaların, düzensizliklerinin yeniden yapılanmalarında müziğin yapıcı bir koordinatör rolüne soyunması, birkaç insanın ömrünün ötesine geçmez. Hemen herkes müzikten hoşlandığından bahsedebilir, örneğin dağdaki çoban ya da bir orkestranın usta bir çalgıcısı. Ama bu Alaaddin’in Sihirli Kutusu’nu, gerçekten, ego’ları  
birbirleriyle kaynaştıran, ruhsal boyutlara olduğu -ya da olması gerektiği gibi- engin sulara yelken açtıran, cenneti dünyanın kapılarına getiren bu jenaratörü terapötik anlamda kullanabilme, gerçekten temel bir bilgi ve yeti isteyen bir iştir.

                        Tekrar kendime dönerek, biri, Klasik Türk Musikisi (İstanbul Belediyesi Konservatuvarı, Türk musikisi bölümü ve kanun (1952), diğeri
“School of Music, N.Y.”, piano, (1962) bölümlerinden mezun olmuş; radyo’da ve toplumda konserler vermiş bir insan olarak, bu düzeylere gelebilmenin
dışardan, başarılması güç bir erdem ve yeti olabileceği düşünülebilir. (Ek olarak Tıp tahsilini düşünürseniz, belki daha çok evet. Gerçekte hiç de öyle değil.  Hem ailemizin ve hem de çevremizin saygıdeğer büyüklerine ve değer yargılarının toplumsal temsilcilerine, dini liderler dahil, davranışlarımızda bir fark olmadığı gibi, kendimizi hiç kimselerden üstün görmedik. Sosyal ve mesleki hayatımızda da iniş ve çkışlar oldu; ama, bir analist olarak da samimi olarak düşündüğümde, müziğin beni, hayatımda, hiçbir zaman virtüöz olmamakla beraber, beni daima yaşam sevgisine ve yaşam değerlerine geri getiren, toplumda bir yerim oldunu bana hissettiren, realistikli optimistik, kötünün daima iyi tarafını gören, çabuk problem halleden, alçak gönüllü ve ‘veren’ bir kişi yaptığına eminim. Zaman zaman bir ‘trans’ haline geçiyorsunuz çalarken ya da söylerken, ama ayaklarınız yerden kesilmiyor; siz “iyi’nin, güzel’in, doğru’nun bir parçası olarak kalıyorsunuz. Bu geçici ‘tanrılaşma’, hayatboyu sürüyor, emekli olsanız, artık müzikle aktif olarak meşgul olmasanız bile. Yaratıcılığın ve verme’nin büyüklüğü, bu sefer ‘yazın’ hayatına kayıyor, birilerini mutlu kılıyorsunuz, ya da kıldığınızı sanıyorsunuz, hiç farketmez. Sessizce ezelden ebede kayıp gidiyorsunuz.

                        Leslie Bunt hanımefendi de, müziğin bu evrensel, şifacı ruhundan bahsediyor,  ama hangi rahatsızlıklarda, ne gibi yöntemlerle şifa elde ediliyor, bahsetmiyor. Okuyucularıma öyle özel reçeteler veren, analitik bir yazı hazırlıyorum, vadediyorum, yakında çok daha özel bir şekilde, ruhun katmanlarına inen müziğin şifakar etkilerinden bahsedeceğiz.

                                                                                                                          İsmail Ersevim

OPERA : Tarif, İçerik, Tarihsel Gelişim

                                                                      O P E R A                     

                 Apel VILLI, O p e r a’nın,”Harvard Dictionary of Music“de, ünlü “The New GROVE Dictionary of Music and Musicians“ın gerek 5-ciltlik 1935 edisyonundan ve gerekse 20-ciltlik 1980 edisyonunundan ödünç aldığı tarifini şöyle yazıyor: “İster trajik ister komik olsun; baştan aşağı şarkı şeklinde düzenlenmiş, konusuna uygun görüntüler ve oyunculukla, bir orkestra refakatinde oynanan sahne gösterisi”. 

                    (1)  G e n e l   K a r a k t e r i s t i k l e r  :
                            Opera, müziğin ve teatral temsilciliğin bileşiminden oluşmuş en önemli sahne gösterisi. Form’u itibariyle, diğer tiyatro şekillerinden daha farklı ve itinalı, zengin ve gösterişli sanat biçimleri, örneğin ‘müzik’ -gerek vokal ve gerekse orkestral-, şiir, dans, sahne tasarımı, kostüm vb gerektirir ki, bu ona hem olumlu bir zöellik ve hem de olumsuz bir kritisizm getirir.

                            Saint-EVREMONDE’ nin opera tarifi şudur:
                            “Opera, şiir ve müziğin, esasında şair ve müzisyenin, birbirinin
yolunu eşit derecede tıkamaya çalıştıkları, kötü bir sonuca varmak için, bıkıp yorulmadan mücadele ettikleri acayip bir iştir.”

                             Opera’yı sahnelemek de en zor ve pahalı bir iş olup, konusu, genellikle toplumun en üst sosyal kesimine hitap ettiğinden br perestij sembolü olduğu kadar, birçok hırslı bestekar ve yöneticiyi de kendine çeker. Hem operada, hem de müziğin diğer branşlarında başarılı olmuş besteciler son derecede az sayıdadırlar. Örnekler: MONTOVERDI, HENDEL, MOZART ve Richard STRAUSS. Diğer yandan BACH, HAYDN, SCHUBERT, SCHUMANN, MENDELSSOHN, BRAHMS ve BRUCKNER ise bu alana hiç girmediler: belki hisleri belki yetileri bu dalda inisiyatif yaratacak kadar  kudretli değildi, bilmiyoruz. BEETHOVEN ve DEBUSSY, şaheserlik düzeyinde ve yalnızca birer eser hediye etiler, hepsi bu.

                          Herkes tarafından bilinir ki, bazı istisnaların ötesinde, tüm operada sürekli şarkı söylenir ki bu natürel değildir. Hiçbir değişme, karışım, düzenleme, opera^nın ruhunu değiştiremediğinden, bu artık bir kritik ya da tartışma konusu olmamalıdır.

                          Hiç şüphe yok ki, opera’da, müziksel fikir, diğer tür müziksellerden çok daha uzun bir zamanda berraklaşır, zira sözler, müzikten daha çabuk gayelerine ulaşır. Sonuç şu şıklardan biridir:
                         a) ‘Uzatma’, dolayısıyla Wagner’in müzik drama’larında olduğu gibi,aksiyonların yavaş vuku bulmaları;
                         b) ‘Aksiyon’ ve ‘Sükut” anlarının birbirleriyle değiş-tokuşu.

                         Yavaş akan bir sahnede, ani girişler, başka bir oyun tarzında ciddi bir ‘arya’ (aria) olarak düşünülebilir; ama opera’da, bu kesilişler öyle algılanmaz. Uzun duygusal sahneler, ölene veda sahneleri sıkıcı gibi görünürse de, birçok oyun ve film’lerden farklı olarak opera’nın metnini oyunu görmeden evvel okumak bir adet adet, hatta yavaş giden olayları ve kalabalık kitledeki kimselerin kimlik ve rollerini daha kolay yorumlayabilmek için adeta bir zorunluluk (necessity) olmuştur. (Yani siz, bir polisiye filminde ana tema olabilecek ‘katil kim?’i burada yaşamıyorsunuz; Aida’nın ya da Carmen’in sonu zaten önceden biliniyor;  sizin konsantrasyonunuz o performans’ın milim milim yaşanması, o sürecin gıdım gıdım özümsenmesidir, yoksa sonucu görmek değil. Onun için opera’nın müdavimi daha seçkin, titiz bir entellektüeldir.

                         (2)  T a r i h ç e :   Bugünkü tipik formu ile, ilk opera’nın 1597 yılında sahnelendiğini bilmekle beraber, müzik ve dramatik sahnelerin birlikte sergilenmesi, hiç şüphesiz, daha öncelerden de izlenmişti. Hepimizin bildiği gibi, Eski Yunanlılarda, B a c c h u s  kült’ünün seromonilerinden hayat bulmuş  d r a m a, daha eski zamanlardan artakalmış koral şarkıları, dans ve ritüelleri içerirdi. Üç büyük dev: AESCHYLUS, SOPHOCLES ve EURIPIDES, oyunlarında hep “koro”ya geniş yer vermişlerdir. (Lütfen, benim kişisel ‘Site’m olan www.ismailersevim.com’da, yine ‘Müzik’ bölümünde mevcut, “Eski Yunan Tiyatrolarında Koro’nun Rolü” adlı iki makalemizi okumanızı tavsiye ederiz.)

                               O p e r a’nın tarihi, gelişim bakımından beş devre’ye ayrılabilir:

(I)   1590-1680 :  “Dramatik stil”deki müziğin ve uygun dramatik müzikal
                                    şekillerin (forms) gelişimi.  Bunlara örnekler verelim.

     (a)  F l o r e n t i n e  ve  R o m a n  opera :

             Bu sınıflanmaya giren eserlerin hepsi Floransa’da sahnelenmiş. Daha ziyade ‘recitative‘ (resitatif – konuşur gibi, ezbere okunan güfte ya da makam) ‘bass’, ağırlıklı, küçük bir orkestra tarafından icra edilen renksiz, hemen hiçbir melodik karakter ya da müzikal organizasyonu olmayan birer gösteri idi bunlar. Danslar, göze batmaları için sona bırakılırdı.  Başlıca örnekler:
Dafné“: RINUCCINI’nin şiiri, müzik PERI’nin (1597); “Euridice“, şiir yine RINUCCINI’nin, müzik CACCINI’nin (1600). Ancak MONTOVERDI’nin besteleri sahnelenmeye başladığından sonra, sanatsal değeri olumluya kaynaya başladı.

             17. yy.’ın üçüncü on yılından sonra, opera merakı ve seyirci çokluğu, Floransa’dan Roma’ya kaymağa başladı. Orada yücelen kompozitörlerden başlıcaları: Stefano LANDI, Domenico MAZZOCHI , Michelangelo ROSSI ve Luigi ROSSI.

     (b) V e n e d i k   O p e r a s ı   (Venetian Opera) : 

             1637’de ilk opera binasının: ‘Teatro S. Cassino’ açılmasıyla başlamış. İlk kompozitör: MONTEVERDI, eser: “Il Ritorno d’Ulisse” (Ulisse’in Dönüşü).
Müzikal ‘efekt’ler daha az belirli, ama gitgide daha fazla standardize olmuş ve orkestra eşliğinde takdim edilmeye başlamış ‘aria’lar.. Kısa ‘orkestra araları’  (interludes) duygu uyandırıyor. Bu okul, 18. yy.’da LOTTI, PULLAROLO ve en önemlisi: VIVALDI tarafından temsil edilecektir.

     (c)  F r a n s ı z   O p e r a s ı   (French Opera) :

             Bu ekol, 1671’de “Pomone“u sahneleyen Robert CAMBERT ve 1673’de “Cadmis et Hermibue“yu besteleyen Jean-Baptiste LULLY ile başlamış.
Fransızlar, ince hislerine karşın, bu yüzyıllarda RACINE ve CORNEILLE’in klasik trajedilerine o denli sadık ve tutkundular ki.. Ek olarak, yalnızca ‘Bale”yi , hem de iki ayrı tip halinde sahnelemek onları son derece mutlu kılmaya yeterli kılıyordu. Bu iki ayrı <yani müzik ve hareket> performans stillerinin birbirleriyle kaynaşmalarına karşı inanç güçlüğü vardı sanki.

     (d)  İ n g i l i z   O p e r a s ı   (English Opera) :

             Fransız operası’nın “bale”den geliştiği gibi, İngiliz Operası’nın da,
“MASK – M a s q u e -Maske”den esinlendiğine ve geliştiğine inanılır. Bu,
16. ve 17. yy.’larda, sahnede “asalet”i (nobility) temsil eden şiir, ses ve alet müziğini, dans’ı, rol yapma’yı hep birlikte, karma bir şekilde, özellikle
“mitolojik” ve “allegorik” (Kinayeli; bir görüntü, bir yaşantı ya da bir davranışın daha iyi kavranmasını sağlamak için, simgelerle göz önünde canlandırıp  dile getirme) konuları şaşaaalı bir şekilde harmanlayan bir gösteri tarzı idi. İlk kez 1581’de, Louvres’da, BEAUJOYEULX’ün “Ballet Comique de la Royne” prezante edilmilşti ve büyük bir sükse yapmıştı. Mosques’un diğer önemli yazarı Ben JOHNSON idi ki, sahnede oynayanlşara çeşitli maskeler temin ederdi.

     (e)  A l m a n   O p e r a s ı   (German Opera)  :   

             SCHTZ’ün Torgau’da 1627’de sahnelediği “Daphné” hariç, Almanya’da Opera sanatının ilk sahne eserleri, İtalyan kompozitörlerinin Alman sahnelerinde oynamalarından ibaretti. Tarihe geçen en ünlü isimler; Dresden’de PALLAVICINO, Vienna’da A. DRAGHI, Munich’te ve Hanover’de STEFFANI idiler.  FUX, JHASSE, GLUCK, MOZART gibi Alman sanatkarları ise, gelecek yüzyıl boyunca, İtalyan stilinde ve o dilde operalar besteliyor-lardı.

                      <NOT. Bildiğiniz gibi, birçok Avrupa sanatkarlarının o kıtâda tanınmaları için, Üç Yıllık Müzik (scholarship) ödülünü alarak Roma’da adeta tahsil ve terbiye görmek, usulden olmuştu. Bu sanatkarlar arasında:
DEBUSSY, GRIEG, WAGNER (kısa), Maurice RAVEL, TCHAIKOVSKY (kısa), LISTZ, BERLIOZ, MENDELSSHON, BIZET (‘Roma Ödülü’nü, ‘Clovis et Clotilde‘ ile almıştı), HANDEL (Venedik’te “Agrippina“, Floransa’da ‘Rodrigo‘su temsil edilmişti.) Floransa ve İtalya’nın yabancı büyük sanatkarlar tarafından seçilme nedenleri yalnızca Firenze’nin (Floransa) ‘La Gicondo‘ yüzünden şöhreti ve Rönesans’ın prensip olarak olarada başlaması değildi. İngiltere ve Avusturya İmparatorluğu’nun evlilik ve dostluklarla elde edilmiş küçük küçük beylikleri ve çok geniş tanınmış simalarla yakınlıkları vardı. Avusturya’da İtalyanca yabancı bir dil olarak kabul edilmezdi. Mozart’ın hayranı ve -ilerde- başkoruyucusu ‘Count’ Kont Leopold, Wolfgang’ın babası Leopold’un -ki o da her yerde tanınmış bir müzisyen idi-  çok yakın bir dostu idi. Babasıyla beraber 15 aylık bir seyahata çıkan Wolfgang, Roma yolunda İtalya’nın Oxford’u sayılan Bologna’ya uğradığında Wolfgang, oranın ünlü Accademia Filarmonica‘nın direktörü Padre MARTINI’den, akademiye üye olmak için gereken 20 yaş zorunluluğunu -ki kendisi daha 15 yaşındaydı- yine bu yakınlık sayesinde aştı. Roma’da Papa CLEMENT XIV, -Fransızlar’ın Legion D’honneur’ üne eşdeğer “Order of Golden Spur” (Altın Mahmuz) nişanını küçük Mozart’ı “birinci sınıf müzisyen”liğe yücelterek bu küçük dehaya saygısını kanıtlamış oldu. Merasim, 8 Temmuz 1870’de, Quirinal Palace’da yapıldı. Mozart’tan evvel bu nişan, yalnızca 16. yy. kompozitörü LASSUS’a takdim edilmişti. Aradaki yaş farkına ve o zamana kadar kayde değer besteler vermiş, her nedense hemen her yerde Wolfgang ile mukayese edilen GLUCK ise, ‘ikinci klas’, “Şövalye” (Chevalier) nişanını taşıyordu. Bütün bu tanınmalarda, Mozart’ın tüm ailesinin tanınmış bir Mason ecdadından geldiğinin de rolü olabilir. Fakat, Mozart, daha ziyade Protestan bir muhitte yaşıyordu ve Maso’ların kurallarının, Roman Katolik Kilisesi ,le
pek bağdaşmadığı da bilinir. Her neyse.

                 Küçük Wolfgang, -eserlerinin br kısmının babası tarafından yazıldığı ithamına da uğramıştı- Roma’ya, yazdığı ilk opera olan “Mitridate, re di Ponto” nun (Pontus Kralı Mitridat) kanıtı ve provası için gelmişti; eğer küçük jeni, gerçekten bu kadar yaratıcı ise, kendini bir heyet huzurunda göstermeliydi. Ancak ondan sonra oyun Milan’da sahnelenecekti. Wolfgang’ı bir salona kilitlediler, ondan, opera’daki prensip ‘antiphon‘ (karşılıklı olarak okunan dua) olan: “Quaerite primum regnum Dei = Seek ye first kingdom of  God” (K.86) yı -Önce Tanrı’ın Hükümran Olduğu Ülkeyi Ara’yı-ezberden yazmasını istediler. Test olarak da, polifonik müzikli zor bir melodi (Cantum firmus) vererek , dört-sesli bir kompozisyon yapmasını da istediler. Kimine göre yarım, kimine göre bir saat sonra Wolfgang odadan muzaffer bir eda ile çıktı ve yazdıklarına göz atanlar onu ayakta alkışladılar. Zaten bu olaydan sonra akademi üyeliğine atandı. “Mitridate“, 1770’de, “Boxing Day-Noel’i izleyen, armağanların verildiği geleneksel ilk gün- bu opera’nın ilk üç perdesini kendisi muhteşem bir şekilde idare etti, dördüncü perdeyi de seyirciler arasında beraberce izledi. Başarı o denli yüksek olmuştu ki, ondan, 1773 yılı için başka bir opera ısmarladılar.

                     Böyle büyük müzisyenlerin dışında, XVIII. ve XIX: y.y.’larda, diğer alanlarda şöhret yapmış diğer iki büyük dev’in: GOETHE’nin (1786) ve FREUD’un (Roma, 1901 Eylül, 12 gün)  İtalya Seyahatleri de dikkat çeken olaylar olarak sayılır. Bugüne bugün, Amerika’dan dünyayı gezmeye çıkan turistlerin hemen hemen ilk güzergahı da Roma’dır: Vatikan+Aşk Çeşmesi.>

 (II).  1680-1760   N e o p o l i t a n   O p e r a   (Napoliten Opera)

       İçeriği ve görünüşü bakımdan oturmuş, standardize edilmiş opera yerine, tipik bir Akdeniz ülkesi olan İtalya’ya  ‘Neş’eli, çapkın, romantik’ niteliklerini veren ögelerin ön plana çıktığı, hala artistik etkili, popüler ve neş’eli opera türü özellikle 1710-50 arasında, Fransa hariç, diğer ülkelerde ‘gallantly= dörtnala’ gidiyordu. (Not: Klasik edebiyat kitaplarında ve romanlarda pek sık rastlanan “Napoli İlleti”nin medikal tanısı: Frengi’dir. (Frengi spiroketi’ni Japon alimi NOGUSHI ancak 1895’de keşfedebildi, Arsenik vb tehlikeli ilaçlarla kısmen tedavi edilebilen hastalık, ancak 1945’lerden sonra, yani Penicillin’in sahneye çıkışından sonra silinebildi. İ.E.) 
       Tabiatıyla bu form, komik ve fantastik öge’leri de içerdiğinden, kötüye de kullanılmış ve gerçek değeri ancak ZENO ve onun öğrencisi METASTASIO tarafından, daha derli toplu, üç perdelik, konuları mitoloji’den ziyade efsane’den (legends) seçilmiş dramlar olarak dengelendi. Formal olarak her sahnenin iki farklı bölümü vardı; ilki, hareket-aksiyon’u sergiledi; aria’lar sık sık “recitativo secco“larla <Bir müzik parçasının ‘ahenksiz’den ‘ahenkli’ kısma birden yönelmesi>bezenmişlerdi;  ikincisi ise, duyguları, tepkileri içeren, mamafih birçok ‘resolves‘ <aniden, kararlıca ahenkli ritme dönüş>u yinele-
yen, prensip-ana karakter üzerinde yoğunlaşan, odaklaşan bir prezantasyon.

          Bu tip Neopolitan Okul’un orijinal kurucusu Alessandro SCARLATTI’ dir; ne yazıktır ki orijinal ilk eserlerinden hiçbirisi -notasıyla- günümüzün modern baskılarında görünmez bile.

           18. y.y.’da, bu Okul’un baş temsilcileri Porpora L. VINCI, Jeo & J.A. Hasse’dir. İtalya dışından olmakla beraber, HANDEL, ‘İtalya’yı fethinden sonra’, Londra’da ve Hanover’de, 1711 ve 1740 yılları arasında, seçici prens I. George’un babası Ernst Augustus’un sarayında, kırk yedi yıl boyunca, müzik yöneticiliği yaptı ve “dramatik” içgörülü muhteşem operalar (40 adet) sergiledi: “Giulio Cesare” (1724), “Tamerlano” (1724), “Rodelinia” (1725).
Keza MOZART: “Iomeneo” sıyla (1781) aksiyonları geniş bir koro ve bale sahneleriyle, Fransız Operasına yenilenmiş bir kudret enjekte etti.

        Bu devrede ünlü filozof J.J. ROUSSEAU’nun Neopolitan Opera niteliğini, bir “opera comic” (komik opera) türüne döndürme gayretlerini de bildirmek faydalı olur sanırım.

(III)    1760 – 1850  arası :  Mozart’dan Wagner’e kadar uzanan dilim

      Yeni yeni konuların sahneye girmesi, alışılagelmiş ‘form’ ların (şekil) yavaş yavaş gevşemesi, dramatik içerik ve müzikal ifadeler arasında daha yakın bir ilişkinin gelişimi.

      Başlıca isimler:  MOZART’ın “Le Nozze di Figaro” (Figaro’nun Düğünü)(1790); “Don Giovanni” (Senyör Covani” (1786) ve “Cosi fon tutte” (Tüm kadınlar böyle yaparlar)  (1787). Tuhaf olan, bu üçünün de “buffo“: şaka, soytarılık, gülünçlülük ile dolu komedi tipi oyunlar oluşudur. Söylemeye gerek yok ki, Mozart, dehasını, konu ne kadar ‘hafif’ olursa olsun, vokal ve müzik aletlerini birbirleriyle çok bütünleşmiş bir şekilde, “ensemble” -koro finallerinin son derece uyumlu, dolayısıyla klasik senfonik stil’in tüm güzelliğiyle sergilenmesinde eşsizdi.

     GLUCK’un, Paris’te, “heroic-kahraman(ca)” odaklı opera’ları tüm gücüyle devam ediyordu. Diğer daha az bilinen kompozitörler arasında, SACCHINI’
nin “Dardanus”u (1874), “Oedipe a Colone“‘u (Ödipus Kolonos’ta) (1786),
SALIERI’nin “Danaides“i (1784), CHERUBI’nin “Médée“si (1797), SPONTINI’
nin “Vestale“si (1807) ve MEHUL’ün “Joseph“i (1807) sayılabilir.

    Bu okulun, XIX. y.y.’ın “Grand Opera – Büyük Opera” tarzına hediye ettiği büyük eserler arasında: ROSSINI’nin “Guillaume Tell” (1829), HALEVY’nin “La Juive” i (1835), MEYERBEER’in “Huguenotes“i (1836) ve “Prophete“i (1849) sayılabilir. WAGNER’in “Rienzi”si (1842) ve BERLIOZ’un “Troyens“i
(1856-7) hiçbir zaman tümüyle sahnelenememişlerdir. CHERUBINI’nin
Deux Journées” (İki ‘günlük’ler)i (1800) ve BEETHOVEN’in “Fidelio”su (1805,
5,14) enternasyonal nitelikte idiler.

İ t a l y a‘ nın bu devredeki başlıca kompozitörleri:

ROSSINI :  “Il Barbiere di Siviglia-Sevil Berberi” (1816)
BELLINI :  “Norma” (1831)
DONIZETTI :  “Lucrezia Borgia”  (1833)
                            “Lucia de Lammermoor”  (1835)
VERDI :  “Rigoletto” (1851)
                   “Il Travatore“, “La Traviata”  (1853)
                   “Aida” (1872),  “Otello” (1887),  Fallstaff  (1899)

      Söylemeye gerek yok ki, Verdi’nin son operaları “Büyük Opera” tradisyonunda idiler, yani libretto’lar daha edebi, ritm daha esnek, harmoni daha belirgin; vokal ve müzik aletleri performansınının gerçek uyuşumu.

 F r a n s a‘ da “Büyük Opera” eylemi yanında, XIX. y.y.’ın başlarından itibaren, “opera comic” (komik opera) stil’i popülarite kazanırken,  l i r i k
o p e r a  da  (opera lyric), GOUNOD’nun “Faust“u <Not:  Bu yazımızın sonunda, Faust operası konusunda, 1993’de yaptığım bir çalışmamın
özetini bulacaksınız!> (1859) ve THOMAS’ın “Mignon“u (1866). Sonraları,
George BIZET’nin “Carmen” i  (1875),
DEKIBES’in  “Lakmé“si  (1883),
CHABRIER’nin  “Gwendoline” i  (1866) , ve
J. MASSENET’nin “Manon“‘u  (1884).

R u s y a ‘ da opera,  GLINKA’nın “Life for the Tsar” (Çar’ın Hayatı) (1836) ile
başlamıştı. Maamafih, en kudretli kompozitör:
Boris Gounov” (1874) ile MOUSSORGSKY idi.
BORODIN’in “Prince Igor” u (1890),
RIMSKY-KORSAKOV’ un “The Snow Maiden” (1882) ve “Sadko”su (1897).
Tchaikovsky’nin operatik stil’deki çalışmalarının ürünü olan “Eugen Oniegin” (1877) ve “The Queen of Spades” (Maça Kızı) (1892) romantik tipte olup, milli kategoriye girmezler.

Almanya‘da ‘R o m a n t i k   O p e r a’ya örnekler :
SPHR’un “Faust“u (1818),  “Jessonda“sı  (1823)
WEBER’in “Freischütz“ü   (1821),   Euryanthe“‘si   (1823),
MARSEHER’in  “Der Wampyr“i  (1828)  &  “Hans Heiling“i (1833),
WAGNER’in : “Der fliegende Hollander” (Uçan Hollandalı).

Bunların temel karakteristikleri şunlardır:
      1. Nesne’lerin romantik karakterleri “milli kahramanlık” efsaneleri ve folklor’dan gelirler;
      2. Drama’da, temel öge olarak “Doğa” vardır; bu, çok içtenlikle duyumsan-
dığı gibi, tüm natural şeyler çok olağan bir şekilde kullanılmışlardır.
      3. Bazı ‘Super-natural’ (Doğa-üstü) olaylari dramatik gelişmenin bir parçası olarak konulara eklenmiştir.
      4. “Almanya”, bir ülke olarak daima yüceltilmeye çalışılmıştır.

(IV)   1850-1920 :    M u s i c   D r a m a  devri

    Halihazır form ve içeriğin, “sürekli müzik ve müzik drama’nın karakteristik motif’lere süslenip tekrar tekrar sahnelenmesi merkez noktasıdır.
   WAGNER’in  “Tannhauser“i (1845) kısmen eski model gözükmekle beraber, “Lohengrin” (1847), bu uyumsuzluklardan arınmış, müzik ve drama daha entegre olmuştur. ‘Süreklilik’ temin edilmiş ve ‘drama’nın sembolik anlamı daha hissedilir bir hale getirilmiştir. Ses dizisi, eski ‘periyodik ritim’den uzaklaşmış, son zamanların ‘serbest melodi’ tarafına yöneltilmişlerdir.

  WAGNER, 1849-64 yılları arasındaki “exile” (sürgün) yıllarının başlangıcında, “Nubelungen Halkası”nı (Der Ring des Nibelungen) çeşitli
şekillerde yazmış olup, içlerinde en göze batanı: “Oper und Drama” (Opera ve Drama)dır. Bu çalışmasıyla büyük dahi, ‘Müzik Drama’nın temeli olan
“teorik” kısmı bir yola koyduktan sonra, “pratiği”ni de diğer dört eseri üzerine yoğunlaştırmıştır. “Ring“in (Halka) ilk tüm performansı Beyrut’ta yapıldı (1876). “Tristan und Isolde” (1857-9)da tamamlandı. “Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg” (Nürnberg’in Usta Şarkıcısı) ise (1862-67)de, “Parsifal” ise (1877-79)da.

   Tüm bu çalışmalar, ‘Müzik Drama’nın en üst derece bir sanat form’u (gesamtkunstwerk) olduğu ve olması gerektiği prensibi üzerine inşa edilmiş-
lerdir: Tüm içerikler, kişisel kimliklerinden fedakarlık ederek şekil değiştirmişler ve adeta yeni bir birlik kurmuşlardır. M i t, ‘ideal konu’ içinde gizlenmiş, yalnızca eğlendirici olduğundan değil, önemli ve belirgin olduğundan,bir şarkıya çevrilerek, gerçek anlamı şiir ve konuşma’da belirtilmiştir. Bu ‘şarkı’ çok ‘esnek’tir, ‘periyot’ları belirli ve düzenli değildir ve belirli bir yapı olarak sıkça karşımıza çıkmaz. Örneğin, söz-şarkı’lar, “resitatif” ya da “arya” olarak ve orkestra ile bir işbirliği yaparak, genellikle kapsadıkları duygular “çifte bar’lar – double bars” olarak ifade edilmekten uzak, mükemmel “kadans’lar (cadance=ahenk; sesin tonunu yavaş yavaş indirmesi) halinde, tonal merkezi sürekli -vals gibi- bir odaktan diğerine yönlenerek, özetle, drama’nın tekabül ettiği nesne’yi tüm varlığıyla temsil etmeye çalışır. Willi Apel’in bu şiirsellikle dolu analizine göre, “Wagner’in müziği, Romantik Periyod’un sonlarının, ideal ses akımının bir re-enkarnasyonudur. Enerjisi, beceri dolu bir orkestrasyondan, harmonik ve çeşitli gelişimlerin zenginliğini kuralsızca kullanan bir seçenek cesaretinden gelmektedir. “Suspension“lar <ana notayı küçük bir ‘es’e ve daha kesik bölümlere ayırarak yorum yapma> ve “appoggiatura“lar <harmonik sesler arasında non-harmonik melodiler serpiştirmek. İ.E.> bir sihirbaz hüneriyle kullanılmışlardır!…”

(V)   1920’den bugüne

  Opera’nın konusuna,uzunluğuna, belirli sınırları olmayan “müzik-draması” nın ‘şekilsizliği’ne isyan eden ve 19. y.y.’ın başlarında yayılmaya başlayan
n u m a r a   o p e r a (nummer oper)’ya dönüş. <Not.: Birbirlerinden ayrı parçalar halinde; örneğin arya2lar, düet’ler, ensemble’lar ya da ‘resitatif’
(recitativo): Konuşmayı taklit eden ya da onu  natural iniş çıkış ‘infliksiyon’larını bolca kullanan şarkı söyleme tarzı. Tabiatıyla normal, düzgün ritim bozulup, sözcükler sanki heceleniyormuş niteliğini vermektedir.>

   Birçok Fransız ve İtalyan kompozitörler, örneğin Auber, Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti bu stil’i oldukça cömertçe kullanmaktan çekinmemişlerdir.

                                                                  ———–

  Şimdi, sizlere yukarda bahsettiğim, 1993 yılında, Amerika’dan döndükten sonra “19.y.y. Fransız Operası” hakkında yaptığım küçük-orijinal bir çalışmamı sunacağım:

                                    FAUST ve 19. y.y.  FRANSIZ OPERASI

                      19. y.y.’ın başında, ilerisi için bir gelecek vaadeden Fransız Operası, 1850’lere doğru gerçekten bir duraklamaya girmişti. Geçmiş zamanlarda ‘Opera Komik’ üstatlarının eserleri, örneğin Adam, Auber ve Boieldieu, hala sahneleri süslüyorlardı. 1852 ile 1870 yılları arasında yalnızca beş Fransız operası, müzik hazinesine eklenebilmişti.

                       Mamafih, ‘Lirik Tiyatro’nun direktörü olan Léon Carvalho ve 1860’da “Popüler Konserler”in kurucusu Jules Pasdeloup, yeni oluşan bu  müziğe olumlu bakıyorlardı. Böylece, yeni Fransız müzik yapıtları sergilenmeye şans kazandılar; ve, Charles Gounod’nun FAUST’u, opera’da değil, Lirik Tiyatro’da ilk açılınımını 19 Mart 1859’da yaptı. 

                        Faust’un libretto’su Jules Barber ve Michael Carré tarafından yazılmıştı, ve, hiç şüphesiz, Goethe’den pek çok esinlenilmişti. Verdi’nin 1851-53 yılları arasında sergilenen üç büyük operasına değin, Faust, hem Avrupa’nın ve hem de Amerika’nın kalbini fethetti. Sahne şeytanları, Cennet’e yükselen kahraman, tinsel koro, harikulade bir hava yaratmıştı. Faust, burjuvazi müziğinin, burjuvazi zevkine mükemmel bir uygulanması idi. 1863’de bir İngiliz kritiği şöyle yanıp yıkılmıştı: “Faust.. Faust.. Faust.. Sanki başka hiçbir şey yok!..”

                        Charles François GOUNOD, 18 Haziran 1818’de Paris’te doğdu. Henüz dört yaşındayken, yetenekli ve fakat başarısız bir ressam olan babasını kaybetti. Annesi ona hem resim ve hem de müzik dersleri verdi. On iki yaşındayken, Charles hemen hemen bir bestekar olmuştu. On üç yaşında Rossini’nin “Otello”sunu işitince, sanatı bırakıp kendini tamamen müziğe verdi. 1836’da Konservatuvara girdi ve üç yıl sonra “Roma Ödülü”nü kazanarak oraya eğitime gitti. Orada, XVI. y.y.’ın dini eserlerini keşfetti ve onlara öyle daldı ki, müziği bırakıp Kilise’ye katılmayı bile düşündü.

                        Gounod, 1843’de Paris’e geri döndü. Yolda, Viyana’ya da uğradı ve orada, dini eserlerden yapılmış birçok aranjmanlar sundu. Sonra, Leipzig’e gitti ve orada Mendellssohn ile beraber dört gün geçirdi. Bu arada Bach’ın çok ağırlıklı “Koral Müziği”ne hayran oldu. Paris’e döndükten sonra, “Yabancı Görevler Kilisesi”nin müzik direktörlüğüne tayin edildi. Orada, bir takım itirazlara karşın, Bach’ın ve Palestrino’nun eserlerini çaldı, Kilise mensuplarının elbiselerine benzer giysiler giyindi ve adını “Rahip Gounod” olarak imzaladı. Bunu izleyen 1847’de, “Karmelit Manastırı”na rahip çömezi olarak girdi.

                         Gounod’nun, herkesi anında tılsımlayan, çok etken, karismatik bir kişiliği vardı; ona “Flörtçü Rahip” adını takmışlardı. O, gerçekten, Liszt gibi, ten ile şeytan arasında kalmıştı. Karşılaştığı hemen herkesi, ilk kez karşılaşmalarına değin, kucaklar ve öperdi.

                         O günlerde Fransız müzik dünyasında geçerli nesne, o p e r a  yazmaktı. Bu nedenle Gounod, “Safo”sunu 1880’de yazmaya başladı ve 1881’de sahneye koydu. Onun yanında, Gounod, on üç opera daha yazdı ve fakat onların hiçbiri Faust kadar etkili olamadı.  Yalnızca “Romeo ve Jülyet” ve “Mirey” de oldukça başarılı oldular.

                         Gounod, 1852’de ünlü piyano hocası Pierre Zimmerman’ın kızı Anna ile evlendi.
                         Gounod, 1856’da ‘Faust‘ üzerinde çalışırken, Moliere’in “Le Médecin Malgre Lui” (Zoraki Hekim)’yi de yazmaya başlamıştı. FAUST, “Opera Lirik”te, 19 Mart 1989’da açılışını yaptığı zaman, çok çabuk bir şöhrete ulaştı. Etkinlik yaratan nitelikler: Melodilerin ‘hisli’ oluşları, kromatik harmoni’si, güzel orkestrasyonları ve seslerin tüm idyomatik aranjman’ları idi.

                          Gounod, hayatının geri kalan yıllarında, ‘başka bir Faust’ yazmayı denedi, fakat yapmadı. Kendinin en sevdiği operası “Saba Kraliçesi” idi (1862). Mamafih bu eseri fazla tanımlanmadı. Evvelce de not edildiği gibi, “Mirey” (1863) ve “Romeo ve Jülyet” (1864) daha başarılı oldular.

                          Gounod’nun şarkıları, özellikle Fransa’nın dışında, az değer verilmiş yapıtlardır. RAVEL, daha sonraları, 1922’de şöyle demişti: “Fransa!nın gerçek şarkı bestecisi Charles Gounod idi. O; “Filemon ve Bosis”teki ‘Venedik’in ve “Safo”daki ‘Çobanın Şarkısı’nın bestecisi Gounod ki, Fransa’da, harpsikordistlerin, XVII. ve XVIII. y.y.’danberi kaybettikleri harmonik sansüaliteyi yeniden keşfetmişti…”

                          Hayatının son safhasında, Gounod, başarılı bir şekilde ‘Dini Musiki’ye döndü ve unutulmayacak eserler yarattı. Bunlar arasında en ünlüleri “Mors et Vita” (Hayat ve Ölüm) ve “Messe a Sainte-Cécile” (Sen-Sesil’de Ayin) sayılabilir.     
 
                          Gounod’nun müziğinde, dinliyenleri coşkunluğa sevkeden bir erotisizm vardı. O kendisinin bir ‘aşk müzisyeni’ olarak bilinmesini istedi. Bir kez demişti: “Eğer koyu bir Katolik beni zerrelerime ayırsa, içimde ne bulacağına şaşardı!”

                          Fransa-Prusya savaşı başladığında, Gounod, İngiltere’ye giderek orada 1870 ve 1875 yılları arasında ikamet etti. Londra’da, bir zamanlar Charles DICKENS’e evsahipliği yapmış olan Tavistock Home’da yaşarken, Mrs. Georgina Weldon adında, bir yüzbaşının eşiyle aşk macerasına girişmişti. Bayan Weldon, Gounod’nun işlerini idare ediyordu. Bayan Gounod, bu aşk hikayesinin farkına varınca, bavullarını topladığı gibi Paris’e döndü. Sonra, oğlu Jan’ı Londra’ya, babasına göz kulak olması için yolladı amma Jan’ın kendisi Bayan Weldon’a kur yapmaya kalkınca, Bayan Weldon baba-oğul’un her ikisini de kapı dışarı etti. Böylece Gounod, Londra’yı terketmek zorunda kaldı. İşin kötüsü, metresi tarafından aleyhine dava açıldı. Davanın nedeni olarak da, Gounod’nun Tavistock Home’da üç yıllık yeme ve yatma borcunu gösterdi. Gounod, mahkemelere düşmeden, vaziyeti 50,000 dolar ödeyerek düzeltti ve müzik işlerini yine kendisi üzerine aldı. Gounod Paris’te, 18 Ekim 1893’de, sulh içinde öldü.

                          Gounod’nun ‘Faust’u, Lirik Tiyatro’da ilk açılışını 19 Mart 1859’da yaptı ve otuz yedi kez oynandı. Bundan on yıl sonra, Büyük Opera’nın kurallarına uysun diye, listeye, “bale”nin eklenmesiyle, orada ilk kez 3 Mart 1859’da temsil edildi. Otuz sekiz yıl sonra da, Gounod, operasının 500. oyununu arkadaşlarıyla birlikte görebilmek şerefine nail olmuştu. Bu, sekiz yıl sonra da, 1000 rakkamına ulaşmıştı.

                          Amerika’da “Faust”un ilk performansı New York’taki ‘Müzik Akademisi’nde 3 Kasım 1863’de yer aldı. Opera o kez Almanca takdim edilmişti. 1883 yılının 22 Ekimi’nde ise, bu kez yeni ‘Metropoltan Opera Evi’nin açılışını kutlamak için, İtalyanca söylendi. ‘Margaret” rolü de, 1869’da Paris performansında aynı rolü oynamış olan Christine Nilsson’a
verilmişti.

                          Gounod öldükten sonra, Saint-Saens onun eserlerinin “ölümsüz” olduklarını ilan etti, fakat müzik dünyasının yanıtı pek o denli vefakar olmadı. Onun, zamanında çok meşhur olan “Azize Sesil”i bile pek ender olarak çalınır. Genellikle, bu eseri için Gounod, basmakalıplığı, kadans’ların ve arp’ların çok belirgin olarak seslendirildikleri nedeniyle eleştirilir.
(Fani dünya bu, insanlar bu dünyada, yaşadıkları sürece tanrılaştırılır, Tanrı’ya kavuştuktan sonra yalnızca bir anı olurlar. Tekrarlamaya gerek yok ki, Gounod’nun bizce de en önemli eseri olan Faust için, bu sitemizin “Tiyatro” bölümünde, hem İngilizce ve hem de Türkçe olarak çok geniş bir analizi mevcuttur. Okumanızı hararetle tavsiye ederim. Türkiye’de, 1991’de Faust’u -Tabii ki ‘piyes’ şeklinde İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi’ndeki T.A.L.’in yıldızları (Ayla ve Beklan Algan ve tüm staff ile) sahneye koymak üzere iken Beklan Bey’in rahatsızlanması o aylarca süren -üç dil üzerinden olan mükemmel çalışmayı-rafa kaldırmıştı.

                                                                                                        İsmail Ersevim

                                                                        ———

İlk Çağlarda Müzik:SÜMERLİLER-BABİLLİLER-YUNANLILAR-ROMALILAR

                            Bizler, insanlığın en başlangıç zamanlarındanberi müziklerinin ne tarzda olduğunu kat’i olarak belki de hiç bilemeyeceğiz. Doğa’dan korkan ve onunla cebelleşmek için çoğu kez onu taklit eden-özdeşen primitif insan, elbette kuş cıvıltılarını, suların ve göklerin sesini, heyecanlarını ifadede geniş olarak kullandı ve zamanla o ilkel tepkileri rafine ederek, müziğe döndürdü. Biz bu seri yazımızda, prensip olarak, “New York School of Music”de öğrenci iken tuttuğumuz ders notlarından, dünyada eşi olmayan 20-cilt “The  New GROVE Dictionary Music and Musicians“dan, özellikle bu makalemizde, Dr. Alexander Buchner’in “Yüzyıllar Boyu Müzikal Aletler-   Musical Instruments Through the Ages” adlı eserinden faydalanarak bu makaleyi sunuyoruz.

                       Müzik dünyasının en eski bulgusu, Güney Babilonya’da “Bismya” tapınağının kazılarından elde edilen “lapis lazilu” vazosunun bulunmuş bir parçasındaki ilk olduğu düşünülen müzik aletinin resmidir. M.Ö. 3. ve  4. binyıllarda Sümerliler hala Dicle ve Fırat arasındaki araziyi ellerinde tutuyorlardı.

                       O zamanlarda, müzisyenlerin kullandığı ilk adet bir  a r p  olup, Burma ve Afrika’da kullanılmış olan ‘ark’lı arb’a benzer. Daha sonraları, üçgen şeklinde, uzun püsküllü, Asurluların arb’ına benzer bir müzik kutusu kullanıldı. Bu müzik aletlerinin en ilginç tarafı, bunların uzun süreli gelişimini kanıtlayan etkin yapılarının bulunuşudur. İlk tarif edilen alette yedi ve ikincisinde de beş telin mevcut oluşundan, o zamanlar, beş-notalı ölçü’nün (five-note scale) kullanıldığını varsayabiliriz.

                       Bu ‘arp’lar, ‘lir’e benziyorlardı, eğik ve vücuda dayalı olarak kullanılıyorlardı. Bunlara, Saray konserlerinde, kadınlar tarafından kullanılan “frame drums-çerçeve davullar” eşlik ederlerdi. Bu davullar, bazen beş ayak (ortalama 1,5 m.) büyüklüğünde yapılırdı. Bugün dahi, Çin ve Japon mabetlerinde, derileri Sümer-Babil davullarındaki gibi çivilenmiş bu tür davulları, asılı görmekteyiz.

                       Kelimenin gerçek anlamında ‘müzik aleti’, Sümerlilerin Tilo’daki Kraliyet Sarayında bulunmuş olan, gövdesinin kenarında bir boğa resmi bulunan onbir telli bir ‘lir’dir. Şu noktayı kaydetmek ilginçtir ki, yakın zamanlara kadar Kafkasya’da Gürci’ler, bir daire içine iki at ve bir boğa resmedilmiş bir ‘arb’ kullanırlardı.

                       Diğer bir müzik aleti de, M.Ö. 3. bin yıllarının orta ya da sonlarında kullanıldığı sanılan, bir kil parçasında izlenmiş, yanında köpeğiyle bir çobanın elinde tuttuğu, küçük vücutlu, uzun-ince boyunlu bir “ut” (lute) idi.

                       Eski Babilli’ler, müzik konusunda pek az eser bırakmışlardır. Bunlar arasında ilginç bir tanesi, sonraları Yunanlılar’ın “Orpheus” mitolojisine benzer -Babilliler’in, Gılgameş’e aşık olmuş Sevgi ilahesi-
“Ishtar’ın Cehenneme Yolculuğu” adlı müziksel şiiridir.

                       Orta İmparatorluk (Middle Kingdom) zamanlarına ait, gerek müzik ve gerekse müzik aletleri hususunda bir bilgimiz yoktur.

                       Ancak, M.Ö. 1. bininci yıllarda, Suriye ve Hitit kültürlerinde, kabartmalarda müzik aletleri yeniden belirmektedir. Bunlar arasında küçük bir borazan (trumpet), küçük bir lir (lyre), iki telli ve uzun boyunlu bir ut (lute), iki obua (oboe) ve zil-simbal (symbals) sayılabilir. (Bizlere, herşeyin ilk mucidi’nin Türkler olduğu söylenen devirlerde, ‘ut’ hatta ‘kanun’un Farabi <Avennasar, M.S. 870-950> tarafından icat edildiği konservatuvar’da söylenmişti!)

                      Asurlular’ın müziği, modern zamanlara kadar, asırlar boyunca sesini duyurdu. Müzisyenler, Kraliyet Sarayında, tanrıların ve kralların alt sıralarında çok değerli bir yer tutarlardı. O zamanlar ‘tanrıların sesleri, müzikal aletlerin çıkardıkları seslerle kıyaslanırlardı.’ ISHTAR’ın (Aşk tanrısı) sesi tatlı bir flüte benzerdi; RAMMAN’ın (Rüzgarların tanrısı) sesi bir oboe’nınkine eşdeğerdi.

                       Asurlular’ı izleyen K a l d e  uygarlığında, müzik aletleri o kadar bol çeşitli ve o denli gözde idi ki, -Kitab-ı Mukaddes’te ‘dürüstlüğü’ temsil eden peygamber- DANIEL’in kitabında (Book of Daniel), halkı, tanrılığın altın imajına dua etmeye davet ederken, bütün müzik aletlerinin koleksiyonundan da bahsedilir.

                                                           ESKİ MISIRLILAR

                       Eski Mısırlılar hakkında en eski raporlar, M.Ö. 4000 yıllarının baş ya da sonlarına kadar gider. O zamanlarda, 4. Hanedanlık (dynasty) devrinde, müzik aletleri zaten yüksek bir düzeye erişmişlerdi. Müzisyenler, gruplar halinde ‘uzun flüt’ler ve ‘kavisli arb’larla (arched harps) müzik icra ederken, şarkıcılar tempo zamanında ellerini çırparlardı.

                       Eski Krallık Devri’nde de, ‘çerçeveli davul’lar ve ‘klarnet’e benzer nefesli sazlar bilinirdi. Beni Hasan yakınlarındaki bir mezar kazısında bulunmuş çizim-resimlerinden, ‘lir’in Mısır’a, Suriyeli göçebeler tarafından MÖ iki bin yıllarında getirildiği anlaşılmıştır.

                       M.Ö. 1500 yıllarında, 18. dinasti’nin kralı Küçük Asya’yı işgal edince, esirler, müzik aletlerini de beraberlerinde getirdiler. Bu esirlerin Mısır müziği üzerinde büyük etkileri oldu. Orijinal Mısır müzik aletlerinden yalnız ‘arb’ olduğu gibi kaldı; ‘flüt’ ise, Suriyelileler’in çok daha tiz sesli
“çifte klarnet” (double clarinet) tarafından hemen hemen tümüyle silindi. Bu “çifte klarnet”, bugün Mısırlı fellahlar arasında hala kullanılmakta olup, yapı bakımından, ARGUL :'”Arghül=Silindir delikli çifte klarnet”den yapı bakımından bir az farklıdır.

                       Bakın GROVE Dictionary “Arghül” hakkında bize neler söylüyor:
                    <ARGHÜL : Silindir delikli çifte klarnet
                       Bu alet, iki borudan oluşmuştur: Bir “melodik boru” (melody pipe) ve “pes boru” (drone pipe) ki bu sonuncu ilkinden daha uzundur. Her ikisinde de, ‘tek vuruşlu ağızlık’ (single-beating reed) vardır.
                       Arghül, “idioglott” klarinet grubuna ait olup, Zummara ve Çifte’yi (Türkiye) ve Launeddas (Sardinya)’yı içerir. Onun Eski Yunanlılarda “çift aulos=double aulos“‘a benzeyiş, Hıristiyanlık öncesi orijini olabileceğini telkin eder. (Not. aulos:  Eski Grek’lerin en önemli, ünlü sazdan yapılı müzik aleti. Modern yazılara, çoğu kez yalnız olarak ‘flüt’ olarak çevrilir. Genellikle
birbirine benzer bir çift boru olarak, silindrik ya da konik tarzda (bombyx),
 50 cm.’yi geçmeyen çeşitli uzunluklarda, ahşap ya da fildişinden yapılı  
olabilir. ‘Reed pipe‘ (Latin’lerde), ya da ‘lotos’, ‘tibia-shinbone‘ isimlerini de taşır. İ.E.)
                     Sözcük olarak  a r g h ü l, Arapça bir kelime olan ‘urgun’dan üretil-
miştir ki bir ‘organ’ı temsil eder. VILLOTEN, üç tip Argul’den bahsetmişti:
a) Büyük (Kebir) Arghül: 9 parçadan yapılı. İlk 4 kısmı, “Melodic pipe‘, ağzın
içinden çalınır. Uzunluğu 76.6 (melody) ve 239.7 cm (drone) pipes olarak bambu’dan yapılmıştı. Parçalar, ipler, zift ve zamkla birarada tutulurdu.
b) Orta, ve, c) Küçük Arghül.
                     Arghül, Eski Mısırlıların en temel bir folk müzik aleti olup, Nil’deki gemiciler tarafından toplum’da eğlencede ve evliliklerde çalınırdı.>

                     Kavisli-Ark’lı a r b’ların yanında, Asya kökenli ‘köşeli’ (angular)
arb, ud’lar ve borazan’lar (lutes-trumpets) de zamanla yer almaya başladılar.
Eski Mısır, arb’ı, çok eski zamanlardan zengin anılarla gelmesi nedeniyle kolay kolay unutmadı ama hiç olmazsa vücut yapısı zamanla değişti, daha irileşti.

                      SERAP kültürü zamanında, yeni telli ve nefesli sazlar Mısır’a akmaya devam etti. Bunlar arasında “eğri flüt’ler=bent flutes” vardı. Eski Yunanlılara göre bunlar Frikya icadı olup, Anadolu (Asya) kökenli idiler. En sonunda sahneye, fıçı şeklindeki  e l   d a v u l l a r ı (hand drums) da ritmi kuvvetlendirmek için kullanılmaya başlandı.

                       Mısır’ın mabetlerinde “çanlar” (clappers) ve “çıngıraklar” (rattles) ve “arb” kullanılırdı. Fakat en önemli müzik aleti, Katolik kiliselerinde, vaftiz ayinlerinde kullanılan, çıngırağa benzer  s i s t r u m  idi. Bu alet, tanrı İSİS’in kültürüne ait idi; asırlarca Mısır’da hükümran olduktan sonra Akdenize yayılarak, hatta Habeşistan ve Kafkaslar’a kadar uzandı.

                       Mısır mabetlerinin dışında çalınan müzik daima ‘Suriyeli’ karakterinde idi ve bu ‘Asyalı etki’, M.Ö.’leri son üç yüzyıldaki Yunan ve Roma kültürüne değin, Mısır İmparatorluğunun son demlerine kadar devam etti.

                       ROMALILAR zamanında, A l e x a n d r i a (İskenderiye) müzik kültürünün merkezi olup, Mısır ve Suriye müzik eğilimleri Yunan kültürü ile kaynaştı. Berlin Müzesi’nde, bir Mısır ‘terra-cotta‘ (fırında pişirilmiş tuğla – İ.E.) figüründe, şapka giyen bir Suriyeli ve ‘pan-pipe‘ <Birkaç kamıştan yapılı ilkel, nefesli bir saz. İ.E.> çalan Mısırlı bir müzisyen görülmektedir. Alete bağlı bir kese-tulum (bag) olup, bir boru o torbadan çıkıp bir çocuğun ağzına uzanmaktadır ki, çocuk torbaya üflemektedir. Bu aranjman, ‘bagpipes‘ ile Küçük Asya’da zaten bilinen “Tulumlu Organ=Organ with a Bag” arasında geçici bir devreyi sergiler.

                       O r g a n’ın gelişiminde en önemli adım, M.Ö. 3. yüzyılda, Mısır’da, İskenderiye’de mühendis KTESİBİOS tarafından atıldı. Bu, hava ile çalışan (wind-action; hydraulis) daha modern tarzın İskenderiye’deki ilk yapıtı oldu.

                                          YUNANLILAR  ve  ROMALILAR 

                       Y u n a n l ı l a r’ın, mimarideki ve heykelcilikteki orijinal büyük sanatlarına karşıt olarak,  Y u n a n   m ü z i ğ i  hemen tamamen ithal edilmiştir. Bu nedenle, Eski Çağların müzik aletleri, Asya’nın büyük uygarlık-
larının temsilcileri olarak, yüzyıllardan yüzyıllara intikal etmişlerdir.

                       Hiçbir müzik aletinin Yunanistanda icat edilmemesine karşın, müzik, Eski Yunanlıların hayatında çok önem verilen bir uğraşı idi. Müzik, gençlerin eğitiminde, kült (cult) seremonilerinde, askeri hayatta, kişilerin özel ve sosyal yaşamlarında kullanılan çok önemli bir öge idi. Filozoflar  müziğin e t i k  (ethics) üzerine olan olumlu etkilerinden bahsettiler; tarih-çiler ise onun geçmişini ve gelişimini etüd ettiler.

                       Eski Yunanlılar‘ın “estetik”ten çok, ‘fizyolojik’ ve ‘etik’ bir öge olarak değerlendirdikleri müziğin en önemli temsilcileri şunlardır:
1) Fenike’li şarkıcı DEMODOKOS’un elinde tuttuğu  a r b, ve
2) Yedi-telli  C i t h a r a’nın ACHILLES tarafından çadırında çalınışı.

                       C i t h a r a , ‘lir’ (lyre) ailesinin en basit aletlerinden biri olup, Yunan müziğinde çok önemli bir yer amıştır. Orijinal olarak ‘cithara’, dörtgen şeklinde düz bir ses kutusunun (soundbox) üzerine, sığır barsağın-dan yapılmış yedi telden yapılmıştı. (Not. Naylon uygarlığı başlamadan önce, kanun’umuzuzda da aynı şey yapılırdı, tellerden daha natürel bir ses çıkardı. 1950’lerden sonra değişik çaplarda naylon kullanmaya başladık, sesler cızırtı ile karışık çıkıyor. Tarih tekerrürden ibarettir. İ.E.) Sonraları iki tel alındı ve bir “eşik-cross bar” eklendi. En son gelişimde, tellerin sayısı on bire çıkarıldı.

                      Cithara’nın orijini Mısır’da ve Suriye’de  l i r  şeklindeki aletlerin içinde aranmalıdır. Bu aletin ilk tarihsel kaydı, TERPANDROS tarafından, M.Ö. 675 yılında yazılmış müzikal bir lirik şiirde görülmüştür. Vazo’ların üstündeki boyalı resimler, bu aletin iki birbirlerinden farklı yapılarını sergilemektedir. Biri, vücuda çok yaklaşık tutulmuş ve bir “telamon belt-erkek heykellerindeki kabartma kuşak. İ.E.” ile vücuda bağlanmıştı. Daha sonraki ikinci tip, APOLLO, ORPHEUS ve AMPHION’un klasik görüntülerinde izlendiği gibi, daha dimdik yapılmış ve telleri de bir mızrap (plectrum) ile temasta gösterilmiştir.

                      Eski Yunanlıların ikinci ve önemli telli müzik aleti  l i r (lyre)’dir. İsmini, Trakya’da, “Lesbos adasının “lirik yazıcıları”ndan alır. Lirin gövdesi, ‘ses tahtası’ (soundboard) ödevini görecek bir deri ile kaplanmış bir kaplumbağa kabuğundan yapılmış olup, bir “bağlama çubuğu” (cross-bar) ile birbirlerine bağlı iki hayvan boynuzu dışa fırlamışlardır. Lir’i yapmak ve çalmak, cithara’dan daha kolay olduğundan evlerde hem öğretmek ve hem de eğlence için daha çok kullanımda idi.

                      M a g a d i s, biri ‘telli’ ve diğeri de ‘nefesli’ olarak kullanılan, iki farklı alete verilen isimdi.
                      T e l l i   M a g a d i s’in orijini Lidya idi ve zaten ANACREON (Eski Yunan Lirik Şairi İ.E.) tarafından biliniyordu. Üçgen bir ses kutusuna sahip olup yirmi teli vardı; on temel sesi ve onların oktav’larını verebiliyordu.
Taban esas sesler sol elle, oktav’lar da sağ elle, mızrap kullanmaksızın çalınırdı. Bu tip ‘Magadis’, daha önceleri SAPHHO’nun icat ettiği  P e k t i s’e eşdeğer sayılır, fakat çağdaş otoriteler bu ilişkiyi doğrulamazlar.

                      N e f e s l i   M a g a d i s, büyük bir olasılıkla, ‘Aulos’un başka bir çeşidi idi. Vesikalar her iki Magadis’in birlikte çalındığını kanıtlıyor.

                      Mamafih, çalınan en önemli nefesli saz  A u l o s  idi. Hurafeler bunun mitolojik şarkıcı OLYMPOS tarafından Frikya’dan Yunanistan’a getirildiğini hikaye eder. Bu aletin ilk virtüöz’ü, M.Ö. 586 yılında, ‘Delphi Oyunları’nda, APOLLO’nun, PYTHON DRAGON’u ile yaptığı kavga üzerine müzikal alet yarışmasında ödül kazanmış olan Argos’lu SAKADAS’tır.

                      Diğer yandan, tiz sesinden dolayı bu alet “barbarik” telakki edilmiş ve müzik teorist’leri, onu, “ruha zararlı olabilir” diye, zamanla, eğitim proğramlarından çıkarmışlardı.

                      Aulos’un, orijinal olarak var olan üç parmak deliği, bir ‘tetracord’
u çalmaya yeterli idi. Daha sonraları deliklerin sayısını artırarak ‘oktav’ları ve ‘onikilik’leri de çalmayı mümkün kıldılar. Müzisyenler, konserlerde aulos çalarken, ağızlarını “phorbeia=halters-yular’lar” denilen geniş yakalıklarla kaplarlarmış. Bu, hem hava kaçımına engel olurmuş ve hem de kuvvetli üflendiğinde yüzde oluşan sırıtmaları saklarmış. Genllikle, iki boru birden çalınırmış ki, Yunanca çoğulu  a u l o i  diye adlandırılırmış.

                       Borular, prensip olarak çifte ağızlıklarla bezenmişlerdi. Bu ikili sistem, sesin volümünü artırdığı gibi, h e t e r o p h o n y’ye (çok seslilik) yardım edermiş. Sağdaki boru ‘melodi’yi çalar ve soldaki, daha yüksek bir nota’dan ona refakat ederdi. Bu saz hiç bir kez sazdan yapılmamıştır. Atina ve Pompei’de, ses spektrum’unu geniş tutmak amacıyla, diğer enstrüman’
lara eş olarak çokça kullanılmışlardır.

                       Mamafih, a u l o i, prensip olarak ifrat ve işret sembolü sayılan “Orgiastik Yunanlı Roma’da icra edildiğinden, Papalık onu 5. y.y.’dan itibaren kullanılmaktan menetti ve böylece auloi, Hıristiyanlık dünyasından silindi.

                       Diğer   n e f e s l i   s a z l a r a   gelince:

SYRINX  –    pan-pipes   :  Bir sıra halindeki çeşitli uzunluktaki kamışlardan
                                                   yapılmış bir saz. Halk arasında pek popülerdi.
KERAS    –    boynuz tüp :  Herhanghi boynuzlu bir hayvanın boynuzu yeterdi.
KERAS – metal trampet :  Özellikle militerri-askeri birliklerde çalınırdı.
TYMPANON                       :  Çıngıraklı ve vuruşlu bir el davulu.
SCABELLUM                       : Koro’nun lider’inin sandalının üzerine konmuş,
                                                    gevşek, tahtadan yapılı bir taban, bir tür ‘çan dili’
                                                    (clapper). Tempoyu kuvvetlendirmekte kullanılır
                                                    idi.
CYMBAL                               : Yüz flütle davulun bilikte çalınışlarını anımsatır.
                                                     Bu. metal bir disk’e, esnek bir demir deynekle
                                                     vurulan metal bir kase olup, diğer el ile de nefesli
                                                     bir saz çalınırdı.

                       Eski Yunanlıların, f e l s e f e  alanında insanlık tarihine yaptığı olumlu katkı, hepimizin bilgisi içindedir. Burada sizlere, ‘müziği’ kullanarak  insanın varoluş nedenini, evrenin düzenini yorumlamaya kalkmış ünlü kişi ve felsefelerden bahsetmeden geçmek, o büyük uygarlığa bir haksızlık olur kanaatindeyim. Site’mizin, bu makaleyi yazdığımız  “Müzik” bölümünde daha önce yazılmış olan “PLANETLER VE MÜZİK TEDAVİSİ”ni, aşağıda yazacağımız bilgileri daha iyi yorumlamak bakımından çok yararlı olacaktır.

                       Planetlerin müzikle olan ilgisi, ilk kez PYTAGOR <M.Ö. 6. y.y.>, en büyük katkılarından biri: Ölümden sonra ruhun başka bir vücuda girişi)tarafından ortaya atıldı. Bu ilişki, müziğin özünü teşkil eden nota-seslerin, uzaydaki planetlerin birbirleriyle (dolayısıyla dünya ile) sabit olan mesafeleri ve kendi oluşum ve gelişimlerindeki nisbi hız verileriyle orantılı ve ilintili idi. SOCRATES (M.Ö. 469-399) öncesi Yunan filozoflarının, örneğin ANAXIMANDER (ANAXAGORAS) <M.Ö. 5. y.y.> ve PARAMENIDE(I)S’in
<M.Ö. 6. y.y.>, e v r e n’de, bu inter-planeter ölçülerin birbirlerine karşı olan oranların, belirli ‘harmonik’ sonuçlar getirdiği hususunda bir inançları vardı. Eski Babilli’lerden, Peygamber ISAIAH <İ’zık> ve EZEKİL’in ileri görüşleri’
nin  (sağgörü-vision)’  -ki vizyonların çokları gibi Tanrı’yı övme’ye yöneliktir-, TALMUD’un  “Psalms” (sahm-ilahi, mezmur) YOMA bölümünde de
 açıklandığı üzere, müzik, Tanrı’nın insanlara bahşettiği ilahi, kosmotik bir varlığın göstergesidir.
                     <Özel not: YOMA, Talmud’un Midhnak ve Festivaller Düzeninin (Order of Festivals) 5. Bilimsel Araştırma Günü’nün 5. Bilimsel Araştırma Günü’dür. Bu, çok önemli bir Musevi bayramı olan -bir önceki yılın işlenmiş günahların affı (atonement) için düzenlenen Y o m  K i p p e r’in dini yasalarını açıklar. Tüm bunların Çin ve Hint kozmolojleri ile uzaktan yakından hiçbir ilintisi yoktur.İ.E.>

                       PITAGORAS ve onun izleyicileri, müziği simgeleyen her tür ses ve uyumlululuğun (consonance) ve müzik aletlerinin de bu uyumluluğa
katılımını, tüm bunların sergilediği ses titreşimlerinin normal hayat olgularıyla çok yakından ilişkiler olduğu yolunda düşünce yarattılar ve bu  tezlerini savundular. SOCRATES’in öğrencisi olan PLATO (Eflatun) <M.Ö. 429-347> “Timaeus”unda, bu müziksel titreşimlerin ve varoluşun bir “d ü n- y a   r u h u” (World-Soul) oluşturduğunu savundu. Pitagoras’ın ortaya attığı ikili-üçlü geometrik düzenlerin, aritmetik ve harmonik araçların, “Cennet’in, “gam’ ve ‘numara’ bileşimi sonucu yaratıldığından bahsediyorlardı artık.
ARISTOTELES de, <M.Ö. 384-322; Büyük İskender’e hocalık etmiştir> “Metafizik”inde, Pitagor usulü bir ‘akortlama’, yani bir tür “semavi monokord(celestial monochord)   sayesinde “Dünya-Ruhu”nun yaratıldığını yazdı.

                 ‘Timaeus’ta açıkça tarif edildiği gibi, “kozmik gam, ıskala” (cosmic scale) gerçekte bir müzik değil,  fakat Grek Harmoni İlminin temel ögesidir.
Plato, “Republic” adlı eserinde, ‘ER’ mit’inde (Tanrıça, sevgili, ilahi mit’i), evren’i, ortak merkezli, yüzeylerinde birer siren oturan ve harmonik  ses çıkaran halkalardan (planetler) ibaret bir sistem olarak tarif etti. Bu tarif, daha sonraki zamanlarda, bu müziğin ezelden ebede var olduğu, ama ‘mortal-ölümlü’ kimselerin bunları işitmelerine karşın, duyamadıkları şeklinde yorumlandı.

                 Bu iki Platonik mit’in etkileri, Aristoteles’in daha sonraları, bu evrensel müzik yerine kendi sessiz, karmaşasız varlığını “De caelo” adlı eserinde ısrarla savunmasına karşın uzun süre toplumda kaldı. Neo-
Platonik yeni bildirilerde, özel olarak CICERO’nun <M.Ö. 106-43>, yine ER Mit’inden gelen, “Somnium Scipionis” adlı eserinde, sirenlerin planetler harmonisi, Timaeus’ gam-ıskala ile birleşmişti. Aristides QUINTILIANUS kozmik harmoni’yi ateş, hava, su ve toprak ve ayın etkisinde olup dünyada oluşagelen met ve cezir olayları, bitkilerin gelişimini de ele alıp, insanoğlunun yaşadığı mikrokosmik alemde, kendi büyüme,  gelişimini ve davranışını da içerecek şekilde genişletti. Batlamyos PTOLEMY <M.S. 2. yy>
Harmonics” adlı eserinde , ‘kozmik’ ve ‘psişik’ harmonileri birbirlerinden ayırdı; tüm bu kategoriler BOETHIUS’un <M.S. 425-525> “Latin” adlı eserde,
asırlardır süregelen “musica mundana” ve “humana” ya, insanlar tarafından seslendirilen ve şarkıların müzikal aletlerle sergilendiği “musica instrumentalis”  de eklendi. Ortaçağın dört yüksek bilimi (aritmetik, geometri, astronomi ve müzik), ancak neo-Pitagoriyen görüşün, Eski Çağın sonlarına doğru toplumda yerşebilmesiyle hayat buldu.

                 Kozmik Harmoni hakkındaki fikirler, Neo-Platonistler tarafından Rönesans’ın sonuna kadar yayımlanmaya ve hükümranlığını sürmeye devam etti. Tabiatıyla bu fikirler astronom”ları, astrolojist’leri, doktor’ları, mimar’
ları, hümanist entellektüel’leri ve şairleri kuvvetli bir şekilde etkilemeye devam etti. Arada bir, planetlerin harmonisine ait bazı eserler sunuluyordu.
1589’da, Floransa “intermedi”si için dizayn edilmiş “Harmonices delle sfere” tablosu bunlardan biri idi.

                   Bu tür düşüncelerin en sonuncusu sayılabilecek yaratıcı nitelikte ve “kürelerin müziği” konulu eser, KEPLER tarafından “Harmonica Mundi” adı altında 1619’da yapılmıştı; fakat Pitagorian temsil, daha sonra gelen filozofların çalışmalarında da kendini gösterdi, örneğin, felsefede LEIBNIZ, SCHOPENHAUER; astronomlar arasında J.E. BODE ve matematikçiler arasında MERSENNE, KIRCHER. 20 y.y.’da bile, neo-Pitagoriyen sayılabilecek Hans KAYSER gibi yazarlar, HINDEMITH gibi müzisyenler, eserlerinde Pitagorik kavramı metaforik de olsa göstermeye devam ettiler.

                                                                     ———–
                                                   E S K İ   R O M A’ D A   M Ü Z İ K

                              R o m a l ı l a r , M.Ö. ikinci yüzyılda Yunanistan’ın hemen
hemen yarısını işgal ettiklerinde, Alexandria kültürüne hemen halef oldular. Romalılar artık müziğin eğitimsel kudretine inanmadıklarından, ona Yunanlılardan daha az önem verdiler. PLATO’nun ‘müziksel etikliği’, yerini,
CICERO tarafından altyapısı hazırlanan “EPICURUS’ün Şekilciliği”ne
 (Formalism) bırakmıştı. Epikür, müziğin insalığa gerçek bir hizmet veremeyeceğini iddia ediyordu, “…zira o, yalnızca çocukça bir zevk verir, dolayısıyla tinsel bir mutluluğa yönlendirilemez…” Bu görüş açısından, Romalılarda müzik aletleri konusunda kayde değer bir gelişme olamayacağına inanabilriz.

                           Zaten Gerileme ve Düşme devrinde olan Roma İmparatorluğu’  nda müziğin kontrolü Yunanlılarda idi, ve o müzik, zaten bir kült (cult) – mezhep megalomanisine kurban olmaktaydı. Örneğin, MATIANUS CAPELLA şöyle diyebiliyordu: “…Lir’ler, çöp yığınları kadar büyüktü… SENECA, tiyatroda, dinleyicilerden çok, orkestrada çalanları görmüştü…”

                        R o m a l ı l a r ı n   m ü z i ğ i, Yunanlılarınkinden, müzik aletlerinin çokluğu ile ayrılır. Tuhaf değil mi? Roma’da, her ne tür müzik çalınırsa çalınsın, başta TİBİA (Yukarıya bakınız lütfen!) Bu, tek kamışlı, olasılı Etrüsk kökenli, bir düdük-nefesli saz idi. Tibia, aulos gibi, çift borulu idi; sağ boru kısa olup daha yüksek br tonu vardı; sol ise daha uzun olup, ‘pes’ bir ses çıkarırdı. Sonraları, T i b i a, Yunan Müziğinin etkisi altında yerini
A u l o s’a bıraktı.

                         R o m a n  müzik aletlerinin en önemlileri:  B a k ı r (brasses) a l e t l e r  idi. Bunlar, Roma’nın pek gelişmiş olan askerlik hayatında çok önemli bir yer tutarlardı. Bu nedenledir ki, Romalı’ların askeri müziği, Yunanlı’ların askeri müziğinden çok daha görkemli idi.

                         Piyade’nin başlıca sinyal musiki alet  t u b a  idi. Bu; konik delikli, huni biçiminde çıngıraklı (funnel-shaped bell), düz bir borazan (trumpet)di. 
Bu, daha evvel Yunanlılarda gördüğümüz “s a l p i n x”‘in bir kopyası ya da bnenzeri (counter-part) denebilir.

                          Roma piyadesi,  L i t t u s  isimli, çengel biçiminde bir trampet de kullanıyordu. Diğer biri,  B u c c i n a, neredeyse bir daire şeklinde, bir sinyal borazanı idi.  K a r n y x, bir Celtic icadı olup, sağ köşesi yukarıya dönük borulu, muhteşem bir dragon’un başı ile sonlanan bir trampet idi. Fransa’da, 19. yüzyılın başlarında, “y ı l a n  b a s o”dan (bass serpent) geliş-miş bakırdan yapılı “bass horn“, bu eski form’un hemen hemen yeniden canlanışını simgeliyordu. Bu enstrümanların çoğu, zafer alaylarında ve görkemli yürüyüşlerde kullanılıyorlardı.

                           T e l l i   s a z l a r , Romalılarda nadirdi. Onlar, c i t h a r a 
çalmayı Yunanlılardan öğrenmişlerdi. DYONISUS,  HALİKARNAS’tan öğrendiğimize göre, dini merasimlerde  B a r b i t a  denilen yedi telli bir lir ve  T i b i a kullanırdı.

                           Romalıların mükemmelleştirdiği biricik saz  HYDRAULIS  idi.
Bunda, “pneumatic”  (hava ile çalışan) ‘organ’ın tersine, hava basıncı, hava deposundaki (wind chest) bir su sütunu tarafından kontrol ediliyordu. Kısa bir zamanda Hydraulis, Roma’nın müzik hayatında çok gözde bir mevkiye ulaştığı gibi, Roma İmparatorluğunun yıkılışı esnasında, hala, en önemli enstrüman olmak ünvanını koruyordu. Haydraulis, NERO’nun İmparatorluk Sarayı’ndan sirk’e kadar yer aldığı gibi, gladyatörlerin savaşmasında diğer nefesli sazlarla birlikte çalınırdı. Hydraulis, Tripolis’teki bir Roma Villası’nın mozayiğinde de resmedilmiştir.

                           H y d r a u l i s, Batı’da yavaş yavaş unutulurken, onun Doğu Roma İmparatorluğu’ndaki yeri emin idi. Hydaulis hakkında son söz olarak, Leo MAGISTER’in Bizans hamamları’nı metheden bir şiirinde de rastlandığını ekleyelim. Bu tarihi müzik aleti, yerini sonunda, bugünlerde bile hükümranlığını sürdüren  h a v a l ı   o r g a n’a  terketmiş bulunuyor.

                                                                      ————-

SCHUMANN ve ROMANTİKLER

 

                          1834’de, Berlin Müzikal Jurnal’ın (Iris im Gebiete der Tonkunst) kavgacı, delişmen editörü Ludwig Rellstab, genç bir Alman kompozitörü J.C. Kessler’in yeni bestelediği piyano parçaları hakkında şunları yazıyordu:

                           “…Biz, pek sık olarak, zamanımızın genç bestekarlarının, ‘Kompozisyon hocaları yok’ diye haykırmıştık. Çokları, yeterli çalışmadan ve danışmanları olmaksızın, aşırı ve düşüncesiz, yalnızca besteliyorlar. Biz bunu, sağlıksız bir gelişme olarak yorumluyorduk. Fakat şimdi durum değişti: Şimdi, “iyi”yi öğrenmekteki güçlüklerin yanında, “kötü”yü de siste-
matik olarak sergiliyorlar. Ters yönde çalışıyorlar. Belli ki şu genç Chopin’in en yeni besteleri, onlara kötü bir model olmuş. Üzüntüyle söylemek gerekir ki, bizler, ilk kez Chopin’de, sonra Schumann’da ve şimdi de genç bestecide tüm bir yanlışlıklar okulunun kurulduğunu izlemekteyiz…”
      

                      Bu tür iddialar 1830’larda Alman müzik yayımlarında sık sık görülürdü. Aynı mealde bir makale de, Breitkopf ve Hürtel’in Leibzig’de yayımladığı “Algemeine musicalische Zeitung“da çıkmıştı.

                      Bu çeşit sözsel hücumlar, o zamanlar yeni tanınmaya başlamış  R o m a n t i k l e r’e  yönelmiş, fakat bu eleştiriler onları susturmak yerine, bu bestekarların kendi durumlarını açıklamak ve düzenli bir şekilde hislerini ifade etmeye fırsat vermiştir. Hatta bu baskıdır ki, “Neue Zeitschrift für Musik” isimli bir musiki dergisinin yayımlanmasına neden olmuştu. Schumann’ın kendisi bu derginin 1834’de hayat bulmasında çok önemli bir rol oynadığı gibi, onun 1835 ve 1844 yılları arasında editörlüğünü de yapmıştır.

                      Edebiyatta ‘Romantik’ devir ve yazarlar hakkında yeterli ve ayrıntılı etüdler bulunmasına karşın, müzik tarihçilerinin serbestçe kullan-dıkları ‘romantik’ sözcüğü hakkında pek az kritik vardır. Bu konuda birçok sorulara kesin yanıtlar alınamamıştır. Örneğin, 19. yüzyılın başlarında, bu terim nasıl yorumlanmıştı? Romantik bestecilerin kendilerinin bu ‘lakab’ konusunda davranışları ne idi? Bu ‘romantikler’, kendilerinin ya da bizim “klasik” dediğimiz müziğe karşı ne gibi bir tepki göstermişlerdi? Yine bu
‘Romantikler’, kendilerinin değerlerini düşürmeye çalışan diğer müzisyen-lerin iddia ettikleri gibi, geleneksel müzik yapım ustalığına pek bir itina mı göstermişlerdi?                  

                      ‘Romantik’ sözcüğünün, Almanya’da genellikle müziğe uygulan-
ması, hiç olmazsa, E.T.A. Hoffmann’ın, Beethoven’in 5. Senfoni’si ve Op.70 Trio’su hakkında yazdığı ünlü eleştirileri zamanındanberi mevcuttu. R o m a n t i s i z m, Schumann’ın zamanında müzikal jurnallerde yazılır ve görüşü-
lürdü. Schumann’ın editörlüğünü yaptığı “Neue Zeitschrift”in 1. cildinde,
imzasız ‘Musikalischer Romantismus‘ başlıklı bir makale, ‘Romantikler’i,
“…(Bugün) Müzikte varolan aşağı standartlar ve materyalizme isyan eden müzisyenler..” olarak tanımlamaktadır.

                      Aynı derginin sürekli yazarlarından biri olan Carl Banck, 1836’da Schubert’in “Alman Şarkıları”nın bir kritiğini yazdığı zaman, “…Bu besteci de, Beethoven gibi, Romantiğin biri!..” diye yazmıştı. 1837’de, yine aynı dergide, August Gathy, “…Beethoven’e, bu yeni, ‘Romantik’ denen müzik hareketinin kurucusu gibi bakılabilir!..” diye yazmıştı.

                       Edebiyatın ilk devrelerinde aynı tarz görüşlerin yaşandığı gibi, müzikte de, ‘Romantik’ sözcüğü, onun taraftarlarından çok, karşıt olanların
vokabülerinde mevcuttur. Schumann’ın gönüllü düşmanı ve rakip “Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung” dergisinin başyazarı G.W. Franck; Chopin, Liszt ve Hiller gibi yeni piyano müziği bestekarlarını hiçbir şekilde ‘Romantik’ olarak nitelendirmedi; aksine, “…Kaotik fikirlerle, tek yönlülükle ve kör bir gayretle yeni bir okul kurulamaz…” tezini savundu.

                       Schumann’ın kendisi, ‘Romantik’ sözcüğünden bir az yorgun düşmüştü. 1837’de şöyle yazıyordu: “…Samimiyetle, ben, ‘Romantik’ sözcüğünden rahatsızlık duyuyorum. Bu kelimeyi hayatımda, belki on kez’ den fazla söylemedim…”

                       Schumann’ın, o devirde gelişen müzik ve bestekarlar için, o
terimi kullanmakta çekimser olmasının birkaç nedeni vardır. İlk kez, o devirde ‘romantik’ sözcüğü hakaretamiz bir anlam taşıyordu. Schumann, 1842’de, rakip gazeteye şu yanıtı vermişti: “…Eminim, şaircesine hissset-meyenler herşeyleri birbirine karıştırıyorlar ve anlamadıkları şeylere ‘romantik’ diyorlar…” Yine Schumann’a göre bu söz, daha sonraları başkalarına ters gelen müzik ve onların bestecilerine verilen isim idi.

                       1855’te, rakip “Allgemeine musicalische Zeitung”da şu yazı çıktı:
“…’Romantik’ denen fantastik okulun şimdi bir kızkardeşi var: İtalyan gazeteler şimdi Rossini’nin okulunu, Klasiğe ya da Eski-İtalyan Stiline karşıt, ‘Romantik’ olarak nitelendiriyorlar…”  Schumann’ın Rossini hakkındaki notu çok düşük idi. Böyle bir açıklamadan sonra onunla aynı ekole ait olmayı pek kabul edemezdi.

                       Böylece, ‘romantik’ sözcüğünün tartışma götürür farklı yorum-
larına karşın, Schumann kendi müzik dergisinde, “…Bazen ‘Romantikler’ diye tanımlanan bu gençlerin yakından tanınmaları ve değerlendirilmeleri…” temennisinde bulundu. 

                       Özet olarak, Schumann, ‘Romantikler’i, kelimesi kelimesine edebi bir sözcük olarak kullanmaktan çekindi, fakat bir hakem gözüyle, zamanının müziğini ve onun temsilcilerini, kendi değer yargıları içinde bir sembol olarak tanımak ve tanıttırmak istedi. Gariptir ki, 1830’larda ve 1840’ların ilk yıllarında bu gruba giren tüm besteciler, yani Schumann, Chopin, Berlioz, Stephen Hiller, Mendelssohn, Ferdinand Hiller, William Sterndale Bennett, Adolf Henelt ve daha az tanınmış Ludwig Schunke, Norbert Burgmüller, hep piyanist idiler.

                       Schumann’ın, taraftar ya da hasımlarının bu gelişimi, şu veya bu şekilde tartışmaları yanında, bir besteden beklediği müzik niteliğinin kriteryumları şunlardı: 19. yüzyıl estetiğinin bilinen ısrarları, yani: orijinalite, kişisel bir ifade tarzı, yahut Schumann’ın kendi deyimiyle ‘fantazi’ ve ‘poetik’ ögeler. Bu niteliklerin varlıklarını içeren bir kompozisyonu ya da ‘romantik’ten daha farklı bir isimlendirme doğru olamazdı. Schumann’a göre, Beethoven’in son ‘Kuartet’leri, “…yeni, poetik bir devrenin başlangıç işaretleri…” idi. Ona göre ‘Romantikler’, müziğin, geleneksel olarak yerleşmiş nitelikleri, örneğin Bach, Beethoven ve Schubert’in yapıtlarını -hatta sınırları biraz aşmış Mozart’ı da kapsayarak-, zamanın getirdiği bir takım yeniliklerle pekiştirerek, ileriye yönelik bir sanat hareketi olarak sergilenmişlerdi.

                       “the Traumerei”, benim müzikte hissettiğim en dokunaklı ve romantik şaheserlerden biridir. Ya sizlerinki?

                                                                                                                      İ.E. 

     
 

                  

Tehlikeye Maruz Çocuklar (Agatha H. Bowley)

                                              TEHLİKEYE MARUZ ÇOCUKLAR
                                                            (Children at Risk)
                        -Bugünün Dünyasında Çocukların Temel Gereksinimleri-

                                                                         by:
                                                       Agatha H. BOWLEY

                                               İngilizce aslından çeviren:
                                                Prof.Dr. İsmail ERSEVİM

                                                                     Ö N S Ö Z

          Dr. Bowley bu kitabı, onun, çocuklar, ebeveynler ve okullarla süregelen uzun ve derin yaşantıları sonucu yazdı. Eser, geniş bir alanı kapsıyor ve çocukların gereksininim ve bakımları konularında geniş bir tablo sergiliyor. Herhangi bir okuyucu, özellikle bir ebeveyn, bu kitabın içinde düşünceleri besleyen bol bir materyal bulacaktır. Kendilerini sosyal hizmetlere, gençlerle çalışmaya ya da eğitime vermiş kimseler ise; onda, yakından bildikleri birçok durumları tanımlayacaklar ve Dr. Bowley’nin çalışmalarından yararlanarak kendilerininkileri pekiştirme erdemini göstereceklerdir.

                                                                                               Lincoln Bişob’u Simon
                                                                                               Lincoln, İngiltere

          İÇİNDEKİLER :

1.   Çocukların Temel Gereksinimleri;

2.   A i l e H a y a t ı :
     . Ebeveynlerin gerektiği kadar olgun olmamaları;
     . Ebeveynlerin süreksizliği, sebatsızlığı
     . Yeteneksiz ebeveyn;
     . Aile hayatında “evlilik” stresi;
     . Evsizlik;
     . Dövülen-Tacize uğrayan çocuklar.

3.   Bakımsız ve İstenmeyen çocuklar;

4.   O l u m l u  ve  K o r u y u c u ölçüler:
  
     “Yuva”lar ve “Yuva Oyun Grupları”,
     “Kilise Okulları” (Pazar’ları – 10 yaşın altında çocuklar için)
      Okul”lar ve “Organize Kulüpler”: Katkıları;
     “Macera Oyun Sahaları” ve “Oyun Merkezleri”;
     “Tatil Kulüpleri” – “Tiyatro çalışmaları” (11 yaşın altındakiler için.)

                                                                            *

                   1.         ÇOCUKLARIN GENEL GEREKSİNİMLERİ

                    Bizlerin bugünlerde hoşgörülü bir toplumda yaşadığımız ve böyle bir toplumun yaşam tarzının içinde gizlenen tehlikelerin sürekli ve ivedilikli olduklarından sıklıkla bahsedilir.

                    Buna değgin, 1964’de Becker tarafından yapılan araştırmalar, eğer ebeveyn hem ‘sıcak’ ve hem de ‘hoşgörülü’ ise -ki bu ideal bir ebeveynliğe en yakın bir düzeydir-, onların çocuklarının da iyi “iletişim” kurabildiklerini, ‘sosyal’ ve ‘özgür’ olduılarını ortaya çıkarmıştır. Ek olarak, bu tür çocuklar “duygusal” bakımdan sağlıklı ve “agresyon” yönünden daha olumlu ve yapıcı oluyorlar. Çocuklarda; onların büyümelerine gösterilen ö z g ü r l ü k , zihinlerine ‘inisiyatif’ ve ‘özerklik’ verebilecek h o ş g ö r ü , maalesef, ruh sağlığı için otomatik bir lisans olamıyor. Van der SPUY, bu öge’nin “sevgi” ve “kabul edilme” nitelikleriyle beraber olmasını koşulluyor.

                    Bir çocuk, ilk kez, ebeveynlerinden, özgün bir sevginin verdiği g ü v e n c e  hissini bekler. S e v g i, ne bir çocuğa sahip olmaktır ve ne de, onu, gereğinden fazla kontrol etmek veya pohpohlamaktır. Çocuk, kıvançla istenmiş ve planlanmış bir sevgi ilişkisinin ürünüdür. Eğer öyle ise ve kendinin bireyliği ve gelişen kişiliği ebevynler tarafından tanımlanırsa, bu, geleceğin dengeli ve mutlu ergininin en güvenceli temelini kurar.

                    Çoğu zaman, “sağlıklı bir çocuk yetiştirme”, çocuğu bir köşeye kendi haline bırakıp, onu kısa sürelerle kontrol etme ve gereksinimlerini gidermekten ibaret olarak düşünülür. Ek olarak, ‘mantıki yasaklar’ ve Susan ISAACS’ın da bir kez dediği gibi, ‘hafif kontroller’ de söylenebilir. Bir çocuğun etrafında, kendisinin “yaratıcılık” hislerini ve patlamalarını, bilimsel sözcüğü ile sağlıklı bir insanın zorunlu bir öge’si olan a g r e s y o n’u kontrol edecek ergin bir kişiye gereksinim vardır. Eğer çocuk ile ebeveynleri arasında iyi ilişkiler varsa, çocuk, onların ‘hafif’ kontrollerini, onaylamadıkları şeyleri ve hatta pek gençken, fiziksel olarak hareketsiz bir hale getirilmelerini rahatlıkla kabul eder.          

                    Çocuk bu k o n t r o l l e r i, sevildiğinin bir kanıtı olarak kaydeder ve ebeveynlerine karşı olan sevgi ve güvencesini arttırır. Eğer bir yakınlık ya da sıcaklık yoksa ve yerine düşmanca hisler ve anne tarafından “itilme” duygusu var ise, o takdirde, ebeveynler tarafından uygulanacak herhangi bir cezalandırma, özellikle ‘fiziksel’ olanları, çocukta ve ebeveynde  ş i d d e t hislerini doğurur ve bu hisler, her iki tarafın da davranışına yansır. Eğer çocuk yetiştirmede aşırı ölçüler kullanılırsa, ilerde bu çocuklar, en azından, sıkıntılı ve güvencesiz erginler olarak yetiştirilebilecekleri gibi, ayakları üzerinde direnebilenler, i s y a n k a r kişiler olacaklardır.

                    A g r e s y o n, bildiğimiz gibi, gerek hayvan ve gerekse insan dünyasının, “düş kırıklıkları”na en doğal br yanıtıdır. HAYVANLAR, kendi yaşam alanlarını ve eş’lerini, yavrularını korumak için kendilerini savunurlar. Köpekler, korumakla görevli oldukları yere bir yabancı girdiğinde, veya sahiplerine bir düşmanlık gösterildiğinde, yahut da başka bir hayvan onun yiyeceklerini çalma girişiminde bulunursa, saldırırlar. Kuvvetli  e g o   d ü r t ü l e r i ile yönlenmiş çocuklar, aç oldukları zaman, bekledikleri besin gelmezse, başladıkları bir oyun veya faaliyetten yasaklanırlarsa, şurada burada istedikleri yapılmazsa, kızgınlık gösterirler. Eğer kısıntılar gereğinden fazla ve çocuğun kazanç ve mutluluğu çok az ise, onun gösterebileceği agresyon, en az on katına çıkar.

                   Bu nedenle, karnının açlığını doyurmak ya da ona haz verebilecek faaliyetler ve şeylerle uğraşmak arzusunda olan bir çocuğun o arzularını mümkün olabileceği derecede yerine getirmeye çalışmalıyız. Uygun olmayan veya tehlikeli sayılabilecek istekler, uygun ya da tehlikesiz nesnelerle değiştirilmeli; örneğin ‘emmek’ için kurşunkalem yerine, oyuncak piyano verilmelidir. Erkek çocuk, genellikle arzusunu göstermek ve doğal yeteneğini kanıtlamak için, diğer küçük çocuklarla pür neşe silah ve benzeri oyuncaklarla savaşa girer. Eğer bu -hipotetik- çocuğun ebevynleri otoriter ve cezalandırıcı cinsten iseler, çocuk çok daha hırs ve sertlikle bu oyunlara katılır (2).(Watson,1934).

                   A n t r o p o l o j i k çalışmalar, E s k i m o’ larda olduğu gibi, çocuklarına fiziksel ceza vermeyen kültürlerde hiç “savaş” oluşmadığını ortaya çıkarmıştır. Bunun tersi de doğrudur. Bildiğimiz üzere, “savaş”ların nedenlerinin çok karmaşık bir konu olmasına karşın, hiç olmazsa, “sertlik sertliği geliştirir,” sözü burada çok olumlu gibi gözükür bizlere. Eğer a i l e’de, özellikle, annenin çocuklar arasındaki seçeneği ya da yetersizliği nedeniyle, şiddetli bir “kardeşler-arası çatışması”  (sibling rivalry) var ise, bu çocukların aile dışındaki sosyal hayatlarındaki ilişkileri, özellikle “sertlik”i yönetebilmeleri ve “rekabet-yarışma”yı kabullenebilmeleri de çok güç olacaktır.

                   Normalde, geleneksel “iyi” bir evde, çocuğa, faaliyetler ve uygarlık için gerekli şans veriliyor ve bunlar anne’yi mutlu ediyorsa, yukarıda bahsedilen agresif dürtülerin şiddeti zamanla azalır, daha doğrusu, daha iyi k o n t r o l edilir. Dolayısıyla da, sosyal açıdan, daha kolaylıkla kabul edilebilecek faaliyet, eylem ve sonuçlara yönelirler. Fiziksel yiğitlik, yarışımcı oyunlar, başarılı kazançlar, maceracı oyun alanları; dağa tırmanma, birçok öge’lerle savaşma, marangozluk yapma, lastikten küçük çalışma odası veya benzeri şeyleri kurma, hep agresyon koruyucu sübaplardır. Aksi takdirde, söz düelloları ve kızgın sözcüklere dayanan inatçılık, yavaş yavaş yumruk yumruğa savaş çözüm yollarına yerini bırakır. Sevildiğini hisseden, kendisine güvencesi olan ve sevgi sembolleriyle iyi bağlantıları olan çocuk, kendini kanıtlamak için topluma hücum etmek gereksinimini hissetmez.

                   Bu tüm  a g r e s y o n <şiddet> konusu, içinde yaşamakta olduğumuz ve son derece zorlu, yırtıcı bir ortam olan dünyamızda son derece önemli bir konudur. Sokaklarda “insanlara saldırma”, uçak ya da diğer araçlarla “insan kaçırma”, stratejik olarak yerleştşrşlmiş bombalarla “masum sivil halkı öldürme”, zamanımızın felaket yansıtan nitelikleri haline geldi.

                   Bizler, FREUD’a ve onun izleyicilerine, a g r e s y o n  hususunda öğrettiklerinden ötürü teşekkür borçluyuz. O sayede bizler, genç çocuklardaki agresif dürtülerin varoluşlarının “normal” olduğunu, ve o dürtülerin ‘uygun’ yollarla ifade edilmek üzere ortaya çıkarılmalarının gerektiğini biliyoruz. Aynı şekilde, o çok değerli erken çocukluk yıllarında, “ileri derecede sınırlandırma”nın ve baskı yapmanın zararlarını dabiliyoruz.

                   Bizler; uslamlı, faydalı ve uygun k o n t r o l yeteneğinin de büyük önemini kavramalıyız. Kuvvetli bir öğretmen, o “kudret”in, “duygular”la birlikte sunulması koşuluyla, çocuk tarafından, zayıf bir öğretmenden daha fazla yeğlenir. O bomba fırlatanların, “hay jak”çıların ve soyguncuların, mutsuz ve oriyantasyonlarını kaybetmiş çocuklardan hemen hiç farklı olmadıklarını düşünmeye bir cesaret eder misiniz?

                   Bu “b ü y ü k   s u ç   i ş l e y e n   ç o c u k l a r”,  ‘ergin’  durumuna henüz erişememişlerdir. Onların doğal agresyonları ne sosyal bakımdan kabul edilebilecek çıkış yolları ve ne de makul, saygın kontroller bulamamışlardır. Onlar, materyalistik şeylerin eksikliğinden değil, ve fakat harcanan emeğe, diğer emellerin eksikliğinden “d ü ş k ı r ı k l ı ğ ı”na uğramışlardır. Yine onlar, yaşamın maddesel standart’ları ve değerlerinin ötesinde, gerçek standart’lar, prensip ve idealleri hiçbir zaman öğrenmemişlerdir. Bunların yanında, kendilerinin gerçek potansiyellerini “realize” edemedikleri gibi, “kalıcı ilişkiler” kurmayı da becerememişlerdir. D i n i   g e l e n e k ve inançları -eğer varsa- esnek olmayan, insan dışı veya kendini beğenmişlik niteliklerini taşıyabilir. Onların “düşkırıklığı” kendi yetersizliklerine ve “şiddet gösterileri” de modern toplumun stres’ine karşı gösterdikleri biricik yanıttır.

                   Bizler, yaşadığımız toplumun ve ç o c u k y e t i ş t i r m e k’te ve e ğ i t i m yöntemlerinin yeniden bir değerlendirilmesini yapmak zorundayız. A i l e  hayatımızın da, eleştirici bir araştırmaya tabi tutulması da zorunlu bir gereksinim olarak karşımıza dikilmektedir.

References:
1) BECKER, W.C. (1964): “Consequences of different kinds of parental discipline” ; Review of Child Development Research, Vol.1; New York Ed. M.L.O.L.W. Hoffman, Russell Sage Foundation.
2) WATSON, C. (1934-5) : “A Comparison of the effects of lax versus strict home training” , Journal of Social Psychology, pp.:102-105.

                                                                               *

                   Bugüne dek, “fiziksel” sağlık konusunda büyük adımlar atıldı; doğum öncesi ve sonrası bakım, büyük ilerlemeler gösterdi ve tıbbi tedavi, genç çocuklarda olası çok tehlikeli ve öldürücü nitelikteki hastalıkları silip süpürdü. Ç o c u k   Ö l ü m ü  (Infant mortality) ve  a n n e   ö l ü m ü (maternal mortality) oranları (Lütfen aşağıdaki A tablosuna bakınız!) ileri derecede azaldı. Çocuklar, genellikle yiyecek fiatlarının daha pahalı olmasına karşın, daha iyi beslenmektedirler ve evvelden ‘lüks’ sayılan maddeler, şimdi herkezce temin edilebilmektedir. Gerçekten, okulların Sağlık Memurları, Rickets’lerden ziyade, çok tatlı yeme nedeniyle dişlere yapılan zararları rapor etmektedirler.

                  Tabiatıyla, yaşamın materyalistik standartlarında çok büyük bir gelişme kaydedildi. İngiltere’de nüfus artımının, ileri derecede oturulacak ve eksikliğne, hipotek faiz oranlarının yükselmesine, fiyatların ve kiraların artmalarına neden olmasına karşın, sağlık ve yaşama uyumsuz evlerin sayısı çok azaldı. İktidara gelen her hükumet, ev standart’larını daha çağdaş bir düzeye getirmek için çabalarda bulundu. Santral ısıtma, çamaşır yıkama ve kurutma makinaları, “freezer” takımları, televizyon ve arabalar, eskiden olduğu gibi daha yüksek sosyo-ekonomik klasın, yani tekniker ya da meslek sahibi bireylerin ayrıcalığı olmayıp, herkese maledildi.

                   1974 yılının Christmas hediyelerini tranzistörler, elektrik piyanolar ve teyp-rekorder’lar, gitar’lar, ve Üç-spid’li bisiklet’ler içerdi. Tatilleri Yunanistan’da, İtaly’da, Fransa’da, Belçika’da veya diğer Avrupa ülkelerinde geçirmek, ya da ailece, öteki kıt’alarda ‘güneşi aramak’, bir adet haline geldi. Çocuklar, fiyatların yüksekliğine karşın, daha iyi giysiler ve ayakkabılar kullandılar. Genellikle, her iki ebeveyn, aile bütçesini artırmak amacıyla çalışmaya koyulup; anne, çocuk yuvada ya da okulda iken yarı-zamanlı, baba ise, sık olarak, uzatmalı (over-time) zamanlı çalışmak zorunda kaldı.

                   Öyleyse, bugün, aile hayatının eksiği nedir?  Çocuklar, çok mükemmel eğitim şansına sahiptirler, çoğunluğu iyi evlerde yaşamakta, iyi giysiler giymekte, iyi besin almakta ve en çağdaş oyun materyali ile oynayıp tatil gezilerine çıkmaktadır. Öyleyse niye bu kadar şiddet (aggression) ve suça yönelme var? -İlerki sayfalardaki C tablosuna bakın!)

                   Niye bu denli sık psiko-somatik rahatsızlıklar, okul korkuları (school phobia), yatak ıslatma (enuresis), sinir tik’leri (tics), okul ve ev uyumsuzlukları, öğrenme güçlükleri ve benzeri? Niye, bakıma gereksinimi olan çocukların yüzdesi hala yüksek? Niye “dövülmüş bebekler” (battered babies) gitgide artaraktan sahneye çıkıyor? Niye evlilik stres’i, niye istikrarsız ev hayatı ve yüksek boşanma oranı günümüzün rutin nitelikleri arasında yer alıyor?

                   Gelecek sayfalarımızda, günümüzde, çocuğun en taban gereksinimlerinin ne olduklarını, ve niye bunların tümüyle karşılanamadığını tartışacağız. Gayemiz, gelecek nesillerin şiddet, uyumsuzluk ve mutsuzluk problemlerine ne kadar küçük olursa olsun bir katkıda bulunmak; yeni değerler seçmek ve,Ven der Spuy’un dediği gibi: “Eski zamanların ahlaki değerlerini yeniden keşfetmek!” (Van der Spuy, 1972, ‘Çocuk Gelişimi ve Çevre'; Grahamston, Güney Afrikada, ‘Sanat ve İlim Haftası’ndan alınmış bildiri.)

                   Bu fikirlerim, bir koltukta hayallenmiş düşüncelerin ürünü değil ve fakat kırk yılın üstü bir süreyle, problem aile ve çocuklarla çalışmanın; hastane, klinik, okul ve merkezlerden elde ettiğim yaşantıların doğal bir meyvesidir.

                                Tablo  A :      Çocuk ve Anne Ölüm Oranları

1962  Bebek ölüm oranı , 1000 sağ doğmuş çocukta :   21.7
1972 Bebek ölüm oranı ,  1000 sağ doğmuş çocukta :   17.2
(İngiltere ve Wales)

1952 Anne ölüm oranı,    1000 sağ ve ölü doğumda :       0.7
1962 Anne ölüm oranı,     1000 sağ ve ölü doğumda :      0.4
1971 Anne ölüm oranı,     1000 sağ ve ölü doğumda :      0.2

                                                                                *

                                                 2.            A İ L E    H A Y A T I

I.    O l g u n   O l m a y a n   V e l i l e r :

                    TANNER’in 1961’de ilk kez yayınladığı gibi, fiziksel gelişme oranında, insanda çok farklı biyolojik değişmeler olduğu hususunda elimizde yeterli kanıt var. Bugün daha iyi beslenme koşulları ve standartları nedeniyle, kız ve erkek çocukların, eskiye nazaran daha erken erginliğe eriştiği bilinen bir gerçektir. Kızlar, erkeklerden daha er olgunlaşırlar. Genç evlilikleri şimdi daha yaygındır ve birçok üniversite öğrencileri mezuniyetlerinden evvel evleniyorlar ki, bunlar, aşağıda sergileyeceğimiz sorunlara neden oluyorlar.

                   Çocuk Danışma Klinikleri’nde, fizyolojik bakımdan gelişmelerine karşın, duygusal ve sosyal alanlarda olgunlaşmamış birçok veliler görmekteyiz. Bu çiftler, hem insanlararası ilişkilerde ve hem de pratik hususlarda deneyimsizdirler. Onlar hala büyümekteler; hayattan cinsellikten ve yaşamdan zevk almaktalar ve fakat ne ebeveynliğin fedakarlık niteliği ve ne de büyük sorumluluklar için hazır değildirler.

                   Bu gençlerin çoğu, hiöç olmazsa eğitimlerinin sonuna kadar çocuk sahibi olmamayı, bir iş bulup kısmi dahi olsa bir az ekonomik güvence sahibi olmayı yeğliyorlar. Diğerleri, ister dikkatsizlik veya düşünememezlik nedenleriyle olsun, çocuk yapmaktalar ve bu yeni gelen, sanki onların kişisel özgürlüklerini kenetleyen bir engel olarak görülmektedir. Çocuklar onlar için bir bağ, bir yük, hatta can sıkıcı bir nesnedir. Daha annece hissedebilen kızların bebeğe sevgiyle bakmalarına karşın, onu kendine öz bir kişiden ziyade, kendi varlıklarının bir uzantısı olarak algılamaktadırlar. Yine bu anneler, bebeği daha başından, kendi kalıplarına yoğurmak isterler ve fakat onun kendi iradesinin varlığının farkına varınca, şaşarlar. Diğerleri, “laissez faire!” (bırakınız yapsın!) politikasını izleyerek, arada bir bebekle dış ülkelere bir geziye çıkarak veya ne zaman mümkünse, akraba ya da arkadaşlarına teslim ederek, evlenmeden önceki stil’deki yaşamlarına devam ederler.

                   Bu tür ailelerin erkeklerine gelince, babalar, çoğu zaman, bebeğe gösterilen ilgi ve sevgiyi kıskanarak genç hanımlarından hala açıkça sergilenebilecek sevgi ve korumalı bir yaşam beklerler. Bu tip erkekler, çalışma hayatına uyumda da güçlük gösterebilirler ve sık sık iş değiştirme nedeniyle, aile, ekonomik güçlüklere maruz kalabilir. Genç çiftlerin, beraber yaşamın bu tür sorunları ve bağımlı bir bebekle yaşamak hususunda hiçbir yaşantıları yoktur. Bazıları çabuk öğrenirler ve ek olarak, ailelerinden yardım görebilirler. Toplumun değişen koşulları altında, bu ailevi yardımlar, eskiden olduğu kadar devamlı olamamaktadır ve bu durumda kalmış çiftler, nefret hissini duymaktadırlar.

                   Tabiatıyla, yirmi yaşın altında, çarçabuk aile kurabilecek çiftler de vardır. Erkek, mutlulukla bir işe zaten yerleşmiştir ve kadın, meraklı bir ev hanımıdır. Bazıları, ailelerinden ‘kabul edilebilir’ miktarda yardım görebilirler, hatta bir süre için onlarla beraber yaşayabilirler. Bu sonuncu, genellikle, çok hoş bir durum değildir. Mamafih, mutlu bir beraberlikte, genç çocuklar, anneleri daha yirmilerindeyken çalışma hayatına düşmelerine karşın, evde kendilerine bakacak “daimi bir anne” bulurlar.

                   Fakat birçok evlilikler o kadar düzenli gitmez. Anne, çocuklarının devamlı isteklerinden, ısrarlarından tedirgin ve sabırsız olabilir ve onları ihmale kadar gidebilir. Bu tür kadınlar, öğüt de dinlemedikleri gibi, seçtikleri çalışmaya devam ederek hayattan zevk almaya savaşırlar. Bu tür ailelerin çocukları, “kısmi annelik” yaşadıklarından, genellikle mutlu olmazlar. Çoğu, ilk fırsatta günlük ‘yuva’lara itildiği gibi, rastgele bebek bakıcılarının ellerine bırakılırlar. Böylece, bu tür yaşamda, gerek bebek ve gerekse annesi, hayatın ilk gelişim yıllarında beraberce yaşanılması gereken heyecanlı birliği paylaşmamış olurlar. Çocuk iyi bir ‘annelik’ bakımı alsa bile, duygusal ve sosyal gelişimi engellenebilir, birçok kesintilere uğrayabilir ve tümüyle gelişmeyebilir.

                   Böyle “çok anneli” bir çocuk, BOWLBY’nin de araştırmalarında çok net olarak kanıtladığı gibi, ilerde, silik bir kişiliğe ve tüm oturmamış kişilik ilişkilerine sahip olabilir. Bu tür çocuklar, genellikle, ‘o herkese gider’ terimi ile adlandırılırlar, zira hiçbir kimse ile kuvvetli bir bağ kuramazlar. Öyle bir çocuk, yine Bowlby’nin terimiyle, “hissiz karakterler” grubuna dahil olabilir.

                   Olgunlaşmamış çiftlerin erken evlenmelerinin başka bir yönü daha vardır: evlilik ilişkilerinin değişime eyilimi. Evlilik bağına neden olmuş -çoğu zaman geçici- duygular değişebilir. Çiftlerden herhangi biri bu ilişkinin dışına giderek yeni arkadaşlıklara ve ilişkilere yönelebilirler. Bundan sonrası, herkes tarafından pek çok bilinen bir patern izler: tartışmalar, birbirini suçlamalar, kavgalar, ayrılma, terketme, ve bazen boşanma. Sonunda da, kısmen batmış vapurun çocukları ortaya çıkar. Ondan sonra da, bu çocukların bakım ve korunmaları, velayetleri, bazen Devlet korunmasına alınmaları gibi sorunlar, bu ülkenin (İngiltere Birleşik Devletleri) hemen tüm Çocuk Rehberlik Kliniklerinin günlük gözlemleri içindedir. Genellikle bu çocuklara yardım zordur; okulda problem yarattıkları gibi isyankar, kavgacı ve okul kaçağı kimseler olarak tanımlanırlar.

  II.       V e l i l e r i n   S ü r e k s i z l i ğ iS e b a t s ı z l ı ğ ı

                 Ev hayatları ve yatişme biçimleri düzenli ve okul hayatları mutlu ve soyurucu olan çocuklar, büyüyünce; hayat, iş ya da evliliğin beklenti ve baskılarına oldukça iyi uyum sağlarlar. Bu tür gençler, hayatın açağı ve yukarı akımlarına, stres yaratan olaylarına yeterli derecede başarılı reaksiyon verirler. Bu çocukların olası kendilerinin seven ve hemen her zaman desteklenen velileri vardı; kendilerinin de, gerek ruhsal ve gerekse fiziksel hayatları düzenliydi. Yani, gen’ler, ve hayat koşulları, onların lehine çalışmış bir durumdaydı.

                 Diğer bazıları için ise durum farklı olabilir: daha önceki yıllardanberi gördükleri ilgisizlik, velilerin ayrılması ya da ölmesi, düzensiz ev hayatı, kendine pek az (öz)güvence hissinin bulunuşu, devamlı sıkıntı ve içtenlikle hissedilmiş ‘yetersizlik’. Tüm bunlar, pek uygun olmayan çevre koşullarına bağlım olabilir. Bazılarında ise, çocuk, hayatının başındanberi uygunsuz herediter (ırsi) faktörlerin etkilerine maruz kalabilirler. Yaşam-İş-Aile içi ilişkilerinin düzensizlikleri, alkol bağımlılığı, sar’a, akıl hastalıkları, otizm, beslenme bozuklukları vb. aile öyküsünün bir kısmını oluşturabilir. Gerçek hayatta da, gerek fiziksel ve gerekse ruhsal bakımlardan tamamiyle sağlam olan pek az sayıda aileler vardır. İyi bir çevre ve normal bir mutluluk, olumlu ilişkiler ve başarı hissi ile büyüyen bir kimse, beklenmedik bir stres’le yüzyüze gelinceye dek, dıştan, normal görünen bir durum sergileyebilir. Parçalanma, ondan sonra başlar. Bu çözüşüm-dağılma, özellikle ergenlik çağında; sınav, iş bulma ya da değiştirme veya evlilik gibi yüksek düzeydeki sorumluluk direnen surumlarda ortaya çıkar.

                 Düzensiz, güvenilmez ve ne yapacakları tahmin edilemeyen veli-lerden gelen çocuklar, büyüdükçe kendilerine değişmez, devamlı ve güvenilir bir bakım ve sevgi verebilecek kişileri aramaya devam ederler. Benim yaşantılarıma göre, çocuklar genellikle zorluklara çok dayanabilir ve tolerans gösterebilirler. Örneğin onlar babalarının güvenilemez ve özellikle içince çılgın bir insan olabileceğini değerlendirirler ve ‘kaçınma, engelleme’  (avoidance) savunmama mekanizmasını kullanarak o anda onunla iletişim kurmaya çalışmazlar. Annelerinin yorgunluktan bitkin olduğunu görerek onu hastanede bir iki gün geçirmeye gereksinimi olduğunu şikayet etmeksizin kabul edebilirler. Genellikle, kriz anında dönebilecekleri bir kaynak, örneğin bir veli, hala veya büyük hala hisseder ve bilirler. Mamafih çok genç yaşta ardarda birçok krizlere maruz kalmaya, bir çocuk pek dayanamaz.

                  Bunlardan bahsederken, yakın zamanlarda görmüş olduğum bir çocuk aklıma geldi.
                  D., 13 yaşında bir kızcağız. Orta Okula devam ediyor. Kendisi mutsuz ve derslerinde başarılı değil. Arkadaşlarının, annesi hakkında söyledikleri pek de zarif olmayan sözlerden tedirgin olmakta. Annesi, tekrarlayan depresyonlar nedeniyle hastahanelere girip çıkmış bir kadın. Evliliği de, bir süre sürüncemede gittikten sonra nihayet yıkılmış ve kocası, kendine daha uygun bir eş bulmuş. D., her iki ebeveyn arasında kalmıştı; bir yandan babası için çok iyi bir anlayış gösterirken, annesi için de sempati ile dolu, hoşgörülü hisler besliyordu. Benimle, annesinin çeşitli sinir krizleri hakkında sanki ergin bir kimse gibi konuşurdu. Gerçekte, kendisi evdeki sorunlardan sanki kendisi sorumlu imiş gibi hissediyordu. Dorothy, normal yetenekli, fakat başarısız bir öğrenci idi. Bu küçük kız için tek çözüm, onu, öyle yüksek gerilimli bir evden alıp, çocukluğunu daha normal, destekleyici (supportive) ve uyarıcı bir ortama yerleştirmekti.

                  Nihayet, gerçekten iyi, kırsal bir yatılı okul bulunmuştu. D. evde rahatlayacağı gibi, kız, erkek  ve erginlerle mutluluk verecek ilişkiler kurma potansiyelini de kullanabilecekti. Mamafih tatiller ve bayramlar, ona karşı içten bir ilgi göstermiş olan iki veli arasında, paylaşma nedeniyle, problem olmaya devam etti. Bu arada annesi yeniden evlendi. Tüm bu olumlu olaylara karşın, D. hala ebeveynlerine güvenmiyor, kendi inisiyatifi ve dışardan gelecek yardımlara gereksinim göstermeye devam edecek gibi geliyor. Kendisi, ufak tefek, çok sevimli bir kızcağız. Bizler şimdilik, onun ilerde tutacağı iş ve kuracağı yuva hususlarında çok güçlük çekmeyeceğini ümit etmekle yetineceğiz.

                  J., 13 yaşında bir oğlan çocuğu. Zeki bir aileden geliyor. Babası iş dünyasındaydı ve motor yarışları onun en düşkün olduğu hobi’lerden biri idi. J. çok küçükken babası kalp hastalığından öldü. Bunu izleyen, annesi de çok ciddi bir sinir krizi ve kalp rahatsızlığı geçirerek hastahanelerde vebakım evlerinde yaşamını yitirdi. Bu nedenlerle J., kendinden sekiz yaş büyük olan abisi ve on yaş büyük olan ablası tarafından yetiştirildi. J. şimdi yatılı bir pansiyonda; ablası, Üniversite bitirme sınavlarına hazırlanıyor. Abisi evlendi ve bir hekim olmak üzere. J.’nin kardeşlerine çok düşkün olmasına karşın, o hala, iki yıl evvel ölmüş olan annesini özlüyor ve birçok disiplin problemleri sergiliyor. Yakın geçmişte, okul arkadaşlarını ‘.. ormanda gece yarısı maceraları’na sürüklediği…’ nedeniye, idareyle başı derde girmişti. J. grubunb en yaşlısı, dolayısıyla ondan daha fazla sorumluluk bekleniyor. Kendisinin, tekrarlayan, devamlı bir “tik”i var ve onun için tedavi görmekte.

                  J.’nin büyüme potansiyeli çok büyük: kendisi iyi bir atlet; pilot olamazsa, cimnastikçi olmayı planlıyor. Bugünlerde bir ‘Tatil Spor Klübü’ne kaydolma yolunda. Bu arada, dinsel duygularını tatmin edecek bir kilise de aramakta. Aile üyelerinin hiç birisi kiliseye devam etmemişti. Eğer iyi bir eğitim ve psikolojik yardım verilebilinirse, ben bu çocuğun hayatın fırtınalarından temize çıkacağına eminim. Onun yasal koruyucusu olan ablasının da, kesin olarak, yardım ve desteğe gereksinimi var.

                                                                      *        *

  III.           Y e t e n e k s i z    v e l i    (Inadequate Parent)

                  Bu grup veli’leri, daha önce bildidiğimiz ‘olgun olmayan, tutarsız’ velilerden ayırdetmekte fayda olacağını umarım.

                 Bazı veliler, sınırlı eğitim şansına sahip olabilirler, ya da, zeka yetenekleri -doğuştan- kısıtlı olabilir; yahut da, “artrit”, “görme kaybı” gibi fiziksel yetersizliklerden ıstırap çekebilir. Bu koşullar, kendilerinin bir hata-
ları olmamalarına karşın, iyi bir veli olmalarına karşıdır. Yine bu veliler, kötü bir yönetici olabilecekleri gibi, ziyaretçiler ya da doktorlar tarafından verilen ‘öğütleri” tümüyle anlayıp uygulayamayabilirler. Çocuk gelişimi hakkındaki bilgileri de eksik olabilir. Bu nedenlerle, çocuğun ruhsal gelişimi için yeterli derecede uyarı veremedikleri gibi, onunla anlamlı bir “konuşma patern’i” ile ilişki kuramazlar; çocuğa yeterli bir oyun alanı ve oyuncaklar temin edemezler ve daracık, zole olmuş bir yerde yaşamaya devam ederler.

                 Öyle bir yaşamda, aile büyüdükçe, daha yaşlı çocuklar anneden gitgide azalan bir bakım görürler; yeni doğan bebekler annenin daha fazla zaman ve enerjisini alırlar. Sonuçta, eve bakım, zamanla daha da artan bir yük haline gelir. Annenin sağlığı zaten fena ise, durum daha da kötüleşir. Bazı babalr, küçük çocuklar için genellikle pek az sorumluluk alırlar; yaptıkları tek şey, ricayla, bazen büyük çocuklarla bir yürüyüşe çıkmak veya bahçede oynamak olabilir. Eve iyi bir bakım sağlanmasına ve sosyal yardım uzmanlarının devamlı desteklerine karşın, aile hayatı yıkılmaya yüz tutar.

                 S., öyle bir aileden geliyor. Tüm ailede altı çocuk vardı; mamafih biri “Geri Zekalılar” hastanesinde, diğeri de “Geri Zekalılar” okulunda idi. Diğer bir çocuk da, “Coeliac Disease – Çöliak diziz <Geniş kolun’un daha doğuştan genişlemesiyle nitelenen bir hastalık> rahatsızlığından ıstırap çekmekteydi. İçinde yaşadıkları ev, modern, yepyeni bir binadan bir harabeye dönmüştü. Ev eşyaları yıpranmış, kırılmış ve mutfak daima kirli idi. Çocukların
elbiseleri genellikle ucuzluk pazarlarından satın alınmış, rengarenk, fakat vücutlarına uyumsuz olup adeta sarkıyorlardı. Bahçe, köpek ve tavşanların hazinesini paylaştığı bir hurda yığını idi. Evde televizyon hiç izlenmezdi; atmosfer, sanki mutlu çingenelerin kampı gibi, haykırmalarla, gözyaşlarıyla, ve patlamalarla doluydu.

                 S.’nin hemen hemen normal bir IQ’su vardı ve hayata tüm varlık ve hızıyla katılamamıştı. Okula pek seyrek devam ederdi ve gittiğinde de hemen herkes sorunlar yaratırdı. Tabiatıyla, öğrenim düzeyi sıfıra yakındı. Beş yaşına karşın, konuşma dili yeterince gelişmemişti ve sözcükleri, yaşadığı ev halkının ortamını yansıtıyordu. Kendisi, hem duygusal ve hem de kültürel yönlerden bir şefkat arayıcısı idi ve bu haliyle o ögelerden ne denli yoksun olduğunu gösteriyordu. Bunların sonucu olarak, S., daima tatlılar ve oyuncaklar istiyor ve ne kadar küçük olursa olsun, kendisine verilen herşeye minnettarlığını gösteriyordu.

                 S., kendine sevgi ve bakım gösterildikten sonra gelişmeye başladı. Rengarenk resimler çizdiği gibi, daha beş buçuk yaşında iken en sevdiği oyun, yapma bebekleri emzirmek idi. Kendisi de bu emzikleri emerdi. Kişisel olarak ilgi gösterilince, okumayı ve yazmayı çarçabuk öğrenmişti; ama, 
okulda daima asık suratlı, uyum sağlayamayan bir yumurcak idi. Orada sergilediği hırçınlıklar o dereceye dek erişti ki, okul idaresi eve, artık onu orada tutamayacaklarını bildirdi. Çocuk Rehberlik Kliniği, ailesi ile temasa geçtikten sonra, onun, erkek kardeşiyle beraber, “ESN Okulu”na devam etmesi sağlandı. Orada S. çok mutlu, etken ve gelişmesine devam ediyor. Öğretmenler onun ‘anne’ye olan gereksiminin ve ilersi için iyi olan potansiyelini keşfettiler. Bundan sonra, gerek ailevi ve gerekse mali problemleri olan anne, bir sağlık ziyaretçisi ve Klinik üyeleri hariç, kapılarını tüm Sosyal Yardım Uzmanlarına kapattı. Mamafih anne, S.’ye yapılmış yardımlar için teşekkürlerini bildirdi ve ona daha sıcak davranmaya başladı.

                 P.’ de, öyle “yetersiz” bir evden gelen, ihmal edilmiş bir çocuktu. Annesi evlendiğinde pek gençti ve uzun yıllar, hasta olan annesine de bakmak zorunda kalmıştı. Büyük anne ölünce, tüm aile sarsılmıştı. P., anne-annesinin ve kendinden küçük iki kardeşinin annesinden bakım bekleme-rinden ötürü, pek annelik yaşamamıştı. Ev daima karmakarışık bir görünümdeydi ve çocuklar evde rastgele koşup har vurup harman savurmaya başlamışlardı. Disiplin sistemi de kararsız ve değişikti. Baba, çocuklara bağırırdı, anne is stres altında daha da artan bir kekemelikten ıstırap çekerdi. Baba, göçmenliye yeni kabul edilmiş, sorumsuz, güvenilmez biri olup, devamlı iş değiştirir ve zaman zaman da, kirayı ödememesi nedeniyle Polis ile arasında sorunlar oluşurdu.

                  Özel olarak, bu, umursamasızcasına mutlu bir yaşam tarzı olup, gerçek bir bakım ve displin mevcut değil idi. P., zeki ve sevimli bir çocuk olmasına karşın, okulda pek başarılı değildi. Konuşması, hiç şüphesiz annesinin konuşma güçlüğünden de etkilenmiş olup, tam gelişememişti. Yedi yaşında iken, her tür dokunmadan, okşamadan hoşlanırdı. O zamanlar, hemen birinin dizleri üzerine atlar, şekerlemeler ve bisküitler beklerdi.

                   P., özel konuşma tedavisi ve eğitim ile bir az ilerleme gösterdi. Aileye de yeterli destek sağlandı. Şimdi P., sanki mutluymuş gibi daima oynamak isteyen, şaklabanlıklar yapan ve babasının olgunlaşmamış kişiliğini yansıtan oyunbaz bir çocuğu sergiliyor. Burada sorun, tüm ailenin “büyümesine ve gelişmesine” yardım etmek ve dolayısıyla, çocuğun gereksinmelerini karşılayabilmek.

                                                                             *
                                                                                                   
                                A i l e   H a y a t ı n d a    E v l i l i k   S t r e s ‘ i

                   Bulunduğumuz zamanlarda çiftler, evlendikleri zaman birbirlerine verdikleri “sevmek, şereflendirmek, hastalığı ve sağlığı beraber paylaşmak…” sözünü unutmuşa benziyorlar. Evlilikler, pek sık olarak, kısa bir tanışma devresinden sonra yetersiz düşünme ya da uzun vadeli planlar yapılmaksızın oluşturulmaktadır. Hiç şüphe yok ki, birçok kimselerein zihnminde, “..eğer iyi gitmezse, sona erdiririz, olur biter..” düşüncesi vardır. Bu tür düşünce, evlenmenin uzun süreli bir nişanlılık devrini izlediği, geniş bir sosyal yankı uyandırdığı ve nikaha oturulduğunda hemen hemen ‘çözülemez’ olarak nitelendirildiği Viktoryan düşüncenin tam zıddıdır. Tabiatıyla o zamanlar daha, birçok mutsuz ve uyumsuz evlilik bağları mevcuttu. Örneğin erkekler kadınlarına sadık kalmamışlardı, kadınların kendi paraları yoktu ve ancak pek ender vakalarda kendi hayatlarını kendileri kazanabilirlerdi.

                   Mamafih, evlilik, toplum tarafından ‘sebatlı’ bir örgüt olarak tanımlanır ve öyle kabul edilirdi. Evlilik kontratını kırmak bir şerefsizlik sayılırdı. Aile içinde oluşan uyuşmazlıklar ve anlaşmazlıklar, çok kez üstlerinden gelinirdi ve bunlar çok uzun sürmezdi. Viktoryan çocuk, evliliğe, “sürekli” bir oluşım olarak bakar ve onu hafiften almazdı. Özellikle, kadının az sosyal seçenekleri olması ve evliliğe güvence sağlaması nedeniyle bu kuruluştan mutluluk araması daha doğaldı. Herkes, haftalık kilise alayında kendisini gerilerden izleyen fakir bir mürebbiye veya “refakatçilere sahip bir Bronté kardeş” olamaz.

                   Bugün durum çok farklıdır. Birçok kadınlar bazen evlenmeden önce ve çoğu zaman evlendikten sonra, eğer çocuklar yoksa veya çocuk bakıcıları, yuvalar mevcutsa, gerektiğinde özgürlüklerini ve mesleklerini seçmektedirler. Ebeveynlik, eski staus’unu, ve hatta zevkini diyebiliriz, kaybetmişe benziyor. Yuva kurma hem bir bilim ve hem de bir sanattır, fakat pek az kimseler ona bu gözle bakarlar. Çocuk Rehberlik Kliniklerinden gelen çocukların çoğu, yeterli annelik sürecinin yaşanmadığı evlerden gelmektedirler. Bu çocuklar, başındanberi, sebatlı olmayan bir ortamla yüz yüze bırakılmışlardır. Böyle evlilik bağları da, sonunda,  a y r ı l ı k (separa-
tion) veya  b o ş a n m a (divorce) ile sonuçlanmışlardır. İşte bir örnek.

                   Öğrenme güçlükleri gösteren sekis yaşında bir erkek çocuk, hayatının yalnızca ilk iki yılında annesi ve babası ile yaşamıştı. Annenin gözünde evliliğin devamı “imkansız” görülmüş ve, “bizler hiçbir şekilde anlaşamayız..” düşüncesiyle, her iki tarafın da rızasıyla evlilik sona erdirilmişti. Baba yeniden evlenmiş ve çocuk, hayran olduğu babasını hafta sonlarında ziyaret ederek ilişkisini devam etirmişti. Çocuğun kendisi spor’a ve yapıcı faaliyetlere çok düşkün olduğu gibi, babasıyla birlikte bu faaliyetlerden hoşlanabilecek bir yaşta olmasına karşın, maalesef yatılı bir okulda bulunmakta ve babasını seyrek görmekteydi. Tabiatıyla annesi her iki rolü doldurmaya çalışmakta ve ancak kısmen başarılı olabilmekteydi.

                   İyi yürümeyen evliliklerde, bir çocuğu, en kötü olarak etkileyecek
olay, onun her iki tarafa içten bağlılık (dependency) <ve ‘sadakat': (loyalty)>
gösterme durumunda bırakılmış olmasıdır. İşte örneğin.
                   Ben, babası gemici olan ve ona sevgi ve içtenlikle bağlı olan dokuz yaşında bir kız bilirim. Ailede birçok anlaşmazlıklar süregeliyordu: Anne, kocasını ‘güvenilmez’ ve ‘sadakatsiz’ olarak değerlendirdiğinden nihayet ondan boşanmıştı. Baba yeniden evlendi. Yarı zamanlı çalışan bir hemşire olan anneye, çocuk bakımı, sandığından daha ağır geldi; bir süre sonra intihara girişti ve uzun zaman hasta kaldı. Bereket, annesi evine yerleşti ve çocukların yetiştirilmelerinde önemli bir sorunluluk aldı. O sayede anne, hemşirelik mesleğine dönebildi. Küçük kız bana babasını çok özlediğini üzüntüyle söylerdi. Babasının da kalbinde onun için çok yumuşak ve sıcak bir yer vardı; fakat kendisi, ‘bir mektup yazar’ olmadığından birbirleriyle bağlantıyı kaybettiler. O hala, gemici olan babasından büyük bir hayranlıkla bahseder. Ailesinin eski hayatı konusunda da, sanki büyükler gibi yorumlarda bulunur: “.. O hayat, hiç de iyi değildi.. Annem ve babam hiçbir zaman uzlaşmadılar.. Ayrılık, her ikisi için de iyi oldu.. Ne yazık ki babamın ayrılışı annemi hasta etti..”

                   Bu küçük K., hakikaten çok yetenekli bir kızdı, evde annesine her yönden yardım ederdi. Kliniğe de, şehir dışından otoobüsle kendi başına, okuma ve heceleme derslerinden yardım almaya gelirdi. Onun gelişmesi çok hızlı oldu. Çok zarif bir kız olduğu gibi, el işlerinde, çizmekte ve dansta çok başarılı idi. Annesine de çok bağlı olduğu gibi, annesi de onunla gururlanırdı. K.’nın babası için de çok güzel anıları vardı ve onlardan dolayı bugünlerde ufukta beliren bir üvey babayı nasıl kabul edebileceğini düşünüp duruyordu.

                   Bu gibi hallerde, küçük bir çocuğun vermek zorunda kaldığı ödün hususunda, onun başbaşa kaldığı konfüzyon (zihin karmaşası) ve gerilimi yakından kestirmek cidden güçtür. Ebeveynler genellikle bir çocuğun hissedebileceği bu tür yaşantılara kör ve hatta duygusuzdurlar. Genç bir çocuğa ebeveynlerinin önemi, ölçülemeyecek derecede yüksektir. Çocuk-ların zihinlerinde onlar ya ideal kahramanlar ya da zalimlerdir. Onlar çok büyük bir etkenlikte bulnurlar ve sergiledikleri örnek, aynen kabul edilir. Bu idealize edilmiş kimseler, yalancı standartlar sunarlarsa, bir erdemlik eksikliği varsa, eşler birbirlerine sadık değillerse, birbirlerine duyarsız ve hatta can sıkıcı iseler, tüm bunlarda çocuğun  g ü v e n c e s i  hiç hesaba katılmamış demektir. Sonuç olarak, çocuk kimseye güven göstermez ve eğer yoluna, güvenebileceği ve sevgiyle bağlanabileceği bir ergin çıkmazsa, suçluluğa kadar yuvarlanabilirler.

                   Mamafih, benim bulgularıma göre, çocukların, insan yapısının zayıflıklarına karşı kayde değer bir hoşgörüleri vardır: onlar için hemen her zaman özür yaratırlar. Bunun bir nedeni de, hep sıkıntı içinde olmaları dolayısıyla, üzerlerine ümit bağlayabilecekleri bazı ‘iyi nesneler’ bulunduğu <daha doğrusu, “bulunması gerektiği”> gereksinimidir. Aynı şekilde, onlar çok esnek (flexible) olup eğer taban sağlık durumları ve yetenekleri iyi ise, terslikleri yüzleyebilirler ve kendilerine iyi bir hayat sağlayabilirler. Bu gençlerin çoğu, onlarla ilgilenecek erginlerden, öğretmenlerden, kulüp liderlerinden ve evleri dışındaki akrabalardan destek ve yönlendirme beklerler (Sevgi açlığı-Hunger of love. İ.E.). Bu bekleyişler, şimdilerde meyvelerini vermektedirler.

                                                                            *
                       
                                                                  E v s i z l i k  . . .

                  “B i r   e v i   o l a m  a m a ‘ çok karmaşa bir olaydır. Doğumdaki ölüm oranının düşmesi, nüfus patlaması, arazi vve bina değerlerinin artması, kiraların  yükselmesi ve özellikle GüneyDoğuda nüfus artışı, modern ev
sorunlarını doruğa çıkarmıştır. Üzerinde yaşadığımız bu ada (İngiltere), böylece aşırı bir nüfusa sahip olduğu gibi, diğer kaynaklardan, örneğin toprak, bir sıkıntı çekmektedir. Hava kirliliği, tehlikeli boyutlara erişmiştir. Hepsinin üstünde, geçim masrafı çok yüksek olup, bir ev satın almak ya da banka ipoteği veya kira faturasını ödeyebilmek, bir çok aileler için mümkün olmamaktadır.

                  Hepsinin içinde, bir tür aile özellikle zorluğa uğrar: on yedi, on sekiz yaşlarında gebe kalan kızların kurduğu aileler. Bunların karakteristiği şudur: Yaş henüz yirmi bire ermişken beş yaşın altında üç çocuk annesi olma, ve, yeterli eğitim ve deneyimi olmaması nedeniyle çok para kazanamayan bir koca. Kendi ebeveynleri yardım edemezlerse, bir genç çiftin kendi evleri olması şöyle dursun, apartman kirasını bile vermekte güçlük çekerler. Sonunda, ya evden kovulurlar, ya da ebeveynlerinin evlerine sığınırlar, veya en sonunda Sosyal Yardım Servisi’nden geçici bir barınak sağlarlar. Bu, açıkça, evlilik hayatına çok umutsuz bir başlayıştır ve zamanla evde gerilim arttmaya başlar. Kendi deneyimleri olmadığından, bu genç anneler bebek-lerine bakımı veremezler. Biraz daha ilerlemiş yaştaki çocuklar, ‘annelik’ten yoksun olup, çoğu zaman kendi kendilerine bırakılmışlardır; dolayısıyla pek az eğitim ve uyarı alırlar. Bu tür çocuklar, ailelerince, onlara yük olmakta-   dırlar. Günlük bakımın sıkıntıları; yeni doğmuş bir bebeği besleme, ev temizleme, yemek, bulaşık vb. zaten yetersiz olan genç anne üzerinde çok ağır yüklerdir. Birçokları, kazanamayacakları bir çekişme içinde harap olup sağlıklarını kaybederler. Bazen, büyükannelerin ve ziyaretçi sağlık görevli-lerinin, yuva ve bakım evlerinin birleşik uğraşıları bile böyle bir aile kötü krizleri atlatabilir, fakat borçlar birikince aile içinde gerilim yükselir ve bazı çiftler ayrılmak zorunda kalırlar.

                  Çiftler ayrılınca, genellikle koca, karısını ve aile sorumluluklarını terkeder. Kadın, -kararsızlıkla- ailesine döner ve çocuklarını da beraberinde alır. Mamafih bu beraberlik çok sürmez ve çocuklar Devlet bakımına alınırlar. Anne de kendine bir oda bularak, “bebek bakımı- baby sitting”  işini kabul eder. Bu, bir çocuk için, en kötü bir başlangıç olasılığıdır. Daha erken yaşlardan, o kendini ‘istenilmemiş’ hisseder; türlü nedenlerle büyükanneden bakım evlerine, yatılı okullara yer değiştirir gider. Bu arada anneyle kısmi bir temas vardır, baba ise meydanlarda yoktur. Tüm bunlar, “yetersiz kişilikler”in gelişimine yol açar.

                  Çocuklarıyla birlikte ebeveynlerinin evine dönmek, hemen herkeste ileri derecede gerilim yaratan bir olaydır. Kadın, kendisi hakkında ‘başarısız’ hisseder ve kocası aleyhine açıkça yakınır. Herkes için yeterli ‘oda’ yoktur, ve, ailenin öğünmesi gereken çocuklar, böylelikle bir ‘engel’ ve ‘problem yaratan’ nesneler durumuna konulmuş olurlar. Sosyal Hizmetler Bölümü, bu tür ailelerin gereksinimlerini gidermek için çok çaba gösterirler. İlk kez, evler tanmirle yeniden düzene konarak, çocuk, hatta anne ve baba için küçük özel daireler oluşturulur. Tabiatıyla, binadan sorumlu bir yönetici, sağlık ziyaretçileri ve gerekli sayıda sosyal yardımcılar, yaşamı daha düzenli bir şekle sokarlar. Kocalara iş bulmaya savaşılır ve “Milli Yardım Fonu”ndan kira ödemesinde iskonto yapılır. Bütün bunlar, geçici bir rehabilitasyon ölçüsü olarak planlanır. Böyle on veya on beş aileden oluşmuş küçük bir grup, ortalama altı ay içinde sürekli bir yaşam ortamına dönebilir.

                   Bu tür sosyal yardımlaşma, ailenin parçalanmasını ve annenin -olası- bir ruh hastası olmasını engeller. Çocuklar da, ya yakınlarındaki bir ‘yuva’ya, ya da, yaşları yeterli ise, bir okula gönderilirler. Böylece, aile beraberce tutulmuş olur ve erken evliliğin güçlükleri göreceli olarak azaltılmış olur. Çocuklar, eğer ebeveynleri onlarla birlikte kalıyorlarsa, hemen her tür değişikliğe ayak uydurabilirler. Ben öyle aileler bilirim ki, örneğin evninden bir apartmana, oradan da bir ‘karavan’a ya da ‘ordu çadırı’na inmiş, fakat hiçbir duygusal bunalım göstermemişlerdir. Diğer yandan, böyle bir “gezegen” yaşam şeklinden, çocukların eğitimi kesin bir şekilde -olumsuz olarak- etkilenir.

                                                                             *

            DÖVÜLEN BEBEKLER     <Battered Babies’ Syndrome’u>

                   Bu konuya girenler, çok özel ve gerçekten ‘tehlike’ sergileyen bir grup çocukları kapsar. Bu tür bebekler şimdilerde “kaza olmayan incinmeler” <Ref.3> tanısını taşırlar ve genellikle ebeveynlerinin biri tarafından yapılmış çürükler, kırıklar ve yanmaları içerirler.

                   Bu tür vakalarda ailenin sorumluluğunu kanıtlamada güçlük vardır; fakat, incinmenin şeklinden, ailenin verdiği birbirini tutmayan ve güvenil-mez hastalık öyküsünden ve makul bir açıklama bulunamayaşından, bu tanı şüphelenilir. Komşular ve evi ziyaret eden sosyal yardım uzmanları da bu hususa yardımcı olabilecek gözlemlerini söyleyebilirler. Sağlık ziyaretçileri, örneğin hemşire, sağlık memuru, genellikle bu durumu ilk keşfeden, sorum-
luluğu üzerine alan ve çocuğu hastaneue hem koruma ve hem de tedavi için alan kişilerdir.

                   “Battered Baby Syndrome“u ilk kez 1946’da CAFFREY tarafından isimlendirilmişti. O günlerdenberi Londra, Newcastle ve ve Birmingham’da sürekli araştırmalar yapılmaktadır. İngiltere’de her yıl 4500 çocuğun hırpalandığı, bunlardan o/o 10-17’sinin aldığı incinmelerden öldüğü ve
o/o 30’unun da beyin zedelenmesinden ötürü devamlı olarak özürlü kaldıklarını biliyoruz. (4)

                   N.S.P.C.C.’nin Londra’da bir “Dövülen Bebek Araştırma Merkezi” ve, Dr. Peter Scott ve Dr. Thomas Opie’nin liderliklerinde bir araştırma ekibi mevcuttur. Joan Court ve Carolyn Okell (5) de, bu ‘kötüye kullanım’ ile ilgili faktörler üzerinde çalışmışlar ve önemli yayımlarda bulunmuşlardır. Onların tedaviye aldıkları vakalardan öğrendiklerimize göre, bebeklerini döven ebeveynler genç olup, 19 ile 26 yaşları arasında bulunmaktadır. Bu anneler, sık olarak, ivedilikle ikli veya üç bebği ard arda doğurmuşlardı. Döven kişi, eğer anne ise, bunu, yeni bir hamileliği esnasında yapmıştı. Aile üyeleri de, genellikle yalnız kalmış, izole olmuş, sık sık bir yerden diğer bir yere taşınmış, akrabalarıyla teması kaybetmiş, Çocuk Bakım Klinik’lerine pek devam etmeyen ve bulundukları ortama pek katılmayan kimselerdi. Birçok kadınların kendileri iyi bir ‘annelik’ görmemiş ve ailelelerinin çok sıkı kontrolleri altında yetişmişlerdi. Birçokları da, yaşamlarının büyük bir kıs-
mını değişik kurumlarda geçirmişlerdi. Dolaysıyla, kendileri sevilmenin ne olduğunu öğrenemedikleri için bebeklerini sevmeyi bilemezlerdi. Joan Court şöyle yazıyor: “…’Case work terapi’si’ -ailelerle sosyal yardım uzmanının birlikte çalışması- şu esas üzerine dayanmalıdır: Her incinmiş çocuğun, incinmiş bir ebeveyni vardır. Gereksinim, böyle çocukların kendi ebeveynleriyle güvence dolu bir ilişkiye girmelerini sağlamak. Hiç şüphe yok ki, başlangıçta, duygular güvensizlik ve kin ile dolu olacak..”

                   Bu çocukların çoğunun ebeveynleri gençtirler ve yeterince olgunlaşmamışlardır. Onlar için çocuk yetiştirme, ciddi bir sorundur. Genellikle maddi bir takım güçlükler vardır: baba ya işsizdir ya da iyi bir ücret kazanmamaktadır. Kiralar yüksektir. Anne de, bebeğe bakım zorunluluğundan çalışmaya gidemez, sonunda, devamlı olarak para proble-mi gündeme gelir durur. Bebek, gerçekte, hiç istenmemiş ya da planlanma- mış olabilir; beslenmekte, gelişmekte güçlük gösterip gece yarısı uyanabilir. Gece uykusunun bölünmesinin ne olduğunu her anne bilir. Eğer çocuk daha başından bir beslenme ve gelişme kusuru gösteriyorsa, pratisyen (ya da aile hekimi) bir hekim tarafından görülmesi, hatta gözlem ve daha iyi beslene geleneklerinin yerleşmesi için kısa bir süreyle bir Çocuk Hastanesine yatırılabilir. Fakat bu tür annelerin çoğu, pratisyen hekimlere kayıtlı değildirler, dolayısıyla ‘sağlık ziyaretçisi’nin de listesinde yer almazlar. Zaten birçok kez yer değiştirmişlerdir. Üstelik, bebeklerden bazılarının babalarının belirsiz olmaları nedeniyle, eve ziyaretçi gelişi pek hoş görülmez.

                   Bu tür anneler üzerinde yapılan araştırmalar, onların kendilerinin mutsuz ve düzensiz evlerden geldiklerini ve pek az anne bakımı gördüklerini ortaya koymaktadır. Bu nedenlerle, bebeklerine ne vereceklerini ve nasıl vereceklerini bilemezler; bebeklerden hemen bir yanıt bekledikleri gibi, onların niye o kadar sorumsuz, pasif, kızgın ve ‘fırtınalı’ olduklarını anlaya-mazlar. Bebeğe çok kaba muamele edip onu korkutabilirler. Bebeğe gerçek huzuru veremezler. Böylece, daha başından, anne ve bebek arasında bir engel konulmuş olur, ondan sonra da küçük küçük krizler ortaya çıkar. Bazen ebeveynler, tartışmalardan ya da içkili olduklarından, kontrollerini kaybedebilirler. Örneğin çocuk açlıktan ağlamaya başlayaınca, anne ya da baba, birden yerinden fırlayıp çocuğu tartaklarlar, tokatlarlar. Bazen, öyle-sine iterler ki, çocuk hastanelik olur. Çok kez, çocuk hastaneye başındaki bir incinmeden ötürü getirildiği zaman, röntgen filmleri, daha öncelerden oluşmuş ve iyileşmiş kırıkları ortaya çıkarır. Bunlar, daha önceki incinmeler-in kanıtlarıdırlar.

                   Bebekleri incitme, genellikle aile içi ilişkilerinin bozulmaya yüz tutmasından sonra başlar. Aradaki anlaşmazlıklar artmıştır; koca, bebeğin karısından devamlı taleplerinden doğan bebeğe gitgide yakınlaşma olayını kıskanır. Sonuçta, anne, çocuğuna daha da yaslanabilir ve koca evi terkeder ya da anne bebeğin, kocasının ona karşı olan yakınlık bağlarının arasına girmesine kızar. Bazen evlilik, bir büyükannenin sorumluluğu alması ile hayatta kalabilir. Fakat, sık olarak, öyle genç kimselerin aileleriyle ilişkileri zaten kopuktur ve dolayısıyla pek az haberleşirler. O andan itibaren de evlilikte tatsızlık artmaya devam eder.

                   Bu tür gençlere yardım etmek çok zordur. İlk kez, bebeği incittik-lerinin farkına varınca hemen ardından bir panik ve acil bir suçluluk hissi gelir. Çocuk hastaneye koşturulur; orada anne, karmaşık ve doğru olmayan bir ifadeyle ‘kaza’nın nasıl olduğunu anlatır. O noktada, işini bilen, dikkatli bir sosyal hizmetler uzmanı yardım edebilir. Çocuk hastaneye yatırılır veya incinme ufaksa bebek taburcu edilir. Bunu takiben, anne ve çocuk, N.S.P.C.C. veya başka bir kurumun kontrolü altında bir ‘barınağa’ yerleştirilir. Hemen ardından, annenin günlük problemleriyle daha etken bir şekilde bağdaşması- nı öğrenmesi amacıyla, bir rehabilitasyon programına girişilebilir. Bu prog-ramın ruhu, annenin, onu eleştirmeyen ve anlayabilen bir kimse ile fikir değişiminde bulunması ve yeterli takviye ile ‘yeniden başlayabilme’ ümidi ile evine dönebilmesidir. Bu dönemde, denetleme son derece önemlidir, zira aynı koşullar altında, anne, ikinci kez, bebeğine aynı şekilde muamele eder. Güçlüğün bir nedeni de, bu tür gençlerin çok duyarlı olmaları ve onlara yardım eden kim olursa olsun, onları eleştirmesidir. Sosyal kurumlar arasındaki düzenlemeler ve iletişimler de çok önemlidir. Ancak o sayededir ki, risk’e yönelik çocuğun ismi, gerektiğinde aranmak ve yardım edilmek üzere ‘gizli’ (confidential) listesinde elde bulundurulmuş olur.

                   Çoğu zaman, en erdemli çarenin çocuğu korumaya almak olduğu belirlenmiştir. O takdirde bebeğin annesiyle zaten sağlıklı adımlarla başlamamış ilişkisini iyiye döndürmek için ümitler azalmaktadır; fakat, hiç olmazsa, daha iyi bir “yedek” (substitute) bulunabilir. Eğer çocuk iyi bir ‘Grup Evi’ne yerleştirilmişse, istendiğini ve kabul edildiğini, teşvik edildiğini anlarsa, sonuç çok yüz güldürücü olabilir. O takdirde, bebeğin ebeveynleri-nin izinleriyle tüm temaslar kesilebilir ya da ilişki, seyrek ziyaretlerle sürdürülebilir. Bu da bazen iyi sonuçlar verebilir, hatta sonunda bebek eve dönebilir.

                   Toplumun doğal tepkisi anneyi lanetlemek ve bebeği evden almaktır. Fakat, eğer ebeveynlerin olgunlaşma şansları varsa, kendi güven-lerini kazanabilirlerse, zamanla hayata yeni bir açıdan bakabilirler ve bebek kendi evinde daha sağlıklı olarak büyüyebilir. Bununla beraber, bütün bu işler söylendiği kadar kolay değildir ve gayet nazik bir şekilde idare edilmeleri gerekir. ‘Koruyucu’ çalışma daha ilk baştan “riskli ebeveyn”i bulup özellikle sağlık ziyaretçileri kanalıyla ne zaman ve hangi uzmana gönderilme-leri gerektiği doğrusunda gelişir.

                     Birmingham Üniversitesi, Kraliçe Elizabet Hastahanesinin Psiki-
yatri bölümünde henüz başlayan bir çalışmada (7), bebekleri döven 214 ebeveyn, 76  ‘kontrol’ annelerle kıyaslanmaktadır. Bulgular şöyledir: Bu anneler, aşağı sosyal sınıflardan geliyorlar. Ortalama yaş 23.5 olup, 16 ile 36 yılları arasında değişmektedir. Çokları da 21’in üstündedir. Babaların ortala-ma yaşı 27 idi. Onların hiçbiri en üst düzeydeki sosyal klastan (Class I) gelmemişti, bilakis, hayatlarını elleriyle kazanan (Class IV) işçi grubundandı. Annelerin neredeyse yarısı zeka bakımından sınırda (borderline) idi; o/o 76′ sı anormal kişilik yapısına sahipti, o/o 48’i nörotik idi ve o/o 11’inin suçluluk kayıtları vardı.

                     Babalarınınkinde ise suçluluk kaydı o/o 29’a çıkıyordu; yarısından  fazlası psikopat’tı ve o/o 64’ü de, anormal bir kişilik yapısı gösteriyordu. Özet olarak bu rapor bize, genellikle sınırlı zekalı, ruhen bunalımlı ve köken
bakımından yoksun bir sosyo-ekonomik düzenden gelen ve kendilerini tehlikeye maruz insanları sergiliyor. Bu tip insanlar açıkça kendilerinin yardıma muhtaç olmalarına karşın, yardım kabul etmek istemezler. Onların kendilerine güvencelerini artırabilmek için çok özentili ve titiz bir “vak’a çalışma” (case-work) planı hazırlamak gerekir. Yardım kaynakları arasında sosyal stres’i atma, daha iyi bir eve yerleştirme, çocuk için bir ‘yuva’ bulma, baba için de daha iyi bir iş bulma sayılabilir. Tüm bunlara karşın çok sıkı bir aile denetlemesi (supervision), bebekleri tekrar incinmekten korunmak için en elzem bir ögedir. 

                     Diğer raporlar bebek dövmenin yalnız aşağı sosyo-ekonomik sınıfa sınırlı kalmayıp, meslek sahibi kimseler arasında da yaygın olduğu kanısını vermektedir. Bu sonuncuları biz pek duymayız, zira bu kişiler, şöhretlerine gölge düşer korkusuyla yardım aramazlar. Bu grupta “dövülmüş kadınların” da çok kayda değer bir artışta bulunduğu bilinmektedir. Fakat bu kadınlar, gerek kocalarına olan bağlılıkları ve gerekse çocukları için duydukları hisler nedeniyle, sessizlik içinde acı çekmeyi yeğlerler.

                      Yakın zamanlarda temasta bulunduğum iki aileyi, bu sunulan problemlerin ne dereceye dek karmaşa olduğunu ve bu tür problemlerle toplumun içindeki, şimdilerde bulunabilinecek geniş yardım imkanlarını göstermeleri yönünden sizlere takdim ediyorum.

                      Bayan “X” çok hassas bir insandı. Herşeyden evvel, annesi bir şizofrenik idi. Kendisi de sağlıksız bir ruh durumundan ıstırap çekmekte olup, tekrarlayan “depresyon” nöbetleri vardı. Bu hanım, babasız bir çocuğa sahip olduktan sonra, agresif bir psikopat olan bir kamyon sürücüsüyle evlenmişti. Kocası, içince kendini kaybeder, karısını döver ve çocuklara hücum ederdi. Anne, iki kez, sosyal yardım uzmanı ve arabulucu yardımıyla boşanmaya yeltenmiş, fakat karı-koca yine uzlaşmışlardı. Küçük çocuk “A”, henüz dört yaşın altında idi. Annesi hastaneye gittiği zaman, iki kez, başka yerde barındırılmıştı. Annenin hastaneye gidiş nedenlerinden biri intihara teşebbüs, diğeri de beş aylık süreli bir depresyon idi.

                      “A” ‘nın doğumu normaldi, fakat neredeyse 2,5 Kg.lık bir bebek idi. Geç yürümüştü ve yürüyüşü de bir garipti. (? Doğuştan kalça çıkığı, İ.E.) Üstelik, hareketlerinde de bir sarsaklık vardı. Benim yardımımla yapılan zeka testinde, üç yaş ve on aylıkken, IQ 82, “hafif sub-normal” (dull-intelli- gence) düzeyi göstermişti. Konuşma bakımından ise, yalnızca 2,5 yıl düzeyinde idi. Tüm bunlara karşın, ruhsal görünümünde, dost ve iletişim kurabilen bir tip idi. Ek olarak, annesinden uzak kaldığı zamanlar olmasına rağmen, ona sıcak hisler besliyordu. Her akşam da bir “yuva oyun grubu”na devam ediyordu.

                      Annenin hastaneden son dönüşünden sonra, bir Aile Sosyal Yardımcısı (Family Aid Worker) her akşam evde anneyle ona yardım gayesiyle çalıştı. Baba, annesinin evi terketmesi nedeniyle büyükannesi tarafından yetiştirilmişti ve o nedenle candan bir ev hayatı yaşamamıştı. Sık sık iş değiştirirdi, borca girerdi; aşırı hızla araba sürdüğü için de, defalarca, polis tarafından mahkemeye getirilmişti.

                       Sağlık Ziyaretçisi ve Sosyal Hizmetler Uzmanı uzaun zaman bu aileyle çalıştılar. Bir gün, çocuk hastalıkları uzmanı olan hekim ‘A’yı muaye-
ne ettiğinde vücudunda bazı ezik ve bereler buldu. Yüzleştirilince, baba, çocuğu zaman zamanyaptığı mastürbasyondan ötürü sopayla dövdüğünü itiraf etti. Çocukta ciddi bir incinme yoktu, mamafih, sosyal yardım uzmanı babayı ciddi bir şekilde haşladı. Babanın içki içmesi nihayet durabildi, fakat bu kez anneye atılan dayaklar ortaya çıkmaya başladı. Çocuk ve anne genel pratisyen hekim, sosyal yardım uzmanları ve N.S.P.C.C. görevlileri tarafın-dan devamlı olarak, itina ile tedavi gördüler. Bugünlerde üçüncü bir boşanma deneyimi gündemde.

                       Bu ailenin durumunu tartışmak için, hastanede psikliyatr, sağlık ziyaretçisi, yuvanın öğretmeni ve sosyal hizmetler uzmanlarının katılımları ile bir toplantı yapıldı. Çeşitli seçenekler tartışıldı. Çocuklar ayrı bir yere bakım için alınabilirlerdi, ya da, anne ve iki çocuk, beraberce, “koruma”ya alınabilirdi. Diğer bir fikir de, boşanma süreci devam ederken, evi daha sıkı bir denetime tabi tutmak, anneyi daha yakından desteklemek, çocuklara eğitim vermek ve ailenin davranışlarını değiştirmeye çalışarak daha sağlıklı bir birlik halinde yaşama duygusunu verebilmek. Bizler halihazırda bu sonuncusunu deniyoruz, fakat itiraf edelim ki hiç birimiz bunun tümüyle başarılı olacağını sanmıyoruz. Israrımızın esas nedeni, annelerine pek bağlı olan iki çocuğu, onunla birlikte, güvenceli bir şekilde büyütmek. Tarih, kendini tekrar etmeye eyilimlidir. Bu çocuklar, yalnız kendi çevreleri tarafından değil,  ı r s i y e t (kalıtım-heritage) yönünden de sakıncalıdırlar.

                       Aynı konferansta tartıştığımız iki çocuk daha vardı: İki buçuk yaşında küçük bir kız ve onun sekiz aylık bebek erkek kardeşi. Her ikisi de evlilik dışı ve farklı erkeklerden doğmuşlardı. Gelişim yetersizliği yüzünden, küçük kız, bir yaşına dek oturamamıştı ve sözcük hazinesi ise, iki yaşında iken yalnızca üç kelimeden ibaretti. Bu yaşta ancak yardımla odada dolaşa-bilmekte, fakat daha çok poposunun üzerinde sürünmeyi yeğlemekte. Ken-dini beslemeye yeni başlıyor, fakat tuvalet kontrolü henüz yok. Gözlerinde de biraz şaşılık var. Genetik bakımdan bir kromozom anormalliğine sahip olduğu doktorlar tarafından bildirildi.

                       Anne bu bebeğe sahip olduğu zaman yalnızca 16 yaşındaydı ve ‘Remand Evleri‘nden birine konmuştu. Bu, evlenmemiş genç kızların barın-dırıldıkları eve konmasının nedeni kendini kontrol edemediği gerekçesi idi. Mamafih annesi ona destek olmuş ve çocuğu olunca ona yardım etmişti. O sonunda evlenmiş ve kaynanasının evinde yaşamaya başlamıştı. O evde, kendi bebeğinin yanında, kocasının ilk evliliğinden kalma iki okul yaşındaki çocukların bakımını üzerine almak zorunda kalmıştı. Bu on sekiz yaşındaki genç anne, bu düzeydeki bir aile toplumunu idare edemez.

                       Küçük “H.”, kendini kontrol edemeyip her an annesi ile çekişmeye giriyordu. Bu yaşta hareketlenmişti de. Küçük bebek devamlı ağlamaları, yetersiz besi ve gelişim durumu nedenleriyle hastahaneye getirildiğinde, yatak bezinden kaynaklanan cilt gösterileri, çürükler ve sigara ucuyla oluşturulmuş yanıklar tesbit edilmişti.

                       Toplantıda küçük “H.”nın zeka düzeyinin tüm değerlendirilmesine ve gerekirse o tür çocuklar için programlanmış bir okula gönderilmesi kararlaştırıldı. Ancak orada “H.” daha düzenli ve devamlı bir uyarı ve gereken eğitimi alabilirdi. Kesin olarak tehlikeye maruz olan küçük bebek için ise, sağlık ziyaretçisi sağlandı. Kayınvalde çalışıyordu, fakat “H.”nin annesi verimli bir şekilde çalışamayacak kadar geri zekalı idi; bu nedenle onun için dışarda iş aramaktansa, evde kalıp ev bakım ve temizliğiyle meşgul olması her bakımdan akla daha uygun gelen bir şey olacaktı. Onun, sosyal hizmetler uzmanlarının bağlı oldukları ofisten çok yardıma gereksinimi vardı. İtinalı bir denetleme ve iki büyükannelerin gayreti ile, bu çocukların yeterli derecede ilgi ve bakım alabilecekleri hususunda fikir birliğine vardık. Başlangıçtaki olumsuz durum, kasdi bakımsızlığın ve ihmalin sonucu değil, fakat bilgisizliğin ve yetersizliğin ürünü idi.

                       Bunlar, Birmingham’da süregelen 214 dövülmüş bebek vak’aları-nın yalnızca iki tanesi. Böyle problem ailelerde kalıtsal ve kişilik faktörleri önemli rol oynamaktadırlar. Onlara ek olarak, eğer sosyo-ekonomik yönden olumsuz bir çevre ve onlara baskı yapan ters oluşumlar da var iseler, aile hayatı batan bir gemi gibi parçalanabilir, çocuklar hem fiziksel ve hem de psikolojik yönlerden incinebilir. Devlete de bu dağılan parçaları bir araya getirmek gayreti düşer. Destek, rehberlik ve yakın denetim, olası birçok hasarları engelleyebilir; mamafih, prognoz (vak’anın gelişim ve sonu,İ.E.), genellikle pek ümit verici değildir.

KAYNAKLAR :

(1) Tanner, J.M. (1961), “Education and Physical Growth” (Eğitim ve Fiziksel
      Gelişim), London: University Press.
(2) Bowlby, J. (1951), “Maternal Care and Mental Health” (Anne Bakımı ve
      Ruh Sağlığı), Geneva: W.H.O. (Wolrd Health Organization.)
(3) “British Medical Journal” (İngiliz Tıp Dergisi), Dec. (Aralık)1973, p.656
(4) “British Medical Journal” (İngiliz Tıp Dergisi), Dec. (Aralık)1973, p.657
(5) N.S.P.C.C. (National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children –       Çocuklara Yapılan Zulümlerden Koruyucu Ulusal Dernek), 1970,
       “Battered Child Research Department Publications” (Dövülen Çocuklar
       Araştırma Yayınları)
(6) Court, J.; (1969), Article published in “Health Visitor“, Vol.42, “Battered
       Babies” (‘Sağlık Ziyaretçisi’ Dergisi, Cilt:42, “Dövülen Çocuklar”)
(7) Smith S.M.-Hanson R., Noble S. (1973): “Parents of Battered Babies- A
       Controlled Study” (Dövülmüş Bebeklerin Ebeveynleri-Denetlenmiş Bir
       Çalışma), British Medical Journal, (İngiliz Tıbbi Dergisi), November
       Kasım); p.: 388-391.

                                                                        ———–   18 Ağustos 2010

       Çeviri sonrası değerlendirme, kıssadan hisse:

        Aşağı yukarı elli yıl evvel, İngiltere gibi hem Rönesans’ı yaşamış ve hem de Demokrasi ve Aristokrasi’yi en asil bir şekilde reprazente eden bir toplumda oluşan ve her zaman gündemde sayılabilecek aile-çocuk problemlerini ele alan bu makale, gerçekten alkışa değer.
        İnsanoğlu hatasıyla ve sevaplarıyla bu devirleri yaşadı ve yaşayacak: sözüm ona başarılan bilimsel bulgu ve yaratışlar, evreni keşif vb., dün olduğu gibi bugün de, insanoğlu’nun zafından ileri gelen bu tür sosyal problemleri yaşadı ve yaşayacak. Mesele, bunlar hakkında, insani olarak, demokratik, hür ve insancıl bir ülkede ne yaptık, ne yapıyoruz, ne yapamıyoruz, ne yapmamız lazım?

        Dün gecedenberi gözlediğim küçük notlar:
1) T.V.’da, iki kere kocası tarafından dövülen bir kadının, şikayetçi olarak Polis karakoluna getirilişi, orada şikayetinden vazgeçişi ve fakat, daha kapıdan çıkar çıkmaz, kocasının erkek kardeşi tarafından hastanelik edilecek derecede dövülmesi. Eminim, mahkemeye çıksalar, kocasının ve kayın biraderinin mahkemedeki “iyi davranışı” (? yani, hakimleri de dövmemeleri?” yüzünden “haydi eve gidin, barışın, sevişin” denilecek, ve kadının yine pöstekisi çıkacak.
2) Ramazan münasebetiyle, “yoldan dilencilerin toplanışı” ve her birine 75’er lira ceza kesilimi. Hüküm sizin. Daha bir gün evvel, çevre ilçelerinden birinde 20,000 kişilik iftar sofraları sokakları süslüyordu. Günah mı çıkarıyoruz? Kimin parasıyla? Yıllar öncesi, yaşlı ve yersiz yurtsuz kimseler Darülacezeye yerleştirilir, adam gibi bakılırdı. <Elli yıl evvel!>
3) Sabah, uzaktan bir akrabamızın da içinde bulunduğu “Yaşlılar Bakım Evi”nden bir telefon geldi, yaşlı bir kadıncağızi kalp krizi geçirip koma’ya girmiş. Bakımevi, Belediye ve hem de Darülaceze’ye ait. AMBÜLANS GELMİŞ VE FAKAT; HASTA KOMA’DA DİYE ALMAMIŞ. 55 yıllık aktif hekimlik yapmış olarak biliyoruz ki, nabzın atmadığı, nefesin hissedilmediği vak’alar hala ölü olmayabilir, çok örneklerimiz var; yami, t o p l u m   o l a r a k  n e r e y e  g i d i y o r u z ?  Değer yargılarımız, bakım evlerimiz, ç o c u k  i n c i n m e l e r i (fiziksel ve cinsel) nasıl değerlendiriliyor?

         Kendimizi aldatmadan, U.S.A.da Akıl Sağlığı Müsteşarlığı da yapmış bir insan olarak, şunların göze alınmasını salık veriyorum:
1) AGRESYON şifası olmayan bir hastalıktır; insani duygularla, yasal sistem birini iki yıl içinde affederse, dört yıl sonra aynı adam -ya da kimse-, bu kez, babasını, oğlunu, eniştesini, baldızını öldürecektir. Psikolog ya da psikliyatr’lara danışmadan hüküm vermeyin lütfen, hakim beyler!
2) Her MAHKEME”ye bağlı, özellikle Çocuk Mahkemeleri’ne bağlı, a y n ı  b i n a d a , (1960’larda bizlerin eğitim aldığı, aynı zamanda hizmet verdiği veçhile!) bir ÇOCUK DANIŞMANLIK KLİNİĞİ emre hazır olmalıdır.
3) SOSYAL HİZMETLER UZMANLIĞI, bugünkü atıl durumundan çıkarılarak, (Doktor-Sosyal Hizmetler Uzmanı- Hemşire) Sağlık Ekibi’nin ktif ve çok gerekli bir üyesi olmalıdır.
4) Her eve doktor getirtmek rüyası yerine, 1960’larda USA’da Kennedy Devrinde, toplum içinde, “YEREL RUH SAĞLIK MERKEZLERİ” kurularak insanlar, anide hizmet vermek üzere yaşama geçirilmelidir.
5) ZİYARETÇİ HEMŞİRELER, hastaları evinde ziyaret etmeli (Nöroloj,ik ve Psikiyatrik eğitim eklenmeli!), ilaç kontrolünü yapmalı;
6) TOPLUMDAKİ AİLELER, yardıuma muhtaç çocukların himaye ve büyütülmesinde daha aktif bir rol almalı.

Eğer, günlük bir gazetede, kendi köşemde, kişisel seks hayatımın analizini yaparak, ya da kadınlık ver erkeklik konularında nutuk atarak günah çıkartsaydım, belki daha fazla okunurdum, halk da istifade ederdi. Her neyse, resmi, gayri resmi kişiler, yukarda bahsedilen konularda benden her zaman, e-mail’im olan: info@ismailersevim.dan ekstra bilgi edinebilirler.

                                Sevgi ve saygılarımla.      Prof.Dr.İsmail Ersevim
                                                                ——————

Samuel Beckett’s: THEATRE OF THE ABSURD

                                                               Samuel BECKETT’s:

                                                   THEATRE OF THE ABSURD

(Prepared and written by: Christopher LACEY, student in the Master Program; Salve Regina College, Newport, R.I., & Psychology Professor and his Supervisor: Prof. Dr. İsmail Ersevim, M.D.; 1968, Spring Semester, as a base for his graduation thesis.)                                                      
                            
(Not: Tekst”in sonunda da yazdığım gibi, Türkiye dönüşümden sonraki Tiyatro çalışmalarımda, bu konuda bir makale yazmıştım. Türkçe olarak yazılmış o kısa çalışmayı, 50 yıl evvel yazdığımdan farklı bir açıyı temsil etmesi ve ek bilgiler vermesi dolayısıyla, okuyucularıma tavsiye ederim. O makaleyi, İngilizce tekst’in sonunda bulacaksınız. Saygılarla. İ.E.

                                                                        -1-

                                                                      *      *

                                             PREFACE

                                 Who may tell the tale
                                 of the old man?
                                 weigh absence in a scale?
                                  mete want with a span?
                                  the sum assess
                                  of the world’s woe?
                                  nothingness in words enclose

                                                       Samuel BECKETT, addenda to Watt.

                                   The authors comprizing the ‘new’ theatre, the Theatre of the Absurd, are men attempting to tell this tale of nothingness in life. Through scrambled words and abrupt thoughts have the Absurdists depicted the sum, despairing, painful woe of worldly existence. However, the audience must be open to the cause of this new dramatic movement, as well as its future course. Once the spector comprehends the Absurdist message, he can discover for himself the validity of such a message; if he understands the new beliefs and their origins, only then can he begin to appreciate and perhaps to adapt in his own life (in any degree desired) the innate problems which the Absurdist playwright actualizes in decaying terms. The value of the contemporary “truthful” drama only then can begin to be evaluated.

                          We purpose in this paper to give a short history of the Theatre of the Absurd, thereby alowing the reader to be open to a discussion of Waiting for Godot, the masterpiece in two acts of the Theatre’s champion, Samuel Beckett. Upun realizing the literary skill utilized by a great author, the author is less inclined to ignore or ignorantly cendemn the Absurdist and his work. Rather, he can apply the message to his own existence and hopefully benefit. Perhaps for this ultimate benefitting, do the “Babel-writers” create their dark dramatic worlds: out of darkness comes light; out of dispair, hope…

                                                                    *    *    *

                                                                         -2-

                                          CHAPTER   I

                                          A world that can be explained by reasoning,
                                      however faulty, is a familiar world. But in a uni-
                                      verse that is suddenly deprived of illusions and  
                                      of light, man feels a stranger. His is an irremedi-
                                      able exile, because he is deprived of memories of
                                      a lost homeland as much as lacks the hope of a
                                      promised land to come. This divorce between man
                                      and his life, the actor and his setting, truly
                                      constitutes the feeling of Absurdity.

                      The metaphysical anguish that Albert CAMUS is describing is explained farther by Eugene IONESCO, in an essay on KAFKA: “A b s u r d  is that which is devoid of purpose… Cut off from his religious, metaphysical and transcendental roots, man is lost; all his actions become senseless, absurd, useless (2). Hence, the Theatre of the Absurd is more than a theatre of the ‘ridiculous’, as an ordinary dictionary would interpret it to be.”

                      A burning knowledge of the senselessness of life, of the devaluation of ideals, purity, and purpose infiltrate the “absurd”, plays which demonstrate the inadequacy of rational approach by open abandonment of rational devices and discursive thought. Hence, the play belonging to the Absurdist stream, actually presents it’s creator ideolojy rather than just preach it. Indeed, GIRADOUX, ANOUILH, SARTRE and CAMUS, while sharing the Absurdist theories, fail to put such ideals into practice: their plays are highly lucid and logically constructed. Camus tells the world that it fails to “make senese”, but he does so in well-constructed, polished dramas that have the ring of an elegant, rationalistic, eighteenth century moralist. Sartre defeats his principles of a changing essence and existence in his portrayals of brillantly-drawn characters who remain consistent despite their situations. Thus, while preaching a philosophy where man has the freedom to constantly create himself anew; Jean-Paul Sartre reflects the conventional idea that man has, at his core, an unchanging essence (i.e. an immortal soul.)

                                                                        -3-

                      Hence, it is this contradiction between thought and deed the dramatists of the Absurd are attempting to overcome. The Theatre of the Absurd presents man in his depravity rather than preaches such. However, the Absurdists do differ from their brothers. the French “avant-garde” poets, such as Michel de Ghekderode, Jacques Audiberti, Georges Neveux, and Henri Pichette. Both schools rely on fantasy and dream reality; both disregard the basic dramatic unities and dramatic “necessities”, such as character and plot consistencies. The “poetic avant-garde, however, aspires to consciously poetic speech — their plays are actually poems rich in images. The Absurdist theatre tends toward a rational devaluation of language: while language is important, the action of the characters ‘transcend’ and even ‘contradict’ the superficial speech of the characters.

                                                                    -4-

                         “Nothing changes less than the avant-garde-.(3)”  The so -called “radicalism” which strikes the audience viewing the Absurdist Theatre is not new in its essentials. Granted, the mere idea of a plot-less drama swamped with irrational statements is rather novel to the stage. But the plays of Samuel Beckett, Eugene Ionesco, Harold Pinter, Arrabal, and Edward Albee reveal an ancient quest: the true picture of man in his everlasting confusion. Life is faced in its ultimate, stark reality. Man is stripped of the accidental qualities of social position or historical context and then confronted with his basic choices, the basic situations of mere existence. He is waiting and waiting — forever passed between the unavoidable forces of birth and death. Like the Greek tragedies and the medieval mystery plays, the Theatre of the Absurd is intent on making the audience fully aware of man’s mysterious and precarious place in the universe.

                         Born in France during post-war days, the new theatre is the product of World War II, Hitler, Freud and the atom bomb. While in ancient classical drama and in the medieval allegories, the ultimate realities concerned with man were generally known and universally believed, the ways of God to man neither explained nor pretended to be explained by the Absurdities. The theatre of today merely presents the individual’s intuition ofultimates as he experiences them in a confused time. Unfortunately, twentieth century society and its established conventions and dictates which show and pull men unmercifully has completely crusted man in an almost inevitable conformity. The individual has no time nor desire who he really is. Thus, a young man in this theatre can now approach a window, put a telescope to his eye, and truthfully agree with the statement that “There’s nothing out there to see.(4)” But such an action occur only in the Absurdist play — and even in such a play, truth is not well-received.

                                                                       -5-

                        Although society refuses to view itself if the picture is not complimentary, the innate curiosity of the contemporary drama is not a new development — only the discoveries are different. Neither Shakespeare nor his critics could decide if Hamlet was a man of action or a man of inaction. Whose fault was is that Lear’s children treat him as they do? Was Alceste, the misanthrope of Moliere, right or ridiculous — or both — for demanding a more honorable behavior by society? Indeed, man has always probed his basic nature in search of answers to “Who am I?” and “Where am I going?” and “Why do I act so?” Dictators have pushed man against his will; philosophers tell him he is free. Money solves any problem the world can offer, but death still sulks at each man’s doorstep. Where he can go? What can he do? The contemporary theatre offers an answer in the sole word,”nausea”. Man stumbles down the road of life for years in search of he knows not what, and in the end finds only nothing. Nihilism is indeed “nausea”.

                       The Theatre of the Absurd is a theatre of shock. It is like a child who suddenly notices the obvious and is shrilly shouting it to the world in brief, agitated, repetitious rhythms. But, like the child, it is shunned as uttering meaningless, immature babble. The shocking message is unheeded by the busy world who has no time for such “nonsense”.

                                                                         6-

                       Hence, the Absurdist play is short for the theme is simple to convey. To announce that man is nothing in a nothing-world does not require the conventional five acts: one or two acts are sufficient for an audience which will not stay to listen. The audience of the twentieth century is not ready to hear anyone’s persistent cries of ambiguity. He does not understand since no longer does he actually think past the weekly pay check or the situation comedies of televison. The “modern” man wonders why the Absurdist characters communicate, unmindful of the fact that his own communication with and understanding of other man is extremely limited. Indeed, the amount of self-knowledge is slight for man today: “You don’t know who you are until you’re dead (5)”.

                        We must admit that man has fallen into a sad state and must be jolted out of it. The crusted habits holding him to conventional molds of thought must be broken before the world breaks down completely. However, while the Theatre of the Absurd is shocking man into thinking, the ideas and conclusions it draws are not happy ones, for, to the Absurdist, the world has completedly collapsed. Can anything be done to correct the situation? Communication is impossible — how can man even attempt it with with pitiable tools? Encrustation is inevitable; identity exists on a driver’s license, but what if the wallet, and hence, the license are lost? Can anyone recitify this deplorable situation? Probably not, but man can recognize it. In the plays of the Absurd, the situation is recognized:only nothingness exists.

                                                                        -7-

                          Since nothingmess exists, now even stage directions can be concrete. How bare is a bare interior? The producer is confused by such vague directions as “He either kisses or does not kiss Winnie(6). Since the clock may ring as often it wishes. no two productions are certain to be alike. Niether is audience reaction concrete. Does the viewer grow angry or is he amused: Why do one or two people twitter in bewildered while the remainder sit somberly? Was the line meant to be funny or not? The answer cannot be a definite one. There is no established anchor pinning the theatre down to a specific mooring –the only significance of an Absurdist play is that life is meaningless. Hence, any method of production and any reactions are acceptable so long as the nothingness of man and this universe is understood.

                                                                          -8-

                      Thus, to comprehend the non-existence of reality is the sole task of the listener who is actually incapable of understanding. Nevertheless, regardless of his comprehensive ability, the tenets of the Theatre of the Absurd, the tenets of the every man in this world remain the same:
(1) Absurdity is the underlying principle of man’s existence. If he looks at himself honestly, man must admit that he lives in a void.
(2) Man is but a bogged pattern .. he ceases to change as he dwells in set cenventions and ideas. He is turning into automation, a machine, a thing.
(3) As man becones dead through a lack of change, his language becomes dead also. With such a tool, no communication is possible and each person is left alone in the world.
(4) There is no solidarity in man — he is but what he makes of himself. He is only an existent in a situation (7).

                       “There are no hard distinctions between what is real and what is unreal, nor between what is true and what is false (8). The dramatists of the Absurd are not preaching the truth of this life. They are only attempting to show a perception of man which is more total and more merciless that man can bear readily. The Absurdist’s vision is meaningless to those for whom money and material can manipulate a Utopia which heals all. The new playwright sears the ordinary human being with the futility of life — but without any attempt to solace or advice. He only ‘describes what exists as an interior reality for some — and hence, for all’ (9). The sole problem of the Absurdist is for all to recognize the problem of life.

                                                                       -9-

                        We must be careful not to conceive of the Theatre of the Absurd as a school or a movement, however. Eash dramatist is an individual who deems himself as outsider who is totally isolated in his own private world. Each approaches his subject matter and form in an individual manner often dependent upon his own roots and background. They appear to have much in common, but this is because their works mirror the preoccupations, emotions, anxieties, and thoughts of a modern Western civilization. This transitory age, which they are all depicting, is actually a conglomeration of prehistoric cults and fanaticisims, mediavel beliefs, eighteenth century rationalism, and nineteen century Marxism. However, within this twentieth century, formerly-unshakable beliefs have been tested and found to be wanting. Faith in progress, nationalism, and other political fallacies, which once replaced religious faith, was completely shattered by the Second World War. Of this forsaken civilization, the Absurdist writes:
                        “All degenerates, all crumbles, all dims; the relationships and their questions remain.”(19) Man is doomed to continue through everything is actually nothing.

                                                                       -10-

                                                       Ch. 1  Footnotes;

                       (1) Albert Camus, “Le Mythe de Sisyphe”, as quoted by Martin Esslin inThe Theatre of the Absurd; xıx.
                       (2) Eugene Ionesco, “Dans les Armes de le Ville”, as quoted by Esslin,Theatre, xıx.
                       (3) Anouilh, “Du Chapitre des Chaises”, as quoted by  Leonard Fronko in Avant-Garde: The Experimental Theatre in France, p.197;
                       (4) Arthur L. Kopit, Oh Dad, Poor Dad, Mamma’s Hung You in the Closet and I’m Feelin’ So Sad, p.492;
                       (5) Walter Kerr, “The Theatre in Spite of Itself”, p.198.
                       (6) Samuel Beckett, “Happy Days”, p.64.
                       (7) Pronko, p.19. These four principles of the Theatre of the Absurd do not necessarily exist in every play by every Absurdist. However, each play in this genre exhibits at least one tenet of the four.
                       (8) Harold Pinter, program note for the performance of of The Room> and The Dumb Walter, as quoted by Esslin, Theatre, p.206.
                       (9) Josephine Jacobsen and William Mueller, The Testament of Samuel Beckett, p.167.
                     (10) Ibid., p.159. 

                                                                        -11-

                                   
     CHAPTER    II

                     Waiting for Godot, the generally unappreciated tragicomedy written by Samuel Beckett, an Irishman who writes mainly in French, is the “masterpiece” of the Absurdist plays. Off all the dramas in the Absurdist vein, it is the most perfect in form and the most complete in anguish and desolation (1). The existentialism of modern thinkers, the horror of the Second World War, his isolation in Paris following years of lonely wanderings in search of life and love, all unite to form in Beckett the crippling despair which fills ‘every’ earthly existence.

                              It was an expression, symbolic in order to avoid
                              all personal error, by an author who expected
                              each member of his audience to draw his conclu-
                              sions, make his own errors. It asked nothing in 
                              point, it forced no dramatized moral on the vie-
                              wer, it held out no specific hope. We’re still wai-
                              ting for Godot, and shall continue to wait. When
                              the scenery gets too drab and the action too slow,
                              we’ll call each other names and swear to part for-
                              ever—but then, there is no place to go! (2)

                     Such was the reaction of the audience for whom Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot was presented on November 19,1957. Fourteen hundred convicts “listened and looked two minutes too long” –the prisoners at San Quentin penitentiary stayed for the entire drama. Why did the Absurdist play succeed so? It did not preach to these depraved men; neither did it proffer any hope. However, it related life as they knew it only too well. Those convicts were not seeing Vladimir and Estragon as a sophisticated Broadway audience would: they viewed the play simply and hence, by them, its simple truth was perceived. No complex plot or characterization was necessary for the detached, “unencrusted” man to comprehend reality.

                                                                      -12-

                     Philosophy must be expressed in language. However, if the philosophy states that confusion and chaos from the human condition, then the play expressing the philosophy must make use of incongruity, interruptions, discontinuity, senseless logic and senseless repetition. While Godot is composed of such philosophical products, it maintains a remarkably strict form which is highly expressive of its meaning. Within each of the two acts, the form is the same — a series of movements that begin an assertion, a plan, a hope but quickly dissipate it. Throughout each days, the two tramps, Vladimir and Estragon (Didi and Gogo), wait for Godot, their savor-to-be. Each night they decide to leave, but the minute failing hope ties them down.

                     ESTRAGON :   What do we do now?
                     VLADIMIR :   I don’t know.
                     ESTRAGON :   Let’s go.
                     VLADIMIR :   We can’t.
                     ESTRAGON :   Why not?
                     VLADIMIR :   We’re waiting for Godot.
                     ESTRAGON :   (despairingly) Ah! (3)

                     The outcome is pitiable, pathetic, tragic; the entire situation is comic, however, but not in the tramps’ inability to help themselves. The meeting of tramps at the crossroads has always been the occasion in drama for laughter — and Vladimir and Estragon are not mere tramps but outrageously childish tramps. Herein lies the incongruity of the tragicomedy. On the shoulders of two “men” who cannot even think coherently, rest the essential problems of every man.

                                                                       -13-

                      VLADIMIR :  Charming every we’re having.
                      ESTRAGON :  Unforgettable.
                      VLADIMIR :  And it’s not over.
                      ESTRAGON :  Apparently not.
                      VLADIMIR :  It’s only the beginning.
                      ESTRAGON :  It’s awful.
                      VLADIMIR :  Worse than the pantomine. <Pandomim?>
                      ESTRAGON :  The circus.
                      VLADIMIR :  The music-hall.
                      ESTRAGON :  The circus.

                      As in any music-hall or circus, there is here within the tragedy, an element of crudely physical humor: Estragon loses his trousers and fails to notice any difference; there is a gag involving three hats which are put on and off and then handed on in a seemngly unending, confused sequence.

                      While most people think of freedom as a delight or a challenge, the tramps’ notion of freedom mirrors that of Faust:

                      But to new horror I awake each morn,
                      And I could weep hot tears, to see the sun
                      Down on another day…
                      Death fondly I desire, and life I hate.(5) 

                      Didi and Gogo have no inner resources, no friends, no recollections, no orientation in either time or space. They cannot remember even the preceeding twenty-four hours.

                                                                        -14-

                      ESTRAGON :   We came here yesterday.
                      VLADIMIR :   Ah no, there you’re mistaken.
                      ESTRAGON :   What did we do yesterday?
                      VLADIMIR :   What did we do yesterday?
                      ESTRAGON :   Yes.
                      VLADIMIR :   Why.(Angrily) Nothing is certain when you’re about
                      ESTRAGON :   In my opinion we were here.
                      VLADIMIR :   (looking around) : You recognize the place?
                      ESTRAGON :   I didn’t say that.
                      VLADIMIR :   Well?
                      ESTRAGON :   That makes no difference.
                                                                     ………………..
                      ESTRAGON :   You’re sure it was this evening?
                      VLADIMIR :   What?
                      ESTRAGON :   That we were to wait.
                      VLADIMIR :   He said Saturday. (Pause.) I think.
                                      ………………..
                      ESTRAGON :   (very insidious) :  But what Saturday? And is it Saturday? It is not rather Sunday? (Pause.) or Monday? (Pause.) or Friday?

                      Since the events of yesterday are dim, the experiences of prior years are lost completely. Nothing exists but the present and that is but a hell. Unfortunately, this hell is constantly reoccuring — over and over until death presents an end. This idea is evident in the similarity of Act II to Act I. The static situation opens with the two tramps waiting on a country road, by an old tree. At the end of the first act, they are informed that Mr. Godot, with whom they believe they have an appointment, cannot come but will surely come tomorrow. Act II repeats the same pattern: the same boy comes and delivers the same message. Act I ends with:

                                                                      -15-

                      ESTRAGON :  Well, shall we go?
                      VLADIMIR :  Yes, let’s go. (7)

                      But they do not move. Act II concludes with the very same lines of dialogue, but they are spoken by the same characters in reversed order.

                      Hence, all that changes is expressed in the three or four leaves embellishing the hither-to barren scrub of a tree. But the green leaves bring no hope; Spring is not a season of encouragement, joy, revitalization for the tramps, but only a time of continuing deterioratioın. This decay is explicit in the blindness of Bozzo, who had possessed sight only the day before. Death is always coming, but complete death never arrives (8).

                       The spark speech of the two waiting tramps reflects the desolation which inhibits their souls — and the confusion which floods their minds. Unable to concentrate upon their problems, the two futilely attempt to express themselves. Neither can say what he means, however; and what each utters is not comprehended by the other. Interruptions predominating the verbal portrayals of self stem not so much from any basic lack of respect, but from burning efforts to communicate. (9)

                      When one is alone, life is long. In the simple, monotonous song of Vladimir, the problem is evident.

                                                                        -16-

                       A dog came in the kitchen
                       And stole a crust of bread.
                       Then cook up with a ladle
                       And beat him till he was dead.

                       Then all the dogs came running
                       And dug the dog a tomb
                       And wrote upon the tombstone
                       For the eyes of the dog to come:

                       A dog came in the kitchen
                       And stole a crust of bread.
                       Then cook up with a ladle
                       And beat him till he was dead.

                       Then all the dogs came running
                       And dog the dog the tomb
                       And wrote upon the tombstone
                       For the eyes of dogs to come:

                       A dog came in the kitchen…(10)

                       Yet his companion in misery cannot reach out in solace, for Estragon does not understand Vladimir. Indeed, he does not even know himself. The Beckett hero can only try. But in their attempts, they talk incessantly.

                        ESTRAGON :  In the meantime let us try and converse calmly, since we are incapable of keeping silent.
                        VLADIMIR :  You’re right, we’re inexhaustible.
                        ESTRAGON :  It’s so we won’t think.
                        VLADIMIR :  We have that excuse.
                        ESTRAGON :  It’s so we won’t hear.
                        VLADIMIR :  We have our resons.
                        ESTRAGON :  All the dead voices.
                        VLADIMIR :  They make a noise like wings.
                        ESTRAGON :  Like leaves.
                        VLADIMIR :  Like sand.
                        ESTRAGON :  Like leaves (11)

                        A long silence follows this simple, repetitious tirade; finally, in anguish, Vladimir cries. ‘Say anything at all.’ (12)

                                                                       -17-

                        Thought is at the root of communication. Supreme thought is supposedly uttered by the abused Lucky, the harnessed employee of Pozzo, the merciful master. However, he can no longer dance or think as he once could. Pozzo recollects that “He even used to think very prettily once. I could listen to him for hours. Now… (he shudders.) So much the worse for me. (13)

                        Explaining the history of the world, Lucky includes in his farrage of words, a burlesque of the traditional arguments favoring the existence of a caring God. However, a lack of knowledge regarding history, religion, and science as characteristic of the tramps is exposed strongly in this ‘intelligent’ tirade of the ‘thinker’. Lucky:

                        “…it appears what is more much more grave that in the light of the labors lost of Steinweg and Peterman that in the pains in the mountains by the seas by the rivers running water running fire the air is the same and then the earth in the great cold the great dark the air and the earth abode of stones in the great deeps the great cold on sea on land and in the air I resume but not so fast I resume the skull fading fading fading and concurrently similtaneously what is more for reasons unknown in spite of tennis on on the beard of flames the tears the stones so blue so calm alas alas..” (14)

                                                                          -18-

                         Such illogical, incoherent speech is reminiscent of Lewis Carroll’s nonsense world. However, the satire, the entire meaning in Beckett’s lines can bring, not honest laughter and joy, but only compassionate tears, for this is not nonsense as much as it is genuine non-sense. It is a spurious irrationality, the uprooting of a rational mind, obtained by a careful system of inverting both letters within the word and words within the sentence (15). The abandonment of punctuation marks openly declares that language has lost its ability as a tool of effective communication. Language is just a gabble of a deteriorating society. Hence, through senseless logic, inarticulate words, and incoherency. Beckett is sketching a world devoid of purpose or meaning. The peoples of this world can join with Lucky in crying, “Alas! Alas!” ‘                                    

                                   There is no escape from the hours and the days.
                                   Neither from tomorrow nor from yesterday because
                                   yesterday has deformed us, or been deformed by
                                   us…. Yesterday is not a milestone that has been
                                   passed, but a daystone on the beaten truck of the
                                   years, and irremediably part of us, within us, heavy
                                   and dangerous. We are not merely more weary
                                   becasue of yesterday, we are other, no longer
                                   what we were before the calamity of yesterday.16.

                        No one can be sure of life, of others, of himself. With time in such a constant flux, doubt overcomes the individual who cannot even ‘know’ himself. Vladimir and Estragon, not sure of the savior Godot, are not even sure of the messenger boy who comes each night to confirm ‘tomorrow’ appointment(17). The boy is not recognized and his silence to Vladimir’s question, ‘You’re sure you saw me, eh, you won’t come and tell me tomorrow that you never saw me before?” (18) acknowledges a future failure to recall the tramps. Neither are Pozzo and Lucky recalled despite the fact that less than twenty-four hours passed since their first appearance. Is anyone the same today as he was yesterday? After the master and slave depart, Vladimir comments upon a change in them since yesterday. Estragon, who at first mistook Pozzo for Godot, professes that he didn’t konow them at all.

                                                                         -19-

                      VLADIMIR :   Yes you do know them.
                      ESTRAGON :    No I don’t know them.
                      VLADIMIR :    We know them, I tell you. You forget everything. (Pause. To himself) Unless they’re not the same.
                       ESTRAGON :    Why didn’t they recognize us, then?
                       VLADIMIR :    That means nothing. I too pretended not to recognize them. And then nobody ever recognizes us (19).

                        To experience the action of time is to wait; however, since nothing real ever happens, that experience of time (which is change) is in itself an allusion. Time’s ceaseless activity is self-defeating, purposeless. All is null and void. ‘One day is like another, and when we die, we might never have existed'(20). Indeed, Beckett says that since man cannot remember his beginnings, he cannot be sure he even had a beginning. While relying on hearsay, man must trust that, if we did have any commencement at all, it is both arbitrary and abrupt. Life is an exile, a punishment for the crime of being born, a crime which no man chooses to commit. Death is needed for these Beckett heroes who suffer deep “angoise” -anxiety- from life; but either, (1) Death ends the problems of life without actually solving them, or
       (2) Life continues beyond death, thereby leaving the problems still unsolved. What is the end desired so badly? Death does not solve anything; furthermore, the characters, though alive, are not certain that they are not actually dead. In fact, they wonder if they are actually existing, or if life is a dream. All the Beckett character can do is wait and wait — for what he does not know. He must escape from this endless time, but such an escape is impossible.

                        However, man will never completely give up in spite of his depravity; he will always continue to wait, to hope. For what does man wait? For what does he hope? ‘Tonight perhaps we shall sleep in his place, in the warmth, dry, our bellies full, on the straw. It is worth waiting for that, it is not? (21)’  A haven miraculously provided by a loving, watchful master is the longed-for goal of the waiting tramps. They desire a peace and permanence which lies outside the fleeing illusion of time. They want a real home.

                          Thus, the play can be classified as a symbolical and even as a religious one, although the religious overtones are perhaps are perhaps just an extraneous accident. Man is searching for salvation; indeed, this is the subject of the drama. However, no particular creed is declared or even proposed either as a means to a final goal or as a solace. Actually, according to Beckett, no faith can be verified since doubt, not belief, results from the ‘sheer accidents’ surrounding the roots of religion.

                           VLADIMIR :   And yet… (Pause)… how it is — this is not
                           boring you I hope — how is it that of the four Evan-
                           gelists only one speaks of a thief being saved. The
                           four of them were there — or thereabouts — and
                           only one speaks of a thief being saved. (Pause.) Come
                           on, Gogo, return the ball, can’t you, once in a way?
                           ESTRAGON :   (with exaggerated enthusiasm) : I find this
                           really most extraordinarily interesting.
                           VLADIMIR :   One out of four. Of the other three two
                           don’t mention any thieves at all and the third says
both of them abused him.
                     ……………………………………………………………………….
                            ESTRAGON :   Well? They don’t agree and that’s all
there is to it.
                            VLADIMIR :   But all four were there. And only one
speaks of  a thief being saved. Why believe him rather than the others?
                             ESTRAGON :  Who believes him?
                             VLADIMIR :   Everybody. It’s the only version they know
                             (22).

                                                                        -20-

                             The crucification was witnessed by many, but only four men consigned it to written history. Millions believe in the saving of one thief, but why should one of four Evangelists be believed above the others? It is a reasonable percentage to trust that one of the two thieves was saved at the final moment, but is this actually true since the percentage of recorders mentioning the salvation is much less? The skeptical Estragon sneers,  ‘People are bloody ignorant apes’ (23). Chance, doubt, and despair bloats the lonely bodies existing on an unfriendly earth. Definitely, ‘It’s too much for one man'(24).

                         Vladimir and Estragon deliberate upon such common creeds
while awaiting their own earthly savior — the vague, misty, white-bearded Godot whose very name is reminiscent of the Almighty’s title (25).  This Godot, who has promised only to think over the supplication of the tramps, treats the messenger boy, who is a goatherd, well. The boy’s brother, a shepherd, is beaten by Godot. ‘And why doesn’t beat you?’ The child replies, ‘I don’t know, sir’ (26).

                             Overlooking the fact that Abel deserved preference because of his goodness, formed by the acts of his free will, Beckett continues an evident liking to Cain and Abel in the master’s ‘irrational’ preference of one lad over the other. The idea that Godot cherishes the minders of goats while beating the minders of sheep is contrary to the Lord’s action at the final judgment where ‘He shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left’ (27). This somewhat imaginary god of Vladimir and Estragon is totally irrational and unpredictable. Although God’s final coming will bring both joy and damnation, Godot’s coming could bring either — and the tramps have no idea which befall them. In the second act, when Estragon thinks Godot is approaching, his first thought is, ‘I’m accursed!’ While Vladimir exclaims, ‘It’s Godot! At last! Let’s go and meet him,’  Estragon runs away, shouting, ‘I’m in hell’ (28). Indeed, a religious flavor even colors the view of Godot which the tramps fear and yet yearn for. They asked help of him in ‘a kind of prayer’ (29); they will gather their courage, squelch their fears, and approach Godot ‘on our hands and knees’ (30).

                        But Godot, with his haven of hay and warmth, never comes. Vladimir and Estragon wait and wait unknowing of what Godot will look like or what he will do. They will never despair completely.

                                                                       -21-

                        The “timelessness” pattern of the play is evident particularly in Estragon whose memory is useless since each day is not only endless, but meaningless, since it resembles its predecessors so closely that it can not be distinguished readily from even the most immediate. To kill this eternity of hellish time, Vladimir and Estragon play games — ‘Let’s contradict each other, ‘Let’s abuse each other'(31).

                        Waiting for Godot, then, is the ‘angoisse’ of the individual who is at grips with time. The finite clutches madly at the infinite. But nothing ever ends — neither story nor song, neither argument nor Godot.

                         In the play, there is no peak or climax; however, there is a lowest depth, a “nadir”. This occurs in Act II when Pozzo, Lucky, Didi and Gogo are all lying in the road. None are upright until Didi pulls himself up and with great satisfaction announces: “We are men!” (32).

                         Indeed, Vladimir and Estragon are more than the flightly scribbles of Beckett’s pen; they are not simply tossed off thoughtlessly as ‘bloody, ignorant apes’ (33) which populace the earth. Representative of all men living in this world, they are friendless and yet commplimentary, alone and yet dependent. They belong to a category of Parisians known as “clochards” — poeple who have known better times and who often (as here) have originally been cultured and educated. They are living rejects of destiny and love their own position as outsiders (34). Out of their love of helplessness and of dreams which they make no attempt to realize, they form an inability that no love of helplessness and solitude, but only the human condition, afflicts Vladimir and Estragon, they do experience the frustrations and resentment which accompany a mixture of affection and interdependence.

                        The two tramps possesss complementary personalities which enable them to exist in their twilight state. Vladimir is the more practical and the more aware of the two; Estragon claims to have been a poet. As he eats his carrot, Estragon feels that the more he eats of it, the less he likes it; Vladimir is persistent; Estragon, volatile. Estragon dreams; Vladimir cannot bear to hear about dreams. Stinking breath has Vladimir, while Estragon acknowledges his stinking feet. Although Vladimir remembers past events and beliefs, Estragon cannot recal even the most prominent or the simplest. Vladimir is upset by the funny stories that Estragon delights in telling. Vladimir mainly keeps and voices the hope that Godot will bring salvation to them; the skeptical Estragon cannot even retain Godot’s name. Vladimir, the leader, converses with the messenger boy; Estragon, the weaker the two, is beaten by unknown strangers every night. Hence, Vladimir assumes the role of protector of Estragon whom he sings to sleep and covers like a baby. Since they are diametrically opposed, Vladimir and Estragon naturally tend toward endless bickering; however, since they have complementary natures, they are interdependent and have to stay together.

                                                                       -22-

                        Upon the simpler level are the equally complementary, Pozzo (the sadistic, merciless master) and Lucky (the submissive slave). Unlike Vladimir and Estragon, however, there is a definite chamge in these two. In Act I, Pozzo is a rich and powerful man, certain of himself; he represents wordly men in their illusive optimism and imaginary visions of power and permanence. Carrying not only Pozzo’s language, but also the whip with which he is beaten, Lucky dances and thinks for Pozzo, although not nearly as well as he could years prior. Since Lucky taught Pozzo all the higher values of life, Lucky and Pozzo represent the relationship between ‘mind’ and ‘body’, between the ‘spiritual’ and the ‘material’. However, Lucky’s enslavement depicts the subordination of the intellect to the bodily appetites. In the second act, Pozzo is still tied to Lucky; he has failed to sell him as he wanted to do, since Lucky’s powers were fading. But the change is obvious: Pozzo is now blind, Lucky is physically dumb.

                      Both master and servant, however, are still driven on by a desperate attempt to avoid the panic which would seize them if they lost their belief in what Pozzo stands for. Pozzo’s monosyllabic orders for Lucky are the end for both “men”. No other will but Pozzo’s exists: The whole universe for both is actually Pozzo. He destroys any growth by not listening to others and he ignores any urgency by fiddling with either his pipe or his mouth spray. Directly from this selfishness grows the pessimism which normally would not afflict a master free from want.

                                                                       -23-

                      Lucky earns his name for his life is organized by a master (be he cruel or not), who was actually extinguished any spark of spontaneity. His dancing is but a totter; his thought is nothing more than an endless repetition of meaningless words and phrases. While Lucky is the destroyed contact with man’s creative powers, Pozzo, a gruesome product of modern times, is a “small bundle of subjective feeling and responses” (36) which sometimes wallows in self pity but which represses its fears with narcissistic pretence.

                      Pozzo’s blindness and Lucky’s dumbness in Act II of Waiting for Godot fully manifest the inability to meet others. Despite this lack of understanding, of communication, of friendliness, neither Pozzo nor Lucky, Vladimir nor Estragon ever acknowledge defeat. There is no climax, but they do rise up, if only to an inexhaustible wait for nothing.

                                                               Ch.2 Footnotes

            (1) George R. Kernodle, “Invitation to the Theatre”, p.315;
            (2) “San Quentin News”, as quoted by Esslin, “Theatre”, xvı;
            (3) Beckett, “Waiting for Godot”, pp.:38-9;
            (4) Ibid., p.26;
            (5) Goethe,  “Faust”, Edwin Everett, Calvin Brown and John Wade, editors, in “Masterworks of World Literature”, p.596;
            (6) Beckett, “Godot”, p.8;
            (7) Ibid., p.45;
            (8) Ibid., p.69;

                              VLADIMIR :  All I know is that the hours are long, under these conditions, and constrain us to beguile them with proceedings with — how shall I say — which may at first sight seem reasonable, until they become a habit. You may say it to prevent our reason from foundering. No doubt. But has it not long been straying in the night without end of the abyssal depths?
              
                                                                       -24-

            (9) Indeed, if one cannnot communicate, one cannot understand and hence, one cannot hold any respect for another human being. However, this lack of respect would flow from the incapability to communicate, rather than be the cause of such a vice. Respect, nevertheless, is definitely lost as the dignity of man is destroyed. Beckett has no less than forty-five directions in which at least one of the characters loses his upright position, which already symbolizes the dignity of man;
         (10) Beckett, Godot, p.46;
         (11)  Ibid., p.51;
         (12)  Ibid., p.52;
         (13)  Ibid., p.30;
         (14)  Ibid., p.35;
         (15)  Richard Coe, “Samuel Beckett”,, p.53;
         (16)  Beckett, “Proust”, pp:2-3;
         (17)  In the original work, “En Attendant Godot”, Beckett save explicitly that the boy who came the second night is the same that come the first night.
         (18)  Beckett, “Godot”, p.80;
         (19)  Ibid., p.39;
         (20)  Esslin, “Theatre”, p.19;
         (21)  Beckett, “En Attendant Godot”, as quoted by Esslin, “Theatre”, p.19;
         (22)  Beckett, “Godot”, pp:6-7;
         (23)  Ibid., p.7;
         (24)  Ibid., p.4;
         (25)  While the name “Godot” is similar to the English name for the ‘Supreme Ruler’ of the universe, there are other logical origins for Beckett’s choosing of the earthly savior’s name. GODEAU was the name of the veteran French racing-cyclist, the “man on a bicycle”. In Russian, “god” means a ‘year’, or, quite frequently, ‘Father Time’. However, “ot” at the end of a word can denote a clown: “charl-ot”, “pierre-ot”. (Coe, “Beckett”, p.93); 
         (26) Beckett, “Godot”, p.62;
         (27) Matthew, “The Gospel According to Saint Mathew”, pp.25-33;
         (28) Beckett, “Godot”, p.62;
         (29) Ibid., p.11;
         (30) Ibid., p.12;
         (31) Ibid.,  p.64;     
         (32) Ibid.,  p.70;
         (33) Ibid.,  p.7;
         (34) Eva Matman, “Reflections on Samuel Beckett’s Plays” in Esslin, “Samuel Beckett: A Collection of Critical Essays”, p.121;
         (35) Esslin, “Theatre”, p.15;
         (36) D. Scott, as quoted by Eva Matman, “Reflections”, p.122.
                                         
                                                                     -25-

      CHAPTER III

                                     Out, out, brief candle!
                                     Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player
                                     That struts and frets his hour upon the stage
                                     And then is heard no more. It is a tale
                                     Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury
                                     Signifying nothing.

                Are the plays of the Theatre of the Absurd merely absurd tales which have no meaning? Is the theatre of the Absurd really absurd? Was Samuel Beckett a deranged author who scribbled his so-called ‘masterpiece’ Waiting for Godot, without any thought?  To discover the truth, the Theatre and its products must be investigated and then evaluated on two levels:
 (1) the artistic, and  (2) the philosophical.

                Ezra POUND once said, “Good writing is writing that is perfectly controlled, the writer says just what he means…” (2)  Hence, if the Absurdist playwright has expressed what he actually meant to express, then he Absurdist play is ‘good writing.’ However, can we call his work ‘great?’ Can we dare compare it to the works of Shakespeare and the other accepted masters? The ordinary critic would hasten to say no, for on quick examination, the Absurdist play does not conform to the five basic questions asked for a claim to greatness:

                Does the play:
                — possess universality of the appelal in time and space?
                — create living characters in convincing situations?
                — stir, move, enrich, or transfor us?
                — express its thought in beautiful or appropriate language?
                — teach life’s meaning and strengthen our own hand in facing life’s 
                      problems?

                On closer examination, however, the new type of drama does conform to Mersand’s basic requirements for greatness. In regard to the first question, the critic immediately connects the stark stage and dialogue with the twentieth century’s forlorn attitude that God is dead and man is alone in an unfriendly world. However, in former ages, did religious beliefs and rituals give meaning to the life of every single person? Where there none who floundered in a sea of doubt? Were there no pagans, atheists, Epicurians or materialists who doubted the existence of a god, and hence, the meaning of their own lives? We hardly think so. Hence, the lost validity -at least for some members of every society and age- of standards and concepts is beginning to be presented on stage.

                  Though unbelievable to the masses, though doubtful of their own vitality, the characters of the dramas in the Absurdist vein are actually living people. Not in a story do they portray various parts, but within a situation, a reoccuring yet static situation representing life on earth. No marvelously constructed intrigues, no devices, no climax glorify their roles. Rather, they are merely confused brethren who are stripped of the

                                                                     -26-

accidental circumstances of historical and social position, who are hounded by the basic situations of human existence, who are confronted with the basic choices in life. Man is faced ultimately with the absurdity of time itself; hence, he waits and waits — hating birth, confused of life, fearing death. Caught between birth and death, he views life as a series of misty illusions in a mirror which will never reflect ultimate reality.

                 The Theatre of the Absurd is not concerned with portraying the problems and lives of the pseudo-realistic characters which exist apart from the author’s inner world. It is not bothered with the representation of events, the narration of fate, or the adventures of characters. It does present the basic situation of one individual existence on earth. Hence, it is a “theatre of situation” rather than a “theatre of sequential events.”  Therefore, the language of the theatre is based upon concrete images, not upon argumentative or discursive speech. Since the Theatre of the Absurd is attempting to simply present a sense of being which inflicts all of mankind, it cannot investigate or solve the problems of conduct or morals”(4).

                                                                     -27-

                 The great classical drama will depict human emotions locked in conflict or opposing temperaments in clash. Projecting the author’s private world, such ‘valid’ characters are missing in the new genre; hence, the Theatre of the Absurd aims at concentration and depth. Naturally, dramatic, narrative and lyrical elements are necessary in every play; but the Absurdist play strives to avoid over-emphasis on such elements which tend to promote plot, characterization, psychology. The sole thing the new drama wishes to portray is the “intuition in depth” that nothing ever really happens. Such a complex idea cannot be presented in one single moment; the events conveying the thought must be spread out and repeated over and over again in an extension of time. But time s not necessary to any unfolding of plot.

                 The work of an Absurdist author can stir an audience in one of two directions: (1) Like the San Quentin inmates, the audiance can be held in suspence, for it comprehends the absurdity of life, or (2) like the countless Broadway ‘sophisticates’, The audience can leave the theatre, nauseous at the idea of such ‘trash’ infiltrating the great stages. However, no one can watch an Absurdist play without experiencing some kind of reaction.

                  For the audience who stays for the entire Absurdist drama, the customary identification with characters is difficult, especially if the audience can appreciate but cannot partake in the views and emotions of the author. Such views and emotions, motives and actions remain largely incomprehensible the characters, separated from the rest of humanity, become less than human. This inability to identify with the portrayed, hastens an audience acceptance of the play as “comical”. Thus, the sombre, bitter and violent theatre becomes a “comic theatre” where horror is combined with laughter.

                                                                      -28-

                  In the Theatre of the Absurd, the audience sees actions with lack obvious motivation, characters who are in constant flux, happenings that extend beyond the ordinary realm of rational experience. While the audience viewing a ‘normal’ play can guess what will happen next, the audience at an Absurdist play cannot work out an answer to the question of how the play will proceed. Rules of ordinary probability based upon fixed motives and characterizations are foreign to the  “new” play. “What is happening?” is a more vital question than “What will happen next?” Hence, dramatic suspense is not actually eliminated from the play. The spectator must formulate the questions necessarily to understand basic meaning of the drama, rather than search for a solution. Instead of proceeding from A to B to C -as is customary in most stories and plays-, the Absurdist works build up a complex pattern of images which will convey the essential meaning of life. The dramatic suspense rests in the endless wait for the complete pattern image, the complete nihilistic image.

                                  VLADIMIR:  After having sucked all the good out of
                                   him you chuck him away like a… like a banana skin.
                                   Really…

                                                                        -29-

                  While the language of the Absurdist play generally is poetic, being rich in images, the language simultaneously is extremely ugly. Stark and often vulgar, the lines reflect the meaningless anguish that wrenches man daily. As the tool of man who is constantly living and dying in miserable solitude, the language is also despairing and dying. Thus, the illegible, unpunctuated lines such as those composing Pozzo’s speech depicting the creation of the universe are more than a childish scrambling of letters on a blank page. Yet, at the same time, language is but the tokens in a game designed to pass eternal time: “…bable, bable, words like the solitary child who turns himself into children, two, three, so as to be together and whisper together in the dark… moment upon moment, patterng down (7).”  In a purposeless world devoid of ultimate objectives, it is time itself that drains even language of meaning and life.

                  Hence, although the language is not always beautiful, it is appropriate. Although speech communicates the absurdity in life, Beckett feels compelled to inform others of his bleak philosophy: ‘I’m obliged to speak…. I shall never be silent (8).” In Molloy he defines exactly what he must communicate:

                  I listen, and the voice is of a world collapsing endlessly, a frozen world, under a faint untroubled sky,… enough to see by, yes, and frozen too… only these leaning things, forever lapsing and crumbling away, beneath a sky without memory of morning or hope of night (9).

                   But does the Absurdist drama actually teach mankind anything of life? Does it solve any of the man’s problems? Does the audience benefit from three hours of attentive listening? Certainly, the play of the Absurdist cannot solve any problems. It is a play meant to portray man’s helplessness on earth; it can neither eliminate nor ease man’s misery. In Beckett’s Waiting for Godot, the tramps are left in their endless wait, still hoping, still despairing. Vladimir and Estragon’s greatest trial is not and cannot be resolved. However, the “new” drama does present man with a definite philosophy, a philosophy, which if true, has been deliberately ignored by men and dramatists alike. The Theatre of the Absurd openly and satirically castigates the stupidity of life lived unconsciously. In the Absurdist works is a sense of living death, of the mechanical senselessness of “half-unconscious lives”, and of the feeling of “human beings secreting inhumanity”(10).

                      In certain hours of lucidity, the mechanical aspect of
                      their gestures, their senseless pantomime, makes stupid ev-
                      erything around them. A man speaking on the telephone
                      behind a glass partition — one cannot hear him but observes
                      trivial gesturing. One asks oneself, why is he alive? This ma-
                      laise in front of man’s own inhumanity, this incalculable let-
                      down when faced with the image of what we are this ‘nausea’-
                      as a contemporary writer calls it also is the Absurd (11).

                                                                     -30-

                  Lou Bruder has described the plays of the Babel-writers as the
“swansong of bourgeois society” (12). Voicing the horror of a pseudo-society, the avant-garde theatre has survived the continual censure of almost two decades — and neither swansong nor society seems to be vanishing. As artificial people continue their masquerade in the world, the Theatre will continue to thrive in violent rebellion.

                 However, critics (whom Beckett has placed lowest on the social ladder — below moron, vermin, abortion, morpion, sewer-rat, curate and cretin (13) hasten to ridicule these contemporary dramas on the basis of the philosophy which forms the backbone and fiber of the plays. Ironically, Christian critics are split over  the question of the philosophical worth of the dramas. Many deride the entire Absurdist output which concretizes the Absurdist principles of futility, for they believe God gives meaning and order to life in this universe. The Redemptive act eliminates the hopelessness that inflates the lost souls. Lumley perhaps the best represents the combined criticism of these Christians who refuse to believe that man can, at times, doubt and be lost:

                         Even at the risk of a sounding like a second Clement Scott
                         writing on a new Ghosts, it seems to this writer that this
                         play is more akin to a cesspool of the degradations of 
                         human souls than a tragedy of misfortune. Is there no limit
                         to the depths to which man may descend and is there so
                         little faith left in man that he must lie here forgotten? Will
                         he never be given a resurrection, will we never again have
                         new horizons opened to us through the nobility of man and
                         be able to enter a world not altogether unlike our own where
                         there is no exploitations of facile optimism or morbid
                         despair? (14).

                                                                       -31-

                 However, there are those other Christian critics who, overlooking the frequent phrases of despair uttered by Vladimir and Estragon, wish to adapt the Absurdist plays top a modern Christian life. Though the name “Godot” is similar to the English title “God”, though the tree does not turn green, though perhaps Lucky and Pozzo do afford Vladimir and Estragon the one opportunity to give of themselves in a Christian manner — I am sure that Samuel  Beckett never meant his drama to be a Christian morality play. However, the scraggily tree will be pronounced again and again to be the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, the Tree of Life, the Cross, or the Tree of Judas. Again and again over-enthusiastic, but rather blind, critics will proclaim Waiting for Godot(and the other Absurdist dramas) to be a “modern morality play on permanent Christian themes” which represents the “tension and uncertainity in which the average Christian must live in this world” (15). Unfortunately, the statement of Beckett himself regarding who or what is meant by Godot is either ignored or rejected: “If I knew, I would have said so in the play(16)”.

                 To attempt to arrive at any clear-cut interpretation of Waiting for Godot by establishing the identity of Godot through critical analysis is as foolish as trying to discover the sketch lines behind one of Rembrant’s paintings by scraping away the layers of paint. In Waiting for Godot, the ebb and flow of uncertainty (from the hope of discovering Godot to its repeated disappointments felt by both trramps and audience) are in themselves the essence of the play.

                  Uncertainty! But according to the metaphysics of Gorgias of Lentini and his followers, the Absurdist play cannot even exist, nevermind be of one or another school:

                  (1) There is nothing which has any real existence;
                  (2) That even if anything did exist, it could not be known;
                  (3) That supposing real existence to be knowable, the knowled-
                       ge would be incommunicable (17). 

                  In arguing the third of these propositions, Gorgias states that language is inadequate to convey ideas and that it is impossible for any idea to be the same in even two different minds. It is with this third proposition that Beckett wrestles. Speech is his medium and yet it is inadequate to convey the haunting misery which fills him and the men whom he urges to
think regarding their situations. Easy is it to inspire men to joy and glory; most difficult, to have them acknowledged, even privately, the gloom that overshadows every second of life according to the existential philosophy. Pozzo mirrors the impatience which frustrates the man driven by Beckett and his comrades: “Have you not done tormenting me…” (18). 

                                                                     -32-

                  Be Beckett’s nihilistic, nauseous philosophy a real philosophy buried deep in the breast of men or a fanciful product of his restless imagination, his plays and those of the other Absurdists do actually exist. The Greeks produced works which continue to be acclaimed centuries later: The truth or falsity of the Greek culture with its realms of intervening gods does not affect the value of the plays as much. Be the philosophies enhancing the Grecian dramas the product of the author’s private beliefs or the generally accepted ideas of the people, be the philosophies true or false — the plays remain the same. Their work is decided according to the criteria which Ezra Pound exhorts:

                “All is still. No living soul in sight. There is no one to ask. The world is feeding. The wind scarcely stirs the leaves and the birds are tired singing. The cows and sheep ruminate in silence. The dogs are hushed and the hens sprawl torpid in the dust. We are alone. There is no one to ask. (19).”

                 Perhaps Beckett’in lines pertain not only to humanity as humanity — perhaps they pertain also to the individuals watching the avant-garde theatre. Let the individual spectator view the play, retire in solitude and dwell upon how much Beckett’s philosophy pertain to his own life. How alone is he? Can he hope to achieve any happiness? What is the purpose, the meaning of life? The individual in the audience must question himself. There is no one to ask, no authority to explain. Even if there were someone to quiz about the innermost questions of life, there would be no reply — “pas de reponse!” (20) While man can perhaps agree with Pozzo’s appraisal of the world, he cannot agree with Pozzo’s response:

                   “The tears of the world are a constant quantity. For each one who begins to weep somewhere else another stops. The same is true of the laugh. Let us not then speak ill of our generation, it is not any unhappier than its predecessors. Let us not speak well of it either. Let us not speak of it at all (21).”

                    The observor of the Absurd must go and decide for himself the meaning of life “on this bitch of an earth” (22).

                                                                     -33-

                                                        Ch. ııı  Footnotes;

                (1)  Shakespeare, “Macbeth”, vol.1, pp:24-8, as printed in G.B. Harrison, Shakespeare: Major Plays and the Sonnets, p.860;
                (2)  Ezra Pound, “Literary Essays”, p.50;
                (3)  Joseph Mersand, “The Play’s the Thing”, as quoted by Edward Wright, ‘Understanding Today’s Theatre, p.65;
                (4)  Esslin, Theatre, pp.293-4;
                (5)  Ibid., p.294;
                (6)  Beckett, Godot, p.25;
                (7)  Beckett, Endgame, p.70;
                (8)  Beckett, as quoted by Jean-Jacques Mayous, Samuel Beckett and Universal Parady; in Esslin, Samuel Beckett, p.81;
                (9)  Beckett, Molloy, p.53;
                (10)Esslin,Theatre, p.291;
                (11)Albert Camus, “Le Mythe de Sisyphe”, as quoted by Esslin, Theatre, pp.291-2;
                (12)Lou Bruder, as quoted by Pronko, Avant-Garde, p.206;
                (13)Beckett, Godot, p.64;
                (14)Frederick Lumley, Trends in Twentieth Century Drama, p.142;
                (15)George Wellwarth, The Theatre of Protest and Paradox: Developments in the Avant-Garde Drama, p.40;
                (16)Beckett,as quoted by Alan Schueider,in Esslin,Theatre, p.12; 
                (17)Gorgias’ Philosophy, as summarized in the Encyclopaedia Britannica is quoted by A.J. Leventhal, “The Beckett Hero”; in Esslin’s “Samuel Beckett”, p.46.
                (18)Beckett, <Godot, p.77;
                (19)Beckett, “All That Fall”, as quoted by Leventhal,The Beckett Hero, p.51;
               (20)Beckett, “Comment C’est”, as quoted by Pronko, Avant-Garde, p.51;
               (21)Beckett, Godot, pp.24-5;
               (22)Ibid., p.29.

                                                                     -34-

                                                ——-CONCLUSION——

                            There is nothing to express, nothing with which
                            to express, nothing from which to express, no
                            power to express, no desire to express, together
                            with an obligation to express. —
                                                                       J. Mitchall Morse

                 The technically honest but spiritually nauseating works of Absurdists have been similtaneously ignored, rejected and acclaimed. As literary creations portraying well the nihilism of the Absurdist existential philosophy, they are good, perhaps even truly great works. As the exposition of the soul who continually flounders in a dark and murky sea, the dramas of the Theatre of the Absurd must be accepted or rejected by the individual in accordance with his own beliefs. But these new dramas cannot be ignored any longer by the intelligent human being who lives consciously in this twentieth century. Samuel Beckett and his companions in this developing, degenerating Theatre of the Absurd have paved the way for those who are searing for the secrets of not only their inner, essential beings, but also life upon earth. The door to life is ajar; now the individual human being can open it fully and then step beyond it into either chosen darkness or brillant light.

                                                                      -35-

                                              ——–BIBLIOGRAPHY——-

ABEL, Lionel. “Metathatre: A New View of Dramatic Form”. Hill and Wang,
        New York, 1963.
BECKETT, Samuel. “Endgame followed by act Without Words”, Grove Press,
        New York, 1958.
          ”                 ”     “Happy Days.”, Grove Press, New York, 1961.
          ”                 ”     “Molloy.”, Grove Press, New York, 1955.
          ”                 ”     “Proust.”, Grove Press, New York,  no date.
          ”                 ”     “Waiting for Godot.”, Grove Press, New York 1954.
 COE, Richard. “Samuel Beckett.”, Grove Press, New York, 1964.
 ESSLIN, Martin. Ed. “Samuel Beckett: A Collection of Critical Essays.”
        Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, 1965. 
 ESSLIN, Martin. “The Theatre of the Absurd.”, Doubleday & Comp.,
        New York, 1961.
 EVERETT, Edwin M.; BROWN, Calvin S.; WADE, John D.; Editors, “Master-
        works of World Literature.”, Vol.II; Holt, Rinhart and Winston,
        New York, 1962.
 GASGOIGNE, Bamber. “Twentieth-Century Drama.”, Barrie & Rockliff,
       London, 1960.
 HARRISON, G.B. “Shakespeare: Major Plays and the Sonnets.”, Harcourt,
       Brace & World, Inc., New York, 1948.
 HOFFMAN, Frederick J. “Samuel Beckett: The Language of Self.”, E.P. Dutton
       & Co., Inc., New York, 1964.
 JACOBSEN, Josephine; MUELLER, William R. “The Testament of Samuel     
       Beckett.”, Hill and Wang, New York, 1967.
 KERNODLE, George R.; “Invitation to the Theatre.”, Harcourt, Brace &     
       World Inc., New York, 1967.
 KERR, Walter; “The Theatre in Spite of Itself.”,  Simon and Schuster, 
       New York, 1963.
 KOPIT, Arthur L.; “Oh Dad, Poor Dad, Mamma’s Hung You in the Closet and
       I’m Feeling So Sad.”, Hill and Wang, New York, 1960.
 LUMLEY, Frederick. “Trends in Twentieth Century Drama.” Barry and
       Rockcliff, London, 1960.
 The NEW CATHOLIC EDITION of the BIBLE.”, Catholic Book Publishing
       Company, New York, 1952.
 POUND, Ezra. “Literary Essays.” New Directions, Norfolk, Conn., 1954.
 PRONKO, Leonard Cabell. “Avant-Garde: The Experimental Theater in
       France.” University of California Press, Los Angeles, Calif., 1964.
 WELLWARTH, George. “The Theater of Protest and Paradox: Developments
       in the Avant-Garde Drama.” New York University Press, New York,
       1964.
 WRIGHT, Edward A.; “Understanding Today’s Theater.” Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
        Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1959.

                                                                    ————

         Aşağı yukarı 50 yıl sonra, Türkiye-İstanbul’da,  Tiyatro çalışmalarımız esnasında, esinlenerek “Uyumsuz Tiyatro-Absurd Theatre” hakkında düşün-
düklerimi aşağıya kaydediyorum. Lisan bilmeyen ya da bildiği halde konuya başka açıdan bakma fırsatı verecek bu yazım için, okuyanlara şimdiden teşekkür ederim.

                                                                                                Dr. İsmail Ersevim

                                            A b s ü r d  (Uyumsuz)  T i y a t r o

            Brecht klasik tiyatrodan ayrılım stilini empoze ederken, özellikle Varoluşçuluk felsefesinin (existentialism) ve onun bayrağını taşıyanların, örneğin Jean-Paul Sartre  ve Camus, felsefi görüş ve yazışmalar, roman ve piyeslerinin etkisi altında da, yeni bir akım tiyatroyu da içine alacak şekilde Avrupanın kültür sahnelerini işgal etmeye başlamıştı. Bu da, A b s ü r d (Esasında saçma, anlamsız, fakat Edebiyat dilinde ‘Uyumsuz’) T i y a t r o  akımıdır.

            J.Paul Sartre’ın Exit’ini hep hatırlarız. ‘No exit’ – Çıkış Yok diye sahnelenmişti özellikle; Boston’da Fransızcasını, İstanbul’da Türkçesini izledim. Sahne açılır, izbe, mahzen gibi yerde üç dört tutuklu diye nitelendirebileceğimiz kişiler ‘ne suçlar’ işlediklerinden bahsederler, örneğin bir hırsız, bir sokak kadını vb. Arada bir kapı açılır ve içeriye bir başkası tıkılır. Bir az sonra anlarız ki, burası ‘öteki dünya’dır ve insanlar, hayatta iken yaptıklarının muhasebesini tartışmakla meşguldürler. Bunda, hiç olmazsa toparlanmış bir konu vardır, ‘absürd’ olaylar ardarda gelmez, ne de olsa, gelenek dışı bir zaman ve mekanda, bir sonuca varmak istenmeksizin anımsamalar devam eder. Bir gerçek, “varoluşun anlamsızlığı” (absurdity) ana tema’dır. Bilindiği gibi sözcük olarak ‘absurd’, Camus’nun hediyesidir ve hayatın anlamsızlığını ve ‘kendi’ yabancılaşmasını “Yabancı” (L’étranger) da ebedileştirmiştir.

            1880’lerde Nietzsche’nin “tanrının ölümü’ kuramının ortaya atmasından sonra dini inanışın çöküşü, Stalin’in baskıcı diktatörlüğü, Hitler’in uygarlığa yaptığı barbarlık ve en sonunda, Atom Bombası’nın insanlığın ‘yaşam ümidi’ni yitirmesi, ABD’nin zengin toplumlarında gözlemlenen ahlak çöküntüsü, yaşamın anlamsızlığını perçinleştiren sosyal gelişimler oldu.

            “Absürd Tiyatro”nun liderlerinden Beckett ve Adamov’un oyunları ilk kez sahnelendiğinde, izleyici ve eleştirmenler, alışılmışın dışında birşeylerin ‘tiyatro’ adı altında takdim edilmesinden çok rahatsız olup tepki göstermişlerdi. Yüzyıllardanberi tiyatroyu tiyatro yapan ölçütler yerle bir edilmiş gibi görünüyordu.

            Bu tür tiyatroda; iyi tasarlanmış bir tiyatro oyunundan, iyi gözlemlenmiş, karakterleri iyi çizilmiş bir takım aktörlerin, konuları iyi sınırlanmış oyunları sunmaları yerine, bu oyunlarda çoğunlukla tanımlanması güç karakterler ve anlamsız eylemler gözlenir. Diyalog’lar, anlamsız ve gayesiz birtakım ‘söz salataları’dır. Klasik bir oyunda gözlediğimiz ‘başı, gelişimi ve sonu belli’ bir oyun yerine, ‘rasgele’ bir başlayış ve ‘rasgele’ bir bitiş var gibidir. Yazarlar, bir öykü anlatmak niyetinde değillerdi. Peki bunlar bizlere ne vermek istiyorlardı? Bizlere, içlerindeki dürtüye uyarak, bir sanatçı olarak,  d ü n y a y ı   a n l a y ı ş   b i ç i m l e r i n i  sergilemek isitiyorlardı.

Yukarda da belirtildiği gibi, bu yazarların tiyatro felsefeleriyle Heidegger, Sartre ve Camus’nun ‘Varoluşçu Felsefesi’ ile birçok ortak noktalara sahiptirler. Mamafih, bir bakımdan o kadar da devrimci sayılmayabilirler. Bazı kritik’ler, bu cereyana, antik-arkaik tiyatro ve edebiyat geleneklerinin yeni bir bileşimi olarak bakarlar.

A b s ü r d  Tiyatro’nun başını, yazılarının çoğunu Fransızca yazan –mamafih Dante’yi orijinal İtalyancadan da okuyabilen- Samuel Beckett çeker. 1906 Dublin, İrlanda doğumlu, protestan inançlı ve varlıklı bir ailenin oğlu olan bu büyük yazar Tüm Düşenler, Oyun Sonu, Sözsüz Oyun gibi eserlerinin yanında, Godot’yu Beklerken, onun en meşhur yapıtı ve bu ekolün en tipik bir örneği sayılır. 19 Kasım 1957’de San Quentin Hapishanesinde takdim edildiği zaman, tüm mahkumlar huşu içersinde onu izlemişlerdi. ‘Şekil’ (form) bakımından en mükemmeli sayılan bu eser; yanında Varoluşçu yazarlar, ardında İkinci Dünya Savaşının dehşeti”, yazarın kendisinin yıllarca hayat ve sevgi arayışından sonra, bu dünya yüzünde yaşayan hemen herkesin varlığını dolduran, insanı felce uğratabilecek ümitsizliğin bir ifadesi olarak saygınlık görmüştür.

            Prof. Ayşegül Yüksel’in çevirdiği şu satırlar, Beckett’in şairliğinin derecesini göstermektedir:

            ‘Nasıl da bilirdi
            hiçbir sözün
            biçim veremediğini
            yaşamın karmaşasına.’

             Beckett, “post-modern modernist” olarak tanındı. Düşüncelerini, dünya görüşlerini benimsemeksizin kullanırdı. Yapıtları, zaman ve mekan (uzam) sınırlarını aşarak bir özgürlük arama yolundadırlar. Prens Hamlet’in son sözleri “..gerisi, sessizliktir!” olmuştu. Dünyanın bütün okyanuslarının parmaklarındaki kanları silemeyeceği Lady Macbeth için yaşam “..yürüyen bir gölge ve hiçbir anlamı olmayan bir masal..”dı.

            Beckett, insanoğlunun ‘altın çağı’ olarak nitelendirilmesi gereken bu asırda, altın çağın yüzeysel parıltılarının altındaki ‘çıplak gerçeği’ görebilmiştir. İnsan uygarlığının çözüşmeye başladığı, Batı uygarlığının ‘kişisellik-bireycilik’ anlayışının iflas ettiği; geçmiş değerlerle ilişkisini koparmış, geleceğin değerlerini yaratamayan, hem dünyanın vazgeçilmez ‘varlığı’ ve hem de ‘ölüme yazgılı’ varoluşa başkaldıran bir kişidir.

            Şimdi sizlere, önemi dolayısıyla, “Godot’yu Beklerken”in kısa bir özetini verelim.

            Kimsenin gelmediği, kimsenin gitmediği, hiçbir şeyin olmadığı, bir ıssız yol kenarında, “bilinç”in sesine, karşılıklı konuşma şeklinde işitsellik kazandıran VLADIMIR ve ESTRAGON, sanki atom bombasının herşeyi yok ettiği dünyada kalmış son iki canlıdır. Bir “umut” olarak, gördükleri ya da görmedikleri GODOT’nun onlarla buluşmaya gelmesini, ya da gelmemesini beklerken, sıradan bir şekilde çok yavaş akan zamanı doldurmak için durmadan konuşurlar ve oyun oynarlar.

            VLADIMIR ve ESTRAGON, yüzlerce yıl biryerlere gitmezler. Konuşmaları artık ritüel’e dönmüştür. Onlar, birey olma özelliklerini yitirmişlerdir, onları kimse tanımaz, kimse anımsamaz. Oyunun iki perdesi de aynı biçimde başlar ve aynı biçimde sonlanır. 

 

            Onlarla karşılaşan POZZO ve LUCKY, bir başka gerçeklik düzeyinde yer alırlar. Varoluşları ‘zaman’ ve ‘uzam’ın belirleyiciliği ile sınırlanmış olan, “eşit” konumdaki VLADIMIR-ESTRAGON ikilisi karşısında, efendi-köle ilişkisini simgeleyen bu ‘hareketli’ ikili, “toplumsal insan”ın örneğini verirler; ama, iki perde arasında çökerler, zira zaman hızla akmaktadır. POZZO kör olur, LUCKY ise dilsizleşir ve diğer ikiliyle anlamsızlık çizgisi içinde buluşurlar. POZZO der: “..bize, mezar taşının yanı başında yaşam vermişler. Bir gün ışıyor, sonra yine gece…”

            B e c k e t t,  Aralık 1989 da bu dünyadan göçtü. Tüm insanlık hala Godot’nun gelişini bekliyor ve bekleyecek de.

            Bu ekol’ün diğer bellibaşlı yazarlarından da kısa örnekler verelim:

            Eugene Ionesco. 1953 Romanya doğumlu. En meşhur eseri: Amédée. Konusu özet olarak şu:

            Orta yaşlı bir karı koca, gerçek yaşamla ilgisi olmayan bir şekilde sunulurlar. Adam, bir oyun yazarıdır; kadın ise bir telefon santralı işletir.

            Karı-kocanın yatak odalarında, yıllardanberi orada kalan, olası kadının sevgilisine ait bir ceset vardır. Kocası mı onu öldürdü, yoksa o bir soyguncu mu idi, belli değildir. Diğer acayip bir nokta da, bu kimliği belirsiz ceset, “geometrik büyüme”ye yakalanmış olarak gitgide büyümektedir. Sonunda, dev bir ayak, yatak odasından oturma odasına yürür, neredeyse karı kocayı evden dışarı atma konumuna gelir.

            Ionesco, gerçekte gördüğü bir düşü sahnelemiştir ve insanlar, arada bir böyle saçma görünen ‘metamorfozik’ düşler görebilirler. (Kafka’nın Metamorphosis’ini nasıl unutabiliriz?)

            Önemli nokta, “büyüyen ceset” imgesinin ne olduğunu düşünmektir. ‘Hayat geçicidir, yaşayanlardan fazla, ‘büyüyen bir ölü sayısı var!” mı demek istiyor? bilmiyoruz. Fakat yazar, bu gibi çağrışımlarla, konunun altında saklı şiirsel gücü pekiştirmektedir. T.A.L. de, Dramaturg ve şair Haluk Şevket Ataseven’in her zaman tekrarladığı gibi, “Tiyatro topluma, kişinin toplum ve yaşamla olan çatışması sonucu oluşan bir üst düzeydeki şiir dilini, şiirsel bir boyutta veriyor.

             Oyunda, cesedin büyümesinden dolayı bir devinim vardır, ama oyun yine de durağan’dır. Tanık olduğumuz devinim, şiirsel imgenin giderek belirginleşmesinin bir sonucudur. Bu imge ne kadar belirsiz ve karmaşıksa, onu ortaya çıkarma süreci de o kadar karmaşık ve şaşırtıcı olur.    

            Ionesco’nun diğer önemli bir yapıtı da:  “Kiracı” dır. Kısa bir özetini verelim.

            Bir çatı katını kiralamak isteyen bir adam vardır. Adam, katı ölçer, biçer ve gereksinimine uygun bulur ve odaya eşyalarını taşır. Odaya eşya yığılır. Adam, yığılan eşyaların yanında bir masaya uzanmıştır. Eşya, sonunda adamın yanına, üstüne yığılarak etrafını bir koza gibi örer. Sonuçta adam, orada hapsolmuş olarak kalır.

            Oyundaki tek devinim, eşyanın taşınmasıdır. Eşya yığını bir meskeni mi, yoksa bir mezarı mı temsil ediyor? Dünya gibi tehlikeli bir ortamda, kendisini ancak ‘koza’sında, giderek mezarında güvencede hisseden insanın dramını yansıtan bir kara mizah mı? Bilmiyoruz.

            Fernando Arrabal, 1932’de İspanya’da doğdu. La Tri-cicleta (1953) oyunu sansüre uğrayınca, Paris’e gelerek Fransızca yazmaya başladı. Pique-nique en campagne (1951) ve Orchestration Théatrale (1959) eserlerinin yanında  İ k i   İ ş k e n c e c i  en popüler soyut tiyatro eserleridir.

            “İki İşkenceci”de, annesinin babasına uyguladığı işkencelere karşı çıkan asi oğlan, ahlak yasalarının yarattığı i k i l e m’le karşı karşıyadır. Ya babasının yanını tutup, acı çeken kurbanı işkenceden kurtarmayı gerektiren insancıl bir iyilik yapacak, ya da annesini onore etmek için ona boyun eğecektir.
            Anne, babasına işkence yaptırdığı için, burada ahlak yasaları, dolayısıyla da tüm sistem bir çekişme içinde bulunmaktadır.  Arrabal, yalnızca bu duruma dikkati çekip bunun kendi algı sisteminin ötesinde birşey olduğunu vurgular ama, bu durumu yargılamayı yadsır.

            Edward Albee, 1928 U.S.A. doğumlu olup, bu alandaki en belirli eseri Hayvanat Bahçesi Masalı’dır.

            Bu romanda, birçok boyutlar vardır. Bir yandan, gerçek anlamda bir kişiliğin bölünmesi çalışması, diğerinde de, törensel, ritüelistik ve sembolik bir düzeyde, İsa dirilmekte ve garip koşulları bulunan bir törende kişi, kendini kurban etmektedir.

                                                                                  *

            Özet olarak  A b s ü r d   T i y a t r o  F e l s e f e s i  şöylece özetlenebilir:

            Yazarlar, artık, bu sıkıntı asrında, derli toplu psiko-sosyal çözümlerin bulunabileceğine inanmıyorlar. Onlar; insan yaşamında gözlemledikleri tutarsızlık ve anlamsızlığı endişe, belirsizlik, ve çaresizlik duygularını ifade edebilme peşindedirler (Tıpkı Egzistansiyalistler gibi!) Ama onların, akılcı bir şekilde düzenleyip yöneltilen bir  e v r e n’in varlığına inançları yok. Yazarlar; insanın yok oluş sürecinin yarattığı şaşkınlığı, kesin çizgileri çizilmiş ve gerçekten iyi bilinen inanç ve değer sistemlerinin yitirilmesini işlerler. Bunları, bir az ilerde, Modern Tiyatro görüşleri ile karşılaştıracağız.

                                                                          *

 

           ‘Modern Tiyatro” ve  Grotowski’ye geçmeden, Cumhuriyet Gazetesinin 19 Haziran 1997 tarihli sayısında yayınlanan, Richard Sennett’ın yazdığı ve Serpil Durak, Abdurrahman Yılmaz’ın çevirdiği gerçekten çok değerli bir makaleyi burada tekrarlamaktan kendimi alamayacağım. Başlık :  KAMUSAL İNSANIN ÇÖKÜŞÜ : Benliğine gömülen çağdaş insanın tarihsel öyküsü.

            18. Yüzyılda Londra ve Paris’e büyük bir göç vardı. Yeni gelen insanlar hemen iş bulabiliyorlardı, çünkü işgücü açığı vardı. Kente gelen insanların henüz kimliği oluşmamıştı. Bu nedenle herkes birbirine yabancıydı. O yıllarda bu büyük kentler, insanların birbirlerini tanımak için büyük çabalar harcadıkları yerlerdi. Kamusal alan, yabancıların kendilerini birbirlerine ifade edebilecekleri alanı yansıtmaktaydı.

            İ f a d e  eylemi, konuşma, giyim ve davranışla gerçekleşmektedir. Bu eylem içinde, herkesin rolü vardır.R o l, duruma uygun, o ana özgü ve beklenen  d a v r a n ı ş  b i ç i m i’dir. Roller, aynı zamanda, kendimizi ve karşımızdakileri ne kadar ciddiye aldığımızın ipuçlarını da içinde barındırır.

            T e a t r a l l ı ğ ı n  kamusal yaşamla kendine özgü, dostça bir ilişkisi vardır. Kamusal roller, tıpkı tiyatroda olduğu gibi; seyirci, inanırlığın kalıcı olması, kamusal bir coğrafya yaratması ve rol yapan kişinin ifadesini yapılandırmasını gerekli kılar. Kendi benliğimize kapanıp kalmamızın önünü açar. 18. yüzyıl insanı, bu ilişkileri, bir  a k t ö r  tavrında kuruyordu. Kendi kişiliğini sergilemeye gerek duymadan rolünü yapıyor, kahvehanelerde, kafelerde, parklarda, ya da kentte öteki kamusal alanlarda, “öteki”lerle ilişkiye geçiyordu. Burada, tıpkı bir aktör gibi, kendi benliğini öne çıkarmak yerine, duyguların takdimini yapıyordu. Bir café’de gördüğü kazayı anlatan insan, buna kendi benliğini katmadan ortaya çıkan trajik sonucu anlatıyordu. Yani günümüz insanı gibi, bu kazayı, kendi derin duygularını, bu acı olay karşısında benliğinin gösterdiği yüceliği ifade etmek yerine, o olayı bir o y u n c u   g i b i  aktarıyor, kişileştirmiyordu. Kişisel yaşam, teatrallikle iç içeydi. Oysa özel alanın teatrallikle ilişkisi düşmancaydı. Mahremiyetin sergilenmesi, kişiyi ürkütüyordu. Bu nedenle konuşma, davranış ve giysilerin bir ifade aracından olmasından kaçınma gündeme geliyordu. Bu açıdan da, 18. yüzyıla baktığımızda, sahne ile sokak arasında yakınlaşma görürüz. 1750’lerde Paris’te sokakta giyilen giysiler, sahnedekilerle benzerlik taşıyordu. 18. yüzyıl insanı bir aktör, bir icracıydı. Ancak, bir sonraki yüzyıl, herşey ferahlaşmıştı.

              19. yüzyıl tarihe s a n a y i   k a p i t a l i z m i’ni armağan etti. Bu da toplumsal yaşamda büyük değişikliklere neden oldu. 18. yüzyılda kamusal olanla özel olan arasında oluşan denge, sanayi kapitalizminin toplumun her alanında yarattığı değişiklik ve köklü düzenlemelere direnir gibi direnir gibi görünmesine, hatta konulara kimi kurallarla sağlamlaşmış gibi durmasına karşın, içten içe bozulmaya başlamıştı. Gerçekte kazananlara bile çok şey yitirdiği bir sistem olan ‘kapitalizm’, insan varlığını fiziksel ve tinsel olarak tehdit etmeye başladı. İşsizlik, açlık, patlayan suç dalgaları sosyal yaşamda ağırlığını hissettirmeye başladı. İnsani değerler, kapitalist rekabetin zorunlu yasalarının uygulanmasıyla yıkılmaya, üretilen mal ve hizmetler, en büyük değer haline geldi. Günümüzün de en büyük sorunu olan yabancılaşmanın ekonomik nedeni böylece oluştu. İnsanlar, korunmak için, özel alanın en sağlam kalesi gibi görünen  a i l e’yi seçtiler kendilerine. Ve ailelerine kapandılar. Çünkü kamusal olan artık güvenilmez, ahlaki bakımdan düşük bir ilişkiler yumağıydı.

            19. yüzyılda kamusal alandan kaçışın ilk belirtileri,  s a h n e  i l e  s o k a k  a r a s ı n d a k i  b e n z e r l i k l e r i n   o r t a d a n   k a l k m a s ı y l a  başladı. Artık sahnedeki oyuncular, canlandırdığı kişiliğe uygun kostümlerle sahneye çıkmaya özen gösteriyorlardı. Sahneyle izleyici arasında kalan, çizgilerle çizilmiş bir mesafe oluşmaya başlıyordu. Tiyatro salonlarına sessizlik ve karartmalar ilk kez 1870 yılında gerçekleştirildi. İzleyici artık pasif bir hale gelmişti. Sokaktaki durum da buna uygundu. Yabancılardan korkan insanlar, onlarla konuşmaktan, ilişki kurmaktan korkuyorlardı. T i y a t r o’da olduğu gibi insanlar kamusal yaşamda pasif izleyiciler durumuna geliyorlardı. Kendilerini açıklamak gereği duymadıkları için , r o l  de yapmıyorlardı. Böylece, teatrallik ile sokaktaki davranış birbirinden kesin olarak kopuyordu. Sosyal yaşama egemen olan aldatma, gizemlilik ve yanılsama, açıklığın, yabancılarla ilşki kurmanın yanlış olduğunu her gün yeni olaylarla kanıtlıyordu. Bu durumda  tiyatro, insanlar için başka anlamlar kazanıyordu.

            Özetle, “hiçbir şifre çözme çabası gerektirmeyen sahici yaşam, ancak  s a h n e  s a n a t ı n ı n  himayesi altında ortaya çıkıyordu.”

 

 

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A b s ü r d  (Uyumsuz)  T i y a t r o

 

 

            Brecht klasik tiyatrodan ayrılım stilini empoze ederken, özellikle Varoluşçuluk felsefesinin (existentialism) ve onun bayrağını taşıyanların, örneğin Jean-Paul Sartre  ve Camus, felsefi görüş ve yazışmalar, roman ve piyeslerinin etkisi altında da, yeni bir akım tiyatroyu da içine alacak şekilde Avrupanın kültür sahnelerini işgal etmeye başlamıştı. Bu da, A b s ü r d (Esasında saçma, anlamsız, fakat Edebiyat dilinde ‘Uyumsuz’) T i y a t r o  akımıdır.

            J.Paul Sartre’ın Exit’ini hep hatırlarız. ‘No exit’ – Çıkış Yok diye sahnelenmişti özellikle; Boston’da Fransızcasını, İstanbul’da Türkçesini izledim. Sahne açılır, izbe, mahzen gibi yerde üç dört tutuklu diye nitelendirebileceğimiz kişiler ‘ne suçlar’ işlediklerinden bahsederler, örneğin bir hırsız, bir sokak kadını vb. Arada bir kapı açılır ve içeriye bir başkası tıkılır. Bir az sonra anlarız ki, burası ‘öteki dünya’dır ve insanlar, hayatta iken yaptıklarının muhasebesini tartışmakla meşguldürler. Bunda, hiç olmazsa toparlanmış bir konu vardır, ‘absürd’ olaylar ardarda gelmez, ne de olsa, gelenek dışı bir zaman ve mekanda, bir sonuca varmak istenmeksizin anımsamalar devam eder. Bir gerçek, “varoluşun anlamsızlığı” (absurdity) ana tema’dır. Bilindiği gibi sözcük olarak ‘absurd’, Camus’nun hediyesidir ve hayatın anlamsızlığını ve ‘kendi’ yabancılaşmasını “Yabancı” (L’étranger) da ebedileştirmiştir.

            1880’lerde Nietzsche’nin “tanrının ölümü’ kuramının ortaya atmasından sonra dini inanışın çöküşü, Stalin’in baskıcı diktatörlüğü, Hitler’in uygarlığa yaptığı barbarlık ve en sonunda, Atom Bombası’nın insanlığın ‘yaşam ümidi’ni yitirmesi, ABD’nin zengin toplumlarında gözlemlenen ahlak çöküntüsü, yaşamın anlamsızlığını perçinleştiren sosyal gelişimler oldu.

            “Absürd Tiyatro”nun liderlerinden Beckett ve Adamov’un oyunları ilk kez sahnelendiğinde, izleyici ve eleştirmenler, alışılmışın dışında birşeylerin ‘tiyatro’ adı altında takdim edilmesinden çok rahatsız olup tepki göstermişlerdi. Yüzyıllardanberi tiyatroyu tiyatro yapan ölçütler yerle bir edilmiş gibi görünüyordu.

            Bu tür tiyatroda; iyi tasarlanmış bir tiyatro oyunundan, iyi gözlemlenmiş, karakterleri iyi çizilmiş bir takım aktörlerin, konuları iyi sınırlanmış oyunları sunmaları yerine, bu oyunlarda çoğunlukla tanımlanması güç karakterler ve anlamsız eylemler gözlenir. Diyalog’lar, anlamsız ve gayesiz birtakım ‘söz salataları’dır. Klasik bir oyunda gözlediğimiz ‘başı, gelişimi ve sonu belli’ bir oyun yerine, ‘rasgele’ bir başlayış ve ‘rasgele’ bir bitiş var gibidir. Yazarlar, bir öykü anlatmak niyetinde değillerdi. Peki bunlar bizlere ne vermek istiyorlardı? Bizlere, içlerindeki dürtüye uyarak, bir sanatçı olarak,  d ü n y a y ı   a n l a y ı ş   b i ç i m l e r i n i  sergilemek isitiyorlardı.

Yukarda da belirtildiği gibi, bu yazarların tiyatro felsefeleriyle Heidegger, Sartre ve Camus’nun ‘Varoluşçu Felsefesi’ ile birçok ortak noktalara sahiptirler. Mamafih, bir bakımdan o kadar da devrimci sayılmayabilirler. Bazı kritik’ler, bu cereyana, antik-arkaik tiyatro ve edebiyat geleneklerinin yeni bir bileşimi olarak bakarlar.

A b s ü r d  Tiyatro’nun başını, yazılarının çoğunu Fransızca yazan –mamafih Dante’yi orijinal İtalyancadan da okuyabilen- Samuel Beckett çeker. 1906 Dublin, İrlanda doğumlu, protestan inançlı ve varlıklı bir ailenin oğlu olan bu büyük yazar Tüm Düşenler, Oyun Sonu, Sözsüz Oyun gibi eserlerinin yanında, Godot’yu Beklerken, onun en meşhur yapıtı ve bu ekolün en tipik bir örneği sayılır. 19 Kasım 1957’de San Quentin Hapishanesinde takdim edildiği zaman, tüm mahkumlar huşu içersinde onu izlemişlerdi. ‘Şekil’ (form) bakımından en mükemmeli sayılan bu eser; yanında Varoluşçu yazarlar, ardında İkinci Dünya Savaşının dehşeti”, yazarın kendisinin yıllarca hayat ve sevgi arayışından sonra, bu dünya yüzünde yaşayan hemen herkesin varlığını dolduran, insanı felce uğratabilecek ümitsizliğin bir ifadesi olarak saygınlık görmüştür.

            Prof. Ayşegül Yüksel’in çevirdiği şu satırlar, Beckett’in şairliğinin derecesini göstermektedir:

            ‘Nasıl da bilirdi

            hiçbir sözün

            biçim veremediğini

            yaşamın karmaşasına.’

 

            Beckett, “post-modern modernist” olarak tanındı. Düşüncelerini, dünya görüşlerini benimsemeksizin kullanırdı. Yapıtları, zaman ve mekan (uzam) sınırlarını aşarak bir özgürlük arama yolundadırlar. Prens Hamlet’in son sözleri “..gerisi, sessizliktir!” olmuştu. Dünyanın bütün okyanuslarının parmaklarındaki kanları silemeyeceği Lady Macbeth için yaşam “..yürüyen bir gölge ve hiçbir anlamı olmayan bir masal..”dı.

            Beckett, insanoğlunun ‘altın çağı’ olarak nitelendirilmesi gereken bu asırda, altın çağın yüzeysel parıltılarının altındaki ‘çıplak gerçeği’ görebilmiştir. İnsan uygarlığının çözüşmeye başladığı, Batı uygarlığının ‘kişisellik-bireycilik’ anlayışının iflas ettiği; geçmiş değerlerle ilişkisini koparmış, geleceğin değerlerini yaratamayan, hem dünyanın vazgeçilmez ‘varlığı’ ve hem de ‘ölüme yazgılı’ varoluşa başkaldıran bir kişidir.

            Şimdi sizlere, önemi dolayısıyla, “Godot’yu Beklerken”in kısa bir özetini verelim.

            Kimsenin gelmediği, kimsenin gitmediği, hiçbir şeyin olmadığı, bir ıssız yol kenarında, “bilinç”in sesine, karşılıklı konuşma şeklinde işitsellik kazandıran VLADIMIR ve ESTRAGON, sanki atom bombasının herşeyi yok ettiği dünyada kalmış son iki canlıdır. Bir “umut” olarak, gördükleri ya da görmedikleri GODOT’nun onlarla buluşmaya gelmesini, ya da gelmemesini beklerken, sıradan bir şekilde çok yavaş akan zamanı doldurmak için durmadan konuşurlar ve oyun oynarlar.

 

            VLADIMIR ve ESTRAGON, yüzlerce yıl biryerlere gitmezler. Konuşmaları artık ritüel’e dönmüştür. Onlar, birey olma özelliklerini yitirmişlerdir, onları kimse tanımaz, kimse anımsamaz. Oyunun iki perdesi de aynı biçimde başlar ve aynı biçimde sonlanır.

 

            Onlarla karşılaşan POZZO ve LUCKY, bir başka gerçeklik düzeyinde yer alırlar. Varoluşları ‘zaman’ ve ‘uzam’ın belirleyiciliği ile sınırlanmış olan, “eşit” konumdaki VLADIMIR-ESTRAGON ikilisi karşısında, efendi-köle ilişkisini simgeleyen bu ‘hareketli’ ikili, “toplumsal insan”ın örneğini verirler; ama, iki perde arasında çökerler, zira zaman hızla akmaktadır. POZZO kör olur, LUCKY ise dilsizleşir ve diğer ikiliyle anlamsızlık çizgisi içinde buluşurlar. POZZO der: “..bize, mezar taşının yanı başında yaşam vermişler. Bir gün ışıyor, sonra yine gece…”

            B e c k e t t,  Aralık 1989 da bu dünyadan göçtü. Tüm insanlık hala Godot’nun gelişini bekliyor ve bekleyecek de.

            Bu ekol’ün diğer bellibaşlı yazarlarından da kısa örnekler verelim:

            Eugene Ionesco. 1953 Romanya doğumlu. En meşhur eseri: Amédée

 

            Orta yaşlı bir karı koca, gerçek yaşamla ilgisi olmayan bir şekilde sunulurlar. Adam, bir oyun yazarıdır; kadın ise bir telefon santralı işletir.

            Karı-kocanın yatak odalarında, yıllardanberi orada kalan, olası kadının sevgilisine ait bir ceset vardır. Kocası mı onu öldürdü, yoksa o bir soyguncu mu idi, belli değildir. Diğer acayip bir nokta da, bu kimliği belirsiz ceset, “geometrik büyüme”ye yakalanmış olarak gitgide büyümektedir. Sonunda, dev bir ayak, yatak odasından oturma odasına yürür, neredeyse karı kocayı evden dışarı atma konumuna gelir.

            Ionesco, gerçekte gördüğü bir düşü sahnelemiştir ve insanlar, arada bir böyle saçma görünen ‘metamorfozik’ düşler görebilirler. (Kafka’nın Metamorphosis’ini nasıl unutabiliriz?)

Önemli nokta, “büyüyen ceset” imgesinin ne olduğunu düşünmektir. ‘Hayat geçicidir, yaşayanlardan fazla, ‘büyüyen bir ölü sayısı var!” mı demek istiyor? bilmiyoruz. Fakat yazar, bu gibi çağrışımlarla, konunun altında saklı şiirsel gücü pekiştirmektedir. T.A.L. de, Dramaturg ve şair Haluk Şevket Ataseven’in her zaman tekrarladığı gibi, “Tiyatro topluma, kişinin toplum ve yaşamla olan çatışması sonucu oluşan bir üst düzeydeki şiir dilini, şiirsel bir boyutta veriyor.

Oyunda, cesedin büyümesinden dolayı bir devinim vardır, ama oyun yine de durağan’dır. Tanık olduğumuz devinim, şiirsel imgenin giderek belirginleşmesinin bir sonucudur. Bu imge ne kadar belirsiz ve karmaşıksa, onu ortaya çıkarma süreci de o kadar karmaşık ve şaşırtıcı olur.    

 

 

            Ionesco’nun diğer önemli bir yapıtı da:  “Kiracı” dır. Kısa bir özetini verelim.

            Bir çatı katını kiralamak isteyen bir adam vardır. Adam, katı ölçer, biçer ve gereksinimine uygun bulur ve odaya eşyalarını taşır. Odaya eşya yığılır. Adam, yığılan eşyaların yanında bir masaya uzanmıştır. Eşya, sonunda adamın yanına, üstüne yığılarak etrafını bir koza gibi örer. Sonuçta adam, orada hapsolmuş olarak kalır.

            Oyundaki tek devinim, eşyanın taşınmasıdır. Eşya yığını bir meskeni mi, yoksa bir mezarı mı temsil ediyor? Dünya gibi tehlikeli bir ortamda, kendisini ancak ‘koza’sında, giderek mezarında güvencede hisseden insanın dramını yansıtan bir kara mizah mı? Bilmiyoruz.

 

            Fernando Arrabal, 1932’de İspanya’da doğdu. La Tri-cicleta (1953) oyunu sansüre uğrayınca, Paris’e gelerek Fransızca yazmaya başladı. Pique-nique en campagne (1951) ve Orchestration Théatrale (1959) eserlerinin yanında  İ k i   İ ş k e n c e c i  en popüler soyut tiyatro eserleridir.

            “İki İşkenceci”de, annesinin babasına uyguladığı işkencelere karşı çıkan asi oğlan, ahlak yasalarının yarattığı i k i l e m’le karşı karşıyadır. Ya babasının yanını tutup, acı çeken kurbanı işkenceden kurtarmayı gerektiren insancıl bir iyilik yapacak, ya da annesini onore etmek için ona boyun eğecektir.

            Anne, babasına işkence yaptırdığı için, burada ahlak yasaları, dolayısıyla da tüm sistem bir çekişme içinde bulunmaktadır.

            Arrabal, yalnızca bu duruma dikkati çekip bunun kendi algı sisteminin ötesinde birşey olduğunu vurgular ama, bu durumu yargılamayı yadsır.

            Edward Albee, 1928 U.S.A. doğumlu olup, bu alandaki en belirli eseri Hayvanat Bahçesi Masalı’dır.

            Bu romanda, birçok boyutlar vardır. Bir yandan, gerçek anlamda bir kişiliğin bölünmesi çalışması, diğerinde de, törensel, ritüelistik ve sembolik bir düzeyde, İsa dirilmekte ve garip koşulları bulunan bir törende kişi, kendini kurban etmektedir.

                                                                                  *

            Özet olarak  A b s ü r d   T i y a t r o  F e l s e f e s i  şöylece özetlenebilir:

            Yazarlar, artık, bu sıkıntı asrında, derli toplu psiko-sosyal çözümlerin bulunabileceğine inanmıyorlar. Onlar; insan yaşamında gözlemledikleri tutarsızlık ve anlamsızlığı endişe, belirsizlik, ve çaresizlik duygularını ifade edebilme peşindedirler (Tıpkı Egzistansiyalistler gibi!) Ama onların, akılcı bir şekilde düzenleyip yöneltilen bir  e v r e n’in varlığına inançları yok. Yazarlar; insanın yok oluş sürecinin yarattığı şaşkınlığı, kesin çizgileri çizilmiş ve gerçekten iyi bilinen inanç ve değer sistemlerinin yitirilmesini işlerler. Bunları, bir az ilerde, Modern Tiyatro görüşleri ile karşılaştıracağız.

*

 

           ‘Modern Tiyatro” ve  Grotowski’ye geçmeden, Cumhuriyet Gazetesinin 19 Haziran 1997 tarihli sayısında yayınlanan, Richard Sennett’ın yazdığı ve Serpil Durak, Abdurrahman Yılmaz’ın çevirdiği gerçekten çok değerli bir makaleyi burada tekrarlamaktan kendimi alamayacağım. Başlık :  KAMUSAL İNSANIN ÇÖKÜŞÜ : Benliğine gömülen çağdaş insanın tarihsel öyküsü.

            18. Yüzyılda Londra ve Paris’e büyük bir göç vardı. Yeni gelen insanlar hemen iş bulabiliyorlardı, çünkü işgücü açığı vardı. Kente gelen insanların henüz kimliği oluşmamıştı. Bu nedenle herkes birbirine yabancıydı. O yıllarda bu büyük kentler, insanların birbirlerini tanımak için büyük çabalar harcadıkları yerlerdi. Kamusal alan, yabancıların kendilerini birbirlerine ifade edebilecekleri alanı yansıtmaktaydı.

            İ f a d e  eylemi, konuşma, giyim ve davranışla gerçekleşmektedir. Bu eylem içinde, herkesin rolü vardır.R o l, duruma uygun, o ana özgü ve beklenen  d a v r a n ı ş  b i ç i m i’dir. Roller, aynı zamanda, kendimizi ve karşımızdakileri ne kadar ciddiye aldığımızın ipuçlarını da içinde barındırır.

            T e a t r a l l ı ğ ı n  kamusal yaşamla kendine özgü, dostça bir ilişkisi vardır. Kamusal roller, tıpkı tiyatroda olduğu gibi; seyirci, inanırlığın kalıcı olması, kamusal bir coğrafya yaratması ve rol yapan kişinin ifadesini yapılandırmasını gerekli kılar. Kendi benliğimize kapanıp kalmamızın önünü açar. 18. yüzyıl insanı, bu ilişkileri, bir  a k t ö r  tavrında kuruyordu. Kendi kişiliğini sergilemeye gerek duymadan rolünü yapıyor, kahvehanelerde, kafelerde, parklarda, ya da kentte öteki kamusal alanlarda, “öteki”lerle ilişkiye geçiyordu. Burada, tıpkı bir aktör gibi, kendi benliğini öne çıkarmak yerine, duyguların takdimini yapıyordu. Bir café’de gördüğü kazayı anlatan insan, buna kendi benliğini katmadan ortaya çıkan trajik sonucu anlatıyordu. Yani günümüz insanı gibi, bu kazayı, kendi derin duygularını, bu acı olay karşısında benliğinin gösterdiği yüceliği ifade etmek yerine, o olayı bir o y u n c u   g i b i  aktarıyor, kişileştirmiyordu. Kişisel yaşam, teatrallikle iç içeydi. Oysa özel alanın teatrallikle ilişkisi düşmancaydı. Mahremiyetin sergilenmesi, kişiyi ürkütüyordu. Bu nedenle konuşma, davranış ve giysilerin bir ifade aracından olmasından kaçınma gündeme geliyordu. Bu açıdan da, 18. yüzyıla baktığımızda, sahne ile sokak arasında yakınlaşma görürüz. 1750’lerde Paris’te sokakta giyilen giysiler, sahnedekilerle benzerlik taşıyordu. 18. yüzyıl insanı bir aktör, bir icracıydı. Ancak, bir sonraki yüzyıl, herşey ferahlaşmıştı.

19. yüzyıl tarihe s a n a y i   k a p i t a l i z m i’ni armağan etti. Bu da toplumsal yaşamda büyük değişikliklere neden oldu. 18. yüzyılda kamusal olanla özel olan arasında oluşan denge, sanayi kapitalizminin toplumun her alanında yarattığı değişiklik ve köklü düzenlemelere direnir gibi direnir gibi görünmesine, hatta konulara kimi kurallarla sağlamlaşmış gibi durmasına karşın, içten içe bozulmaya başlamıştı. Gerçekte kazananlara bile çok şey yitirdiği bir sistem olan ‘kapitalizm’, insan varlığını fiziksel ve tinsel olarak tehdit etmeye başladı. İşsizlik, açlık, patlayan suç dalgaları sosyal yaşamda ağırlığını hissettirmeye başladı. İnsani değerler, kapitalist rekabetin zorunlu yasalarının uygulanmasıyla yıkılmaya,

üretilen mal ve hizmetler, en büyük değer haline geldi. Günümüzün de en büyük sorunu olan yabancılaşmanın ekonomik nedeni böylece oluştu. İnsanlar, korunmak için, özel alanın en sağlam kalesi gibi görünen  a i l e’yi seçtiler kendilerine. Ve ailelerine kapandılar. Çünkü kamusal olan artık güvenilmez, ahlaki bakımdan düşük bir ilişkiler yumağıydı.

            19. yüzyılda kamusal alandan kaçışın ilk belirtileri,  s a h n e  i l e  s o k a k  a r a s ı n d a k i  b e n z e r l i k l e r i n   o r t a d a n   k a l k m a s ı y l a  başladı. Artık sahnedeki oyuncular, canlandırdığı kişiliğe uygun kostümlerle sahneye çıkmaya özen gösteriyorlardı. Sahneyle izleyici arasında kalan, çizgilerle çizilmiş bir mesafe oluşmaya başlıyordu. Tiyatro salonlarına sessizlik ve karartmalar ilk kez 1870 yılında gerçekleştirildi. İzleyici artık pasif bir hale gelmişti. Sokaktaki durum da buna uygundu. Yabancılardan korkan insanlar, onlarla konuşmaktan, ilişki kurmaktan korkuyorlardı. T i y a t r o’da olduğu gibi insanlar kamusal yaşamda pasif izleyiciler durumuna geliyorlardı. Kendilerini açıklamak gereği duymadıkları için , r o l  de yapmıyorlardı. Böylece, teatrallik ile sokaktaki davranış birbirinden kesin olarak kopuyordu. Sosyal yaşama egemen olan aldatma, gizemlilik ve yanılsama, açıklığın, yabancılarla ilşki kurmanın yanlış olduğunu her gün yeni olaylarla kanıtlıyordu. Bu durumda  tiyatro, insanlar için başka anlamlar kazanıyordu.

            Özetle, “hiçbir şifre çözme çabası gerektirmeyen sahici yaşam, ancak  s a h n e  s a n a t ı n ı n  himayesi altında ortaya çıkıyordu.”

 

 

*        *

 

 

 

 

 

 

A b s ü r d  (Uyumsuz)  T i y a t r o

 

 

            Brecht klasik tiyatrodan ayrılım stilini empoze ederken, özellikle Varoluşçuluk felsefesinin (existentialism) ve onun bayrağını taşıyanların, örneğin Jean-Paul Sartre  ve Camus, felsefi görüş ve yazışmalar, roman ve piyeslerinin etkisi altında da, yeni bir akım tiyatroyu da içine alacak şekilde Avrupanın kültür sahnelerini işgal etmeye başlamıştı. Bu da, A b s ü r d (Esasında saçma, anlamsız, fakat Edebiyat dilinde ‘Uyumsuz’) T i y a t r o  akımıdır.

            J.Paul Sartre’ın Exit’ini hep hatırlarız. ‘No exit’ – Çıkış Yok diye sahnelenmişti özellikle; Boston’da Fransızcasını, İstanbul’da Türkçesini izledim. Sahne açılır, izbe, mahzen gibi yerde üç dört tutuklu diye nitelendirebileceğimiz kişiler ‘ne suçlar’ işlediklerinden bahsederler, örneğin bir hırsız, bir sokak kadını vb. Arada bir kapı açılır ve içeriye bir başkası tıkılır. Bir az sonra anlarız ki, burası ‘öteki dünya’dır ve insanlar, hayatta iken yaptıklarının muhasebesini tartışmakla meşguldürler. Bunda, hiç olmazsa toparlanmış bir konu vardır, ‘absürd’ olaylar ardarda gelmez, ne de olsa, gelenek dışı bir zaman ve mekanda, bir sonuca varmak istenmeksizin anımsamalar devam eder. Bir gerçek, “varoluşun anlamsızlığı” (absurdity) ana tema’dır. Bilindiği gibi sözcük olarak ‘absurd’, Camus’nun hediyesidir ve hayatın anlamsızlığını ve ‘kendi’ yabancılaşmasını “Yabancı” (L’étranger) da ebedileştirmiştir.

            1880’lerde Nietzsche’nin “tanrının ölümü’ kuramının ortaya atmasından sonra dini inanışın çöküşü, Stalin’in baskıcı diktatörlüğü, Hitler’in uygarlığa yaptığı barbarlık ve en sonunda, Atom Bombası’nın insanlığın ‘yaşam ümidi’ni yitirmesi, ABD’nin zengin toplumlarında gözlemlenen ahlak çöküntüsü, yaşamın anlamsızlığını perçinleştiren sosyal gelişimler oldu.

            “Absürd Tiyatro”nun liderlerinden Beckett ve Adamov’un oyunları ilk kez sahnelendiğinde, izleyici ve eleştirmenler, alışılmışın dışında birşeylerin ‘tiyatro’ adı altında takdim edilmesinden çok rahatsız olup tepki göstermişlerdi. Yüzyıllardanberi tiyatroyu tiyatro yapan ölçütler yerle bir edilmiş gibi görünüyordu.

            Bu tür tiyatroda; iyi tasarlanmış bir tiyatro oyunundan, iyi gözlemlenmiş, karakterleri iyi çizilmiş bir takım aktörlerin, konuları iyi sınırlanmış oyunları sunmaları yerine, bu oyunlarda çoğunlukla tanımlanması güç karakterler ve anlamsız eylemler gözlenir. Diyalog’lar, anlamsız ve gayesiz birtakım ‘söz salataları’dır. Klasik bir oyunda gözlediğimiz ‘başı, gelişimi ve sonu belli’ bir oyun yerine, ‘rasgele’ bir başlayış ve ‘rasgele’ bir bitiş var gibidir. Yazarlar, bir öykü anlatmak niyetinde değillerdi. Peki bunlar bizlere ne vermek istiyorlardı? Bizlere, içlerindeki dürtüye uyarak, bir sanatçı olarak,  d ü n y a y ı   a n l a y ı ş   b i ç i m l e r i n i  sergilemek isitiyorlardı.

Yukarda da belirtildiği gibi, bu yazarların tiyatro felsefeleriyle Heidegger, Sartre ve Camus’nun ‘Varoluşçu Felsefesi’ ile birçok ortak noktalara sahiptirler. Mamafih, bir bakımdan o kadar da devrimci sayılmayabilirler. Bazı kritik’ler, bu cereyana, antik-arkaik tiyatro ve edebiyat geleneklerinin yeni bir bileşimi olarak bakarlar.

A b s ü r d  Tiyatro’nun başını, yazılarının çoğunu Fransızca yazan –mamafih Dante’yi orijinal İtalyancadan da okuyabilen- Samuel Beckett çeker. 1906 Dublin, İrlanda doğumlu, protestan inançlı ve varlıklı bir ailenin oğlu olan bu büyük yazar Tüm Düşenler, Oyun Sonu, Sözsüz Oyun gibi eserlerinin yanında, Godot’yu Beklerken, onun en meşhur yapıtı ve bu ekolün en tipik bir örneği sayılır. 19 Kasım 1957’de San Quentin Hapishanesinde takdim edildiği zaman, tüm mahkumlar huşu içersinde onu izlemişlerdi. ‘Şekil’ (form) bakımından en mükemmeli sayılan bu eser; yanında Varoluşçu yazarlar, ardında İkinci Dünya Savaşının dehşeti”, yazarın kendisinin yıllarca hayat ve sevgi arayışından sonra, bu dünya yüzünde yaşayan hemen herkesin varlığını dolduran, insanı felce uğratabilecek ümitsizliğin bir ifadesi olarak saygınlık görmüştür.

            Prof. Ayşegül Yüksel’in çevirdiği şu satırlar, Beckett’in şairliğinin derecesini göstermektedir:

            ‘Nasıl da bilirdi

            hiçbir sözün

            biçim veremediğini

            yaşamın karmaşasına.’

 

            Beckett, “post-modern modernist” olarak tanındı. Düşüncelerini, dünya görüşlerini benimsemeksizin kullanırdı. Yapıtları, zaman ve mekan (uzam) sınırlarını aşarak bir özgürlük arama yolundadırlar. Prens Hamlet’in son sözleri “..gerisi, sessizliktir!” olmuştu. Dünyanın bütün okyanuslarının parmaklarındaki kanları silemeyeceği Lady Macbeth için yaşam “..yürüyen bir gölge ve hiçbir anlamı olmayan bir masal..”dı.

            Beckett, insanoğlunun ‘altın çağı’ olarak nitelendirilmesi gereken bu asırda, altın çağın yüzeysel parıltılarının altındaki ‘çıplak gerçeği’ görebilmiştir. İnsan uygarlığının çözüşmeye başladığı, Batı uygarlığının ‘kişisellik-bireycilik’ anlayışının iflas ettiği; geçmiş değerlerle ilişkisini koparmış, geleceğin değerlerini yaratamayan, hem dünyanın vazgeçilmez ‘varlığı’ ve hem de ‘ölüme yazgılı’ varoluşa başkaldıran bir kişidir.

            Şimdi sizlere, önemi dolayısıyla, “Godot’yu Beklerken”in kısa bir özetini verelim.

            Kimsenin gelmediği, kimsenin gitmediği, hiçbir şeyin olmadığı, bir ıssız yol kenarında, “bilinç”in sesine, karşılıklı konuşma şeklinde işitsellik kazandıran VLADIMIR ve ESTRAGON, sanki atom bombasının herşeyi yok ettiği dünyada kalmış son iki canlıdır. Bir “umut” olarak, gördükleri ya da görmedikleri GODOT’nun onlarla buluşmaya gelmesini, ya da gelmemesini beklerken, sıradan bir şekilde çok yavaş akan zamanı doldurmak için durmadan konuşurlar ve oyun oynarlar.

 

            VLADIMIR ve ESTRAGON, yüzlerce yıl biryerlere gitmezler. Konuşmaları artık ritüel’e dönmüştür. Onlar, birey olma özelliklerini yitirmişlerdir, onları kimse tanımaz, kimse anımsamaz. Oyunun iki perdesi de aynı biçimde başlar ve aynı biçimde sonlanır.

 

            Onlarla karşılaşan POZZO ve LUCKY, bir başka gerçeklik düzeyinde yer alırlar. Varoluşları ‘zaman’ ve ‘uzam’ın belirleyiciliği ile sınırlanmış olan, “eşit” konumdaki VLADIMIR-ESTRAGON ikilisi karşısında, efendi-köle ilişkisini simgeleyen bu ‘hareketli’ ikili, “toplumsal insan”ın örneğini verirler; ama, iki perde arasında çökerler, zira zaman hızla akmaktadır. POZZO kör olur, LUCKY ise dilsizleşir ve diğer ikiliyle anlamsızlık çizgisi içinde buluşurlar. POZZO der: “..bize, mezar taşının yanı başında yaşam vermişler. Bir gün ışıyor, sonra yine gece…”

            B e c k e t t,  Aralık 1989 da bu dünyadan göçtü. Tüm insanlık hala Godot’nun gelişini bekliyor ve bekleyecek de.

            Bu ekol’ün diğer bellibaşlı yazarlarından da kısa örnekler verelim:

            Eugene Ionesco. 1953 Romanya doğumlu. En meşhur eseri: Amédée

 

            Orta yaşlı bir karı koca, gerçek yaşamla ilgisi olmayan bir şekilde sunulurlar. Adam, bir oyun yazarıdır; kadın ise bir telefon santralı işletir.

            Karı-kocanın yatak odalarında, yıllardanberi orada kalan, olası kadının sevgilisine ait bir ceset vardır. Kocası mı onu öldürdü, yoksa o bir soyguncu mu idi, belli değildir. Diğer acayip bir nokta da, bu kimliği belirsiz ceset, “geometrik büyüme”ye yakalanmış olarak gitgide büyümektedir. Sonunda, dev bir ayak, yatak odasından oturma odasına yürür, neredeyse karı kocayı evden dışarı atma konumuna gelir.

            Ionesco, gerçekte gördüğü bir düşü sahnelemiştir ve insanlar, arada bir böyle saçma görünen ‘metamorfozik’ düşler görebilirler. (Kafka’nın Metamorphosis’ini nasıl unutabiliriz?)

Önemli nokta, “büyüyen ceset” imgesinin ne olduğunu düşünmektir. ‘Hayat geçicidir, yaşayanlardan fazla, ‘büyüyen bir ölü sayısı var!” mı demek istiyor? bilmiyoruz. Fakat yazar, bu gibi çağrışımlarla, konunun altında saklı şiirsel gücü pekiştirmektedir. T.A.L. de, Dramaturg ve şair Haluk Şevket Ataseven’in her zaman tekrarladığı gibi, “Tiyatro topluma, kişinin toplum ve yaşamla olan çatışması sonucu oluşan bir üst düzeydeki şiir dilini, şiirsel bir boyutta veriyor.

Oyunda, cesedin büyümesinden dolayı bir devinim vardır, ama oyun yine de durağan’dır. Tanık olduğumuz devinim, şiirsel imgenin giderek belirginleşmesinin bir sonucudur. Bu imge ne kadar belirsiz ve karmaşıksa, onu ortaya çıkarma süreci de o kadar karmaşık ve şaşırtıcı olur.    

 

 

            Ionesco’nun diğer önemli bir yapıtı da:  “Kiracı” dır. Kısa bir özetini verelim.

            Bir çatı katını kiralamak isteyen bir adam vardır. Adam, katı ölçer, biçer ve gereksinimine uygun bulur ve odaya eşyalarını taşır. Odaya eşya yığılır. Adam, yığılan eşyaların yanında bir masaya uzanmıştır. Eşya, sonunda adamın yanına, üstüne yığılarak etrafını bir koza gibi örer. Sonuçta adam, orada hapsolmuş olarak kalır.

            Oyundaki tek devinim, eşyanın taşınmasıdır. Eşya yığını bir meskeni mi, yoksa bir mezarı mı temsil ediyor? Dünya gibi tehlikeli bir ortamda, kendisini ancak ‘koza’sında, giderek mezarında güvencede hisseden insanın dramını yansıtan bir kara mizah mı? Bilmiyoruz.

 

            Fernando Arrabal, 1932’de İspanya’da doğdu. La Tri-cicleta (1953) oyunu sansüre uğrayınca, Paris’e gelerek Fransızca yazmaya başladı. Pique-nique en campagne (1951) ve Orchestration Théatrale (1959) eserlerinin yanında  İ k i   İ ş k e n c e c i  en popüler soyut tiyatro eserleridir.

            “İki İşkenceci”de, annesinin babasına uyguladığı işkencelere karşı çıkan asi oğlan, ahlak yasalarının yarattığı i k i l e m’le karşı karşıyadır. Ya babasının yanını tutup, acı çeken kurbanı işkenceden kurtarmayı gerektiren insancıl bir iyilik yapacak, ya da annesini onore etmek için ona boyun eğecektir.

            Anne, babasına işkence yaptırdığı için, burada ahlak yasaları, dolayısıyla da tüm sistem bir çekişme içinde bulunmaktadır.

            Arrabal, yalnızca bu duruma dikkati çekip bunun kendi algı sisteminin ötesinde birşey olduğunu vurgular ama, bu durumu yargılamayı yadsır.

            Edward Albee, 1928 U.S.A. doğumlu olup, bu alandaki en belirli eseri Hayvanat Bahçesi Masalı’dır.

            Bu romanda, birçok boyutlar vardır. Bir yandan, gerçek anlamda bir kişiliğin bölünmesi çalışması, diğerinde de, törensel, ritüelistik ve sembolik bir düzeyde, İsa dirilmekte ve garip koşulları bulunan bir törende kişi, kendini kurban etmektedir.

                                                                                  *

            Özet olarak  A b s ü r d   T i y a t r o  F e l s e f e s i  şöylece özetlenebilir:

            Yazarlar, artık, bu sıkıntı asrında, derli toplu psiko-sosyal çözümlerin bulunabileceğine inanmıyorlar. Onlar; insan yaşamında gözlemledikleri tutarsızlık ve anlamsızlığı endişe, belirsizlik, ve çaresizlik duygularını ifade edebilme peşindedirler (Tıpkı Egzistansiyalistler gibi!) Ama onların, akılcı bir şekilde düzenleyip yöneltilen bir  e v r e n’in varlığına inançları yok. Yazarlar; insanın yok oluş sürecinin yarattığı şaşkınlığı, kesin çizgileri çizilmiş ve gerçekten iyi bilinen inanç ve değer sistemlerinin yitirilmesini işlerler. Bunları, bir az ilerde, Modern Tiyatro görüşleri ile karşılaştıracağız.

*

 

           ‘Modern Tiyatro” ve  Grotowski’ye geçmeden, Cumhuriyet Gazetesinin 19 Haziran 1997 tarihli sayısında yayınlanan, Richard Sennett’ın yazdığı ve Serpil Durak, Abdurrahman Yılmaz’ın çevirdiği gerçekten çok değerli bir makaleyi burada tekrarlamaktan kendimi alamayacağım. Başlık :  KAMUSAL İNSANIN ÇÖKÜŞÜ : Benliğine gömülen çağdaş insanın tarihsel öyküsü.

            18. Yüzyılda Londra ve Paris’e büyük bir göç vardı. Yeni gelen insanlar hemen iş bulabiliyorlardı, çünkü işgücü açığı vardı. Kente gelen insanların henüz kimliği oluşmamıştı. Bu nedenle herkes birbirine yabancıydı. O yıllarda bu büyük kentler, insanların birbirlerini tanımak için büyük çabalar harcadıkları yerlerdi. Kamusal alan, yabancıların kendilerini birbirlerine ifade edebilecekleri alanı yansıtmaktaydı.

            İ f a d e  eylemi, konuşma, giyim ve davranışla gerçekleşmektedir. Bu eylem içinde, herkesin rolü vardır.R o l, duruma uygun, o ana özgü ve beklenen  d a v r a n ı ş  b i ç i m i’dir. Roller, aynı zamanda, kendimizi ve karşımızdakileri ne kadar ciddiye aldığımızın ipuçlarını da içinde barındırır.

            T e a t r a l l ı ğ ı n  kamusal yaşamla kendine özgü, dostça bir ilişkisi vardır. Kamusal roller, tıpkı tiyatroda olduğu gibi; seyirci, inanırlığın kalıcı olması, kamusal bir coğrafya yaratması ve rol yapan kişinin ifadesini yapılandırmasını gerekli kılar. Kendi benliğimize kapanıp kalmamızın önünü açar. 18. yüzyıl insanı, bu ilişkileri, bir  a k t ö r  tavrında kuruyordu. Kendi kişiliğini sergilemeye gerek duymadan rolünü yapıyor, kahvehanelerde, kafelerde, parklarda, ya da kentte öteki kamusal alanlarda, “öteki”lerle ilişkiye geçiyordu. Burada, tıpkı bir aktör gibi, kendi benliğini öne çıkarmak yerine, duyguların takdimini yapıyordu. Bir café’de gördüğü kazayı anlatan insan, buna kendi benliğini katmadan ortaya çıkan trajik sonucu anlatıyordu. Yani günümüz insanı gibi, bu kazayı, kendi derin duygularını, bu acı olay karşısında benliğinin gösterdiği yüceliği ifade etmek yerine, o olayı bir o y u n c u   g i b i  aktarıyor, kişileştirmiyordu. Kişisel yaşam, teatrallikle iç içeydi. Oysa özel alanın teatrallikle ilişkisi düşmancaydı. Mahremiyetin sergilenmesi, kişiyi ürkütüyordu. Bu nedenle konuşma, davranış ve giysilerin bir ifade aracından olmasından kaçınma gündeme geliyordu. Bu açıdan da, 18. yüzyıla baktığımızda, sahne ile sokak arasında yakınlaşma görürüz. 1750’lerde Paris’te sokakta giyilen giysiler, sahnedekilerle benzerlik taşıyordu. 18. yüzyıl insanı bir aktör, bir icracıydı. Ancak, bir sonraki yüzyıl, herşey ferahlaşmıştı.

19. yüzyıl tarihe s a n a y i   k a p i t a l i z m i’ni armağan etti. Bu da toplumsal yaşamda büyük değişikliklere neden oldu. 18. yüzyılda kamusal olanla özel olan arasında oluşan denge, sanayi kapitalizminin toplumun her alanında yarattığı değişiklik ve köklü düzenlemelere direnir gibi direnir gibi görünmesine, hatta konulara kimi kurallarla sağlamlaşmış gibi durmasına karşın, içten içe bozulmaya başlamıştı. Gerçekte kazananlara bile çok şey yitirdiği bir sistem olan ‘kapitalizm’, insan varlığını fiziksel ve tinsel olarak tehdit etmeye başladı. İşsizlik, açlık, patlayan suç dalgaları sosyal yaşamda ağırlığını hissettirmeye başladı. İnsani değerler, kapitalist rekabetin zorunlu yasalarının uygulanmasıyla yıkılmaya,

üretilen mal ve hizmetler, en büyük değer haline geldi. Günümüzün de en büyük sorunu olan yabancılaşmanın ekonomik nedeni böylece oluştu. İnsanlar, korunmak için, özel alanın en sağlam kalesi gibi görünen  a i l e’yi seçtiler kendilerine. Ve ailelerine kapandılar. Çünkü kamusal olan artık güvenilmez, ahlaki bakımdan düşük bir ilişkiler yumağıydı.

            19. yüzyılda kamusal alandan kaçışın ilk belirtileri,  s a h n e  i l e  s o k a k  a r a s ı n d a k i  b e n z e r l i k l e r i n   o r t a d a n   k a l k m a s ı y l a  başladı. Artık sahnedeki oyuncular, canlandırdığı kişiliğe uygun kostümlerle sahneye çıkmaya özen gösteriyorlardı. Sahneyle izleyici arasında kalan, çizgilerle çizilmiş bir mesafe oluşmaya başlıyordu. Tiyatro salonlarına sessizlik ve karartmalar ilk kez 1870 yılında gerçekleştirildi. İzleyici artık pasif bir hale gelmişti. Sokaktaki durum da buna uygundu. Yabancılardan korkan insanlar, onlarla konuşmaktan, ilişki kurmaktan korkuyorlardı. T i y a t r o’da olduğu gibi insanlar kamusal yaşamda pasif izleyiciler durumuna geliyorlardı. Kendilerini açıklamak gereği duymadıkları için , r o l  de yapmıyorlardı. Böylece, teatrallik ile sokaktaki davranış birbirinden kesin olarak kopuyordu. Sosyal yaşama egemen olan aldatma, gizemlilik ve yanılsama, açıklığın, yabancılarla ilşki kurmanın yanlış olduğunu her gün yeni olaylarla kanıtlıyordu. Bu durumda  tiyatro, insanlar için başka anlamlar kazanıyordu.

            Özetle, “hiçbir şifre çözme çabası gerektirmeyen sahici yaşam, ancak  s a h n e  s a n a t ı n ı n  himayesi altında ortaya çıkıyordu.”

 

 

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A b s ü r d  (Uyumsuz)  T i y a t r o

 

 

            Brecht klasik tiyatrodan ayrılım stilini empoze ederken, özellikle Varoluşçuluk felsefesinin (existentialism) ve onun bayrağını taşıyanların, örneğin Jean-Paul Sartre  ve Camus, felsefi görüş ve yazışmalar, roman ve piyeslerinin etkisi altında da, yeni bir akım tiyatroyu da içine alacak şekilde Avrupanın kültür sahnelerini işgal etmeye başlamıştı. Bu da, A b s ü r d (Esasında saçma, anlamsız, fakat Edebiyat dilinde ‘Uyumsuz’) T i y a t r o  akımıdır.

            J.Paul Sartre’ın Exit’ini hep hatırlarız. ‘No exit’ – Çıkış Yok diye sahnelenmişti özellikle; Boston’da Fransızcasını, İstanbul’da Türkçesini izledim. Sahne açılır, izbe, mahzen gibi yerde üç dört tutuklu diye nitelendirebileceğimiz kişiler ‘ne suçlar’ işlediklerinden bahsederler, örneğin bir hırsız, bir sokak kadını vb. Arada bir kapı açılır ve içeriye bir başkası tıkılır. Bir az sonra anlarız ki, burası ‘öteki dünya’dır ve insanlar, hayatta iken yaptıklarının muhasebesini tartışmakla meşguldürler. Bunda, hiç olmazsa toparlanmış bir konu vardır, ‘absürd’ olaylar ardarda gelmez, ne de olsa, gelenek dışı bir zaman ve mekanda, bir sonuca varmak istenmeksizin anımsamalar devam eder. Bir gerçek, “varoluşun anlamsızlığı” (absurdity) ana tema’dır. Bilindiği gibi sözcük olarak ‘absurd’, Camus’nun hediyesidir ve hayatın anlamsızlığını ve ‘kendi’ yabancılaşmasını “Yabancı” (L’étranger) da ebedileştirmiştir.

            1880’lerde Nietzsche’nin “tanrının ölümü’ kuramının ortaya atmasından sonra dini inanışın çöküşü, Stalin’in baskıcı diktatörlüğü, Hitler’in uygarlığa yaptığı barbarlık ve en sonunda, Atom Bombası’nın insanlığın ‘yaşam ümidi’ni yitirmesi, ABD’nin zengin toplumlarında gözlemlenen ahlak çöküntüsü, yaşamın anlamsızlığını perçinleştiren sosyal gelişimler oldu.

            “Absürd Tiyatro”nun liderlerinden Beckett ve Adamov’un oyunları ilk kez sahnelendiğinde, izleyici ve eleştirmenler, alışılmışın dışında birşeylerin ‘tiyatro’ adı altında takdim edilmesinden çok rahatsız olup tepki göstermişlerdi. Yüzyıllardanberi tiyatroyu tiyatro yapan ölçütler yerle bir edilmiş gibi görünüyordu.

            Bu tür tiyatroda; iyi tasarlanmış bir tiyatro oyunundan, iyi gözlemlenmiş, karakterleri iyi çizilmiş bir takım aktörlerin, konuları iyi sınırlanmış oyunları sunmaları yerine, bu oyunlarda çoğunlukla tanımlanması güç karakterler ve anlamsız eylemler gözlenir. Diyalog’lar, anlamsız ve gayesiz birtakım ‘söz salataları’dır. Klasik bir oyunda gözlediğimiz ‘başı, gelişimi ve sonu belli’ bir oyun yerine, ‘rasgele’ bir başlayış ve ‘rasgele’ bir bitiş var gibidir. Yazarlar, bir öykü anlatmak niyetinde değillerdi. Peki bunlar bizlere ne vermek istiyorlardı? Bizlere, içlerindeki dürtüye uyarak, bir sanatçı olarak,  d ü n y a y ı   a n l a y ı ş   b i ç i m l e r i n i  sergilemek isitiyorlardı.

Yukarda da belirtildiği gibi, bu yazarların tiyatro felsefeleriyle Heidegger, Sartre ve Camus’nun ‘Varoluşçu Felsefesi’ ile birçok ortak noktalara sahiptirler. Mamafih, bir bakımdan o kadar da devrimci sayılmayabilirler. Bazı kritik’ler, bu cereyana, antik-arkaik tiyatro ve edebiyat geleneklerinin yeni bir bileşimi olarak bakarlar.

A b s ü r d  Tiyatro’nun başını, yazılarının çoğunu Fransızca yazan –mamafih Dante’yi orijinal İtalyancadan da okuyabilen- Samuel Beckett çeker. 1906 Dublin, İrlanda doğumlu, protestan inançlı ve varlıklı bir ailenin oğlu olan bu büyük yazar Tüm Düşenler, Oyun Sonu, Sözsüz Oyun gibi eserlerinin yanında, Godot’yu Beklerken, onun en meşhur yapıtı ve bu ekolün en tipik bir örneği sayılır. 19 Kasım 1957’de San Quentin Hapishanesinde takdim edildiği zaman, tüm mahkumlar huşu içersinde onu izlemişlerdi. ‘Şekil’ (form) bakımından en mükemmeli sayılan bu eser; yanında Varoluşçu yazarlar, ardında İkinci Dünya Savaşının dehşeti”, yazarın kendisinin yıllarca hayat ve sevgi arayışından sonra, bu dünya yüzünde yaşayan hemen herkesin varlığını dolduran, insanı felce uğratabilecek ümitsizliğin bir ifadesi olarak saygınlık görmüştür.

            Prof. Ayşegül Yüksel’in çevirdiği şu satırlar, Beckett’in şairliğinin derecesini göstermektedir:

            ‘Nasıl da bilirdi

            hiçbir sözün

            biçim veremediğini

            yaşamın karmaşasına.’

 

            Beckett, “post-modern modernist” olarak tanındı. Düşüncelerini, dünya görüşlerini benimsemeksizin kullanırdı. Yapıtları, zaman ve mekan (uzam) sınırlarını aşarak bir özgürlük arama yolundadırlar. Prens Hamlet’in son sözleri “..gerisi, sessizliktir!” olmuştu. Dünyanın bütün okyanuslarının parmaklarındaki kanları silemeyeceği Lady Macbeth için yaşam “..yürüyen bir gölge ve hiçbir anlamı olmayan bir masal..”dı.

            Beckett, insanoğlunun ‘altın çağı’ olarak nitelendirilmesi gereken bu asırda, altın çağın yüzeysel parıltılarının altındaki ‘çıplak gerçeği’ görebilmiştir. İnsan uygarlığının çözüşmeye başladığı, Batı uygarlığının ‘kişisellik-bireycilik’ anlayışının iflas ettiği; geçmiş değerlerle ilişkisini koparmış, geleceğin değerlerini yaratamayan, hem dünyanın vazgeçilmez ‘varlığı’ ve hem de ‘ölüme yazgılı’ varoluşa başkaldıran bir kişidir.

            Şimdi sizlere, önemi dolayısıyla, “Godot’yu Beklerken”in kısa bir özetini verelim.

            Kimsenin gelmediği, kimsenin gitmediği, hiçbir şeyin olmadığı, bir ıssız yol kenarında, “bilinç”in sesine, karşılıklı konuşma şeklinde işitsellik kazandıran VLADIMIR ve ESTRAGON, sanki atom bombasının herşeyi yok ettiği dünyada kalmış son iki canlıdır. Bir “umut” olarak, gördükleri ya da görmedikleri GODOT’nun onlarla buluşmaya gelmesini, ya da gelmemesini beklerken, sıradan bir şekilde çok yavaş akan zamanı doldurmak için durmadan konuşurlar ve oyun oynarlar.

 

            VLADIMIR ve ESTRAGON, yüzlerce yıl biryerlere gitmezler. Konuşmaları artık ritüel’e dönmüştür. Onlar, birey olma özelliklerini yitirmişlerdir, onları kimse tanımaz, kimse anımsamaz. Oyunun iki perdesi de aynı biçimde başlar ve aynı biçimde sonlanır.

 

            Onlarla karşılaşan POZZO ve LUCKY, bir başka gerçeklik düzeyinde yer alırlar. Varoluşları ‘zaman’ ve ‘uzam’ın belirleyiciliği ile sınırlanmış olan, “eşit” konumdaki VLADIMIR-ESTRAGON ikilisi karşısında, efendi-köle ilişkisini simgeleyen bu ‘hareketli’ ikili, “toplumsal insan”ın örneğini verirler; ama, iki perde arasında çökerler, zira zaman hızla akmaktadır. POZZO kör olur, LUCKY ise dilsizleşir ve diğer ikiliyle anlamsızlık çizgisi içinde buluşurlar. POZZO der: “..bize, mezar taşının yanı başında yaşam vermişler. Bir gün ışıyor, sonra yine gece…”

            B e c k e t t,  Aralık 1989 da bu dünyadan göçtü. Tüm insanlık hala Godot’nun gelişini bekliyor ve bekleyecek de.

            Bu ekol’ün diğer bellibaşlı yazarlarından da kısa örnekler verelim:

            Eugene Ionesco. 1953 Romanya doğumlu. En meşhur eseri: Amédée

 

            Orta yaşlı bir karı koca, gerçek yaşamla ilgisi olmayan bir şekilde sunulurlar. Adam, bir oyun yazarıdır; kadın ise bir telefon santralı işletir.

            Karı-kocanın yatak odalarında, yıllardanberi orada kalan, olası kadının sevgilisine ait bir ceset vardır. Kocası mı onu öldürdü, yoksa o bir soyguncu mu idi, belli değildir. Diğer acayip bir nokta da, bu kimliği belirsiz ceset, “geometrik büyüme”ye yakalanmış olarak gitgide büyümektedir. Sonunda, dev bir ayak, yatak odasından oturma odasına yürür, neredeyse karı kocayı evden dışarı atma konumuna gelir.

            Ionesco, gerçekte gördüğü bir düşü sahnelemiştir ve insanlar, arada bir böyle saçma görünen ‘metamorfozik’ düşler görebilirler. (Kafka’nın Metamorphosis’ini nasıl unutabiliriz?)

Önemli nokta, “büyüyen ceset” imgesinin ne olduğunu düşünmektir. ‘Hayat geçicidir, yaşayanlardan fazla, ‘büyüyen bir ölü sayısı var!” mı demek istiyor? bilmiyoruz. Fakat yazar, bu gibi çağrışımlarla, konunun altında saklı şiirsel gücü pekiştirmektedir. T.A.L. de, Dramaturg ve şair Haluk Şevket Ataseven’in her zaman tekrarladığı gibi, “Tiyatro topluma, kişinin toplum ve yaşamla olan çatışması sonucu oluşan bir üst düzeydeki şiir dilini, şiirsel bir boyutta veriyor.

Oyunda, cesedin büyümesinden dolayı bir devinim vardır, ama oyun yine de durağan’dır. Tanık olduğumuz devinim, şiirsel imgenin giderek belirginleşmesinin bir sonucudur. Bu imge ne kadar belirsiz ve karmaşıksa, onu ortaya çıkarma süreci de o kadar karmaşık ve şaşırtıcı olur.    

 

 

            Ionesco’nun diğer önemli bir yapıtı da:  “Kiracı” dır. Kısa bir özetini verelim.

            Bir çatı katını kiralamak isteyen bir adam vardır. Adam, katı ölçer, biçer ve gereksinimine uygun bulur ve odaya eşyalarını taşır. Odaya eşya yığılır. Adam, yığılan eşyaların yanında bir masaya uzanmıştır. Eşya, sonunda adamın yanına, üstüne yığılarak etrafını bir koza gibi örer. Sonuçta adam, orada hapsolmuş olarak kalır.

            Oyundaki tek devinim, eşyanın taşınmasıdır. Eşya yığını bir meskeni mi, yoksa bir mezarı mı temsil ediyor? Dünya gibi tehlikeli bir ortamda, kendisini ancak ‘koza’sında, giderek mezarında güvencede hisseden insanın dramını yansıtan bir kara mizah mı? Bilmiyoruz.

 

            Fernando Arrabal, 1932’de İspanya’da doğdu. La Tri-cicleta (1953) oyunu sansüre uğrayınca, Paris’e gelerek Fransızca yazmaya başladı. Pique-nique en campagne (1951) ve Orchestration Théatrale (1959) eserlerinin yanında  İ k i   İ ş k e n c e c i  en popüler soyut tiyatro eserleridir.

            “İki İşkenceci”de, annesinin babasına uyguladığı işkencelere karşı çıkan asi oğlan, ahlak yasalarının yarattığı i k i l e m’le karşı karşıyadır. Ya babasının yanını tutup, acı çeken kurbanı işkenceden kurtarmayı gerektiren insancıl bir iyilik yapacak, ya da annesini onore etmek için ona boyun eğecektir.

            Anne, babasına işkence yaptırdığı için, burada ahlak yasaları, dolayısıyla da tüm sistem bir çekişme içinde bulunmaktadır.

            Arrabal, yalnızca bu duruma dikkati çekip bunun kendi algı sisteminin ötesinde birşey olduğunu vurgular ama, bu durumu yargılamayı yadsır.

            Edward Albee, 1928 U.S.A. doğumlu olup, bu alandaki en belirli eseri Hayvanat Bahçesi Masalı’dır.

            Bu romanda, birçok boyutlar vardır. Bir yandan, gerçek anlamda bir kişiliğin bölünmesi çalışması, diğerinde de, törensel, ritüelistik ve sembolik bir düzeyde, İsa dirilmekte ve garip koşulları bulunan bir törende kişi, kendini kurban etmektedir.

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            Özet olarak  A b s ü r d   T i y a t r o  F e l s e f e s i  şöylece özetlenebilir:

            Yazarlar, artık, bu sıkıntı asrında, derli toplu psiko-sosyal çözümlerin bulunabileceğine inanmıyorlar. Onlar; insan yaşamında gözlemledikleri tutarsızlık ve anlamsızlığı endişe, belirsizlik, ve çaresizlik duygularını ifade edebilme peşindedirler (Tıpkı Egzistansiyalistler gibi!) Ama onların, akılcı bir şekilde düzenleyip yöneltilen bir  e v r e n’in varlığına inançları yok. Yazarlar; insanın yok oluş sürecinin yarattığı şaşkınlığı, kesin çizgileri çizilmiş ve gerçekten iyi bilinen inanç ve değer sistemlerinin yitirilmesini işlerler. Bunları, bir az ilerde, Modern Tiyatro görüşleri ile karşılaştıracağız.

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           ‘Modern Tiyatro” ve  Grotowski’ye geçmeden, Cumhuriyet Gazetesinin 19 Haziran 1997 tarihli sayısında yayınlanan, Richard Sennett’ın yazdığı ve Serpil Durak, Abdurrahman Yılmaz’ın çevirdiği gerçekten çok değerli bir makaleyi burada tekrarlamaktan kendimi alamayacağım. Başlık :  KAMUSAL İNSANIN ÇÖKÜŞÜ : Benliğine gömülen çağdaş insanın tarihsel öyküsü.

            18. Yüzyılda Londra ve Paris’e büyük bir göç vardı. Yeni gelen insanlar hemen iş bulabiliyorlardı, çünkü işgücü açığı vardı. Kente gelen insanların henüz kimliği oluşmamıştı. Bu nedenle herkes birbirine yabancıydı. O yıllarda bu büyük kentler, insanların birbirlerini tanımak için büyük çabalar harcadıkları yerlerdi. Kamusal alan, yabancıların kendilerini birbirlerine ifade edebilecekleri alanı yansıtmaktaydı.

            İ f a d e  eylemi, konuşma, giyim ve davranışla gerçekleşmektedir. Bu eylem içinde, herkesin rolü vardır.R o l, duruma uygun, o ana özgü ve beklenen  d a v r a n ı ş  b i ç i m i’dir. Roller, aynı zamanda, kendimizi ve karşımızdakileri ne kadar ciddiye aldığımızın ipuçlarını da içinde barındırır.

            T e a t r a l l ı ğ ı n  kamusal yaşamla kendine özgü, dostça bir ilişkisi vardır. Kamusal roller, tıpkı tiyatroda olduğu gibi; seyirci, inanırlığın kalıcı olması, kamusal bir coğrafya yaratması ve rol yapan kişinin ifadesini yapılandırmasını gerekli kılar. Kendi benliğimize kapanıp kalmamızın önünü açar. 18. yüzyıl insanı, bu ilişkileri, bir  a k t ö r  tavrında kuruyordu. Kendi kişiliğini sergilemeye gerek duymadan rolünü yapıyor, kahvehanelerde, kafelerde, parklarda, ya da kentte öteki kamusal alanlarda, “öteki”lerle ilişkiye geçiyordu. Burada, tıpkı bir aktör gibi, kendi benliğini öne çıkarmak yerine, duyguların takdimini yapıyordu. Bir café’de gördüğü kazayı anlatan insan, buna kendi benliğini katmadan ortaya çıkan trajik sonucu anlatıyordu. Yani günümüz insanı gibi, bu kazayı, kendi derin duygularını, bu acı olay karşısında benliğinin gösterdiği yüceliği ifade etmek yerine, o olayı bir o y u n c u   g i b i  aktarıyor, kişileştirmiyordu. Kişisel yaşam, teatrallikle iç içeydi. Oysa özel alanın teatrallikle ilişkisi düşmancaydı. Mahremiyetin sergilenmesi, kişiyi ürkütüyordu. Bu nedenle konuşma, davranış ve giysilerin bir ifade aracından olmasından kaçınma gündeme geliyordu. Bu açıdan da, 18. yüzyıla baktığımızda, sahne ile sokak arasında yakınlaşma görürüz. 1750’lerde Paris’te sokakta giyilen giysiler, sahnedekilerle benzerlik taşıyordu. 18. yüzyıl insanı bir aktör, bir icracıydı. Ancak, bir sonraki yüzyıl, herşey ferahlaşmıştı.

19. yüzyıl tarihe s a n a y i   k a p i t a l i z m i’ni armağan etti. Bu da toplumsal yaşamda büyük değişikliklere neden oldu. 18. yüzyılda kamusal olanla özel olan arasında oluşan denge, sanayi kapitalizminin toplumun her alanında yarattığı değişiklik ve köklü düzenlemelere direnir gibi direnir gibi görünmesine, hatta konulara kimi kurallarla sağlamlaşmış gibi durmasına karşın, içten içe bozulmaya başlamıştı. Gerçekte kazananlara bile çok şey yitirdiği bir sistem olan ‘kapitalizm’, insan varlığını fiziksel ve tinsel olarak tehdit etmeye başladı. İşsizlik, açlık, patlayan suç dalgaları sosyal yaşamda ağırlığını hissettirmeye başladı. İnsani değerler, kapitalist rekabetin zorunlu yasalarının uygulanmasıyla yıkılmaya, üretilen mal ve hizmetler, en büyük değer haline geldi. Günümüzün de en büyük sorunu olan yabancılaşmanın ekonomik nedeni böylece oluştu. İnsanlar, korunmak için, özel alanın en sağlam kalesi gibi görünen  a i l e’yi seçtiler kendilerine. Ve ailelerine kapandılar. Çünkü kamusal olan artık güvenilmez, ahlaki bakımdan düşük bir ilişkiler yumağıydı.

            19. yüzyılda kamusal alandan kaçışın ilk belirtileri,  s a h n e  i l e  s o k a k  a r a s ı n d a k i  b e n z e r l i k l e r i n   o r t a d a n   k a l k m a s ı y l a  başladı. Artık sahnedeki oyuncular, canlandırdığı kişiliğe uygun kostümlerle sahneye çıkmaya özen gösteriyorlardı. Sahneyle izleyici arasında kalan, çizgilerle çizilmiş bir mesafe oluşmaya başlıyordu. Tiyatro salonlarına sessizlik ve karartmalar ilk kez 1870 yılında gerçekleştirildi. İzleyici artık pasif bir hale gelmişti. Sokaktaki durum da buna uygundu. Yabancılardan korkan insanlar, onlarla konuşmaktan, ilişki kurmaktan korkuyorlardı. T i y a t r o’da olduğu gibi insanlar kamusal yaşamda pasif izleyiciler durumuna geliyorlardı. Kendilerini açıklamak gereği duymadıkları için , r o l  de yapmıyorlardı. Böylece, teatrallik ile sokaktaki davranış birbirinden kesin olarak kopuyordu. Sosyal yaşama egemen olan aldatma, gizemlilik ve yanılsama, açıklığın, yabancılarla ilşki kurmanın yanlış olduğunu her gün yeni olaylarla kanıtlıyordu. Bu durumda  tiyatro, insanlar için başka anlamlar kazanıyordu.

            Özetle, “hiçbir şifre çözme çabası gerektirmeyen sahici yaşam, ancak  s a h n e  s a n a t ı n ı n  himayesi altında ortaya çıkıyordu.”

 

 

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Penology (Penoloji – Cezalandırma Bilimi)

                                                             PENOLOJİ 

                        <PENOLOGY (Penoloji), “suçları cezalandırma” bilimidir. Aşağıdaki notlar, İstanbul Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Ceza Hukuku Bölümü Başkanı -rahmetli- Ordinaryüs Profesör Dr. Sulhi Dönmezer’in izinleriyle, Amerika’dan, bu konuda bir seri konferans vermeye davet edilen Prof. DONALD R. TAFT tarafından İstanbulda, 23 Mart 1956’da başlayan ve üç ay devam ettiğim haftalık söyleşilerde aldığım notların özetidir. Fakültenin Kriminoloji Enstitüsü, benim 1955’de İstanbul Üniversitesi-Bakırköy Hastanesi Adli Psikiyatri bölümünde yaptığım, Türkiye’de ilk defa Uyuşturucu Maddeler kullanan 121 hasta üzerine yapılmış bir tetkikimi, <esasında uzmanlık tezimi> 1958’de, Türkçe ve Fransızca olarak, ulusal istatistikleri ile birlikte yayımlamıştı. (Onu da, yakında, “Uyuşturucu Maddeler” bölümünde, göreceksiniz. Prof. Taft’ın konferansı, bir iki yıl sonra Amerikada, -tabii İngilizce olarak- basılmıştı.>

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<Konferanslar, 16 Mart 1956  da başlayıp Nisan & Mayıs 1956 boyunca sürmüştü>           

                           P e n o l o j i , birçok disiplinlerin el ele çalışmasıyla oluşmuş bir “fikir okulu”dur. Bir bilim dalı olması dolayısıyla, işini görebilmesi için, çeşitli yöntem’leri de kullanması gerekir. Bu yeni bilim dalının gayesi, s u ç’un nedenlerini araştırmak, onları saptamak ve içinde yaşadığımız ve bir parçası olduğumuz “toplum”u, suçluya karşı korumaktır. Suçluluğun nedenlerini araştıran herkesin böyle pozitif-olumlu bir ‘ekol’e ait olması gerekir.

                           Bugün itibariyle, dünyanın hemen hemen her yerinde, “intikam alma”, “insanları suçtan alıkoyma”, “bozulmuş dengeyi yeniden düzene sokma” <yani, ‘mademki biri zarara sokulmuştur, karşı tarafın da baskı altına konulması> akımları mevcuttur.

                           İ n t i k a m  a l m a   h i s s i, hemen her canlıda bir nebze mevcuttur. Amerika Birleşmiş Devletlerinin F.B.I. Şefi Edgar G. HOOVER’in, yüksek düzeyde yaptığı bir konferansta, bu “cezalandırma” sürecinde, “intikam alma hislerinin varolduğunu” da açıkça ortaya koymuştu. Bu arada verdiği örnek şuydu: Bir polis, bir suçluyu yakalamaya kalkarken suçlu polisi öldürmüş, etraftakiler de suçlunun hakkından gelerek cesedini sokak ortasına bırakmışlar ve adeta zevkle seyrediyorlarmış. Bu, toplumda hemen herkesin, kötülük etmiş kimselerin cezalandırılmasından bir nevi haz duyduğunu, bir rahatlık hissi duyumsadığını belgeler.

                           “Dengeyi kurma” fikri birçok insanlarda bulunur. Hatta ben bile, böyle bir fikri -bilinçaltında- besleyebilirim.

                           “Hukuk”un tarifinde, “Adalet”in (Hak ve hukuku gözetme, doğruluk) sembolü, gözü bağlı bir kızın elinde tuttuğu bir teraziyle belirtilir. Niçin? Belki yüz ifadelerinin yumuşamasından korkulduğundan herkese eşit muamelede bulunsun diye.

                            “Yeni Penoloji”, tümüyle bu fikrin zıddı kanaatindedir. O, herkese “ayrı ayrı” ceza vermek kararındadır ve bir ‘denge’ kurmak azminde değildir. İki adam tasavvur edelim, ikisi de aynı içerikli suç işlemiş olsunlar. Bu suçları oluşturan nedenler, hiç şüphesiz her iki şahısta birbirinden farklıdır. “Tedavi” de bu farklı nedenlere göre yapılacağından, ceza aynı olamaz. Bu, “eşitsizlik” demek değildir. Modern ‘Adalet’te “eşitlik” kavramı hususunda prensip farkı yoktur. Suç işlendiğinde fakirle zengin, beyazla siyah insan, aynı muameleye maruz kalmalıdır.

                          Bu, Modern Penoloji’de böyledir; yani, suçi işleme nedenleri göz önünde tutularak, tedavilerinde farklılık gözetilir. Yasalarımız, hala, işlenen suçun ağırlığıyla orantılı olarak ceza takdiriyle işleyen bir sisteme eyilimlidir. Gerçekte yasa’nın böyle söylemesine karşın, uygulama tam böyle olmamaktadır; örneğin, zenginler fakirlerden çok daha kolay savunma ve cezalardan daha ucuz kurtulma kaynaklarına sahiptirler. Birçok memleketlerde (örneğin U.S.A.), “ırk” farklılığına göre “farklı” muameleler-işlemler yapılmaktadır. Hiçkimseyi ayırd etmeksizin “tam cezalandırma” da, modern penoloji’nin gayesine uygun değildir. Bu, halihazırda, çözümü müşkil noktalardan biridir.

                          Toplum’u, suça karşı koruma’dan ayrı -ama ilintili- diğer önemli bir konu da, s u ç u  ö n l e m e k’tir. Modern Penoloji, suçluluğu önlemek için ‘ceza’ mutlaka gerekse, o fonksiyona uyuyorsa, bittabi ceza uygulanmasını kabul eder. Şu noktayı belirtmek isterim ki, Modern Penoloji, ceza’nın gerekliliği üzerinde ısrardan çok, “ceza’nın etkilerini”, “etkenlik derecesi”ni araştırır. Herhangi bir kimse eğer ceza’nın etkenliğini etüd etmek istiyorsa, yapıcı-önleyici tedbirlerin sonuçlarını da hesaba katabilecek bir konumda olmalıdır.

YENİ PENOLOJİ’NİN İLKELERİ :

                     Şimdi, Yeni Penoloji’nin kapsadığı noktalara temas etmek isterim. Unutmayın ki, bunları  bazıları “benim dünya”mın hükümleridir, herkes kabul etmeyebilir. İfade şeklim de doğmatik olacak, bu da ayrı bir tartışma konusu olabilir.
 (1) Yeni Penoloji, “Terapi-Tedavi”yi uygularken, suçluyu, birçok nedenlerin ve    etkenlerin tekisi altında olan bir birey olarak kabul eder.

 (2) Yeni Penoloji, suçlu suçu işlerken var olan koşullar ile, onu ‘suç işlemeye yönelten’ koşulları birbirinden ayırt etmeye gayret eder. Örneğin, farzedelim ki şimdi, burada ders yaparken içeriye eli tabancalı bir haydut girsin, “eller yukarı!” desin. Bu, onun, bu suç evresinde, onun tüm “faaliyet” safhasının bir göstergesidir. Ben, bir Kriminoloji hocası olarak, “Beyefendi, bir dakika durur musunuz lütfen; acaba nu işi yapmak için bu hale nasıl geldiniz, ailevi nedenler mi yoksa toplumsal bir çöküşün bir göstergesi mi?” diye sormayacağım herhalde. Ya ellerimi kaldıracağım, ya da -varsa- tabancamı çekip onu vuracağım. Çok şükür, şimdiye kadar bu hallerle karşılaşmadım. Yinelersek, bu sahne, “faaliyet” safhasıdır. Bu noktada, Polis birliklerinin, kendi hakları içinde, böyle bir saldırı olasılığına karşı, benim de silahlanmamı tavsiyeleri normaldir. Yeni Penoloji’nin katkıda bulunmak istediği “suç safhası”, bu kademe değildir: Suç işlemeden evvelki kademede ya da yakalanıp gözaltına alındıktan sonraki devirdeki kademedir. Bu anda, yani öyle bir suç işlendikten sonra, seçilen iki yol şudur:
a) Suçlu’ya, mümkün olduğu kadar ‘sert’ muamele etmek (bazen bu gereklidir!),
b) Yapıcı bir program ile onun bu davranışa karar vermesini engellemek.

(3) Cezaların “tedavi”lerinde, her şahsın nitelik ve karakter öğelerinin icaplarına göre, “şahsa özel” bir şekil masaya yatırılmalıdır.

(4) Şahsın yaşadığı “grup”lar, nasıl onun o suçu işlemesinde temel amil oluyorlarsa, tedavi türünün seçilmesinde aynı şekilde “grup baskısı”nı yaklaşım seçimi olarak kullanmamız gerekir.

(5)’Tedavi’ konusunda, ‘suç’ öge’sinin, cemiyetin organik yapısında <saklı bir şekilde> mevcut olduğunu kale almamız gerekir.

(6) Suçluların ‘Tedavi’lerinde, yalnızca Hukuk’la ilgili oluşum ve kişilerin değil, çeşitli uzmanlık dallarından yetişmiş olanlardan da istifade edilmelidir. (Psikoloji bunların başında gelir!)

(7) Özel hallere bağlı olarak, suçlular tedavi edilirken, “Parole”, “Probation” müesseseleri incelikle dikkate alınmalıdır.

(8) Şu, genel bir prensiptir: Suçlu, dış dünyada mevcut olan toplum’u “olduğu gibi” kabul etirilerek, kişi’yi ona uyum sağlamaya savaşmalıdır. Her toplumun, bu “uyumluluk” işlemi, buna temel olan ‘değer yargıları’, birbirlerinden farklıdır. 

                     Suçluluğu mutlaka önlemek istiyorsak, mevcut sistemi değiştirmekten başka yol yoktur. Hapishaneye düşmüş adamın, ogünkü haliyle, topluma uyum sağlamasını başarabilmek çok zordur. (O, zaten uyum sağlayamadığından deliğe girmiştir, üstelik şimdi bir de “suçlu” damgası vardır.) Bu fikir, her ne kadar idealistik gibi gelir ise de, tarihin ne zamanınında gerçekleşecekse gerçekleşsin, elzemdir.

(9) Yeni Penoloji, ceza’nın ancak “mutlak zorunlu” olduğu zamanlarda kullanılmasını arzu ve tavsiye eder.

 CEZA’NIN ETKENLİK DERECESİ :

1. safhada: P s i k o l o j i   L a b o r a  t u v a r l a r ı’ndan yararlanacağız. Modern dünyada pek çoğalmaya başlayan bu kurumlar, gerek insanlara ve gerek hayvanlara uygulanan c e z a’ların etkenlik derecelerini ölçmeye çalışmaktadırlar.  Özel bir araştırıcı, 88 süje üzerinde yaptığı araştırmada şu sonuca varmış: Bir kez ceza vermek ‘iyi’, iki defa ceza ‘kötü’ sonuç vermiş. Sırf “cezanın uygulanması”na bakarak tatmin olmamalıyız. Yalnız, kişinin o andaki “yaşam koşulları”nı da göz önünde tutmak zorundayız. O kimsaenin “kişiliği”ni, “ceza’nın ona ne anlam ifade ettiği”ni, “o ceza’dan ne öğrendiği”ni değerlendirmek zorundayız.

                      Psikoloji Laboratuvarlarında genellikle “beyaz fareler” süje olarak kullanılırlar. Böyle bir laboratuvarda, farenin yolu üzerine bir ‘elektrik şoku’ konulacak olursa, bir sonraki seferinde, o yolu izlemez. Tabii bir insanın, örneğin karısını öldürmek isterken elektrik sandalyesinden kaçmasını bir sefer düşünceyle bekleyemeyiz. Suçluluğun altındaki “kişilik” etüd edilmelidir.

                      S u ç  ve  s u ç l u l u k  hakkındaki genel inanışlar şöyle sıralanabilir:

1) Suçlu’nun suç’u çekmekten gelecek acı ve ıstırabı, onun, o suçu işlemekten alacağı zevkten daha ağır olmalıdır;
2) Ceza, suçun işlenmesinden ‘hemen’ sonra uygulanmalıdır;
3) Ceza’nın “kaçınılmaz” bir sonuç-gerçek olduğu hakkında hemen herkesin peşinen bir fikri olmalıdır.

                       Tipik bir Amerikan suçlusu bir kumarbaza benzer: Yakalanması ile yakalanmaması arasında bir kumar. (Hatta, yakalanma şansı, kumarda kazanma şansından daha fazladır.)
                        A.B.D.de, “Suç ödemez!” diye bir tabir vardır. Suç, insana bir kazanç-menfaat temin etmez. O eğer suça devam ederse, yakalanması ve ceza görmesi hemen hemen muhakkaktır. Öyle suç işlemeyi bir yaşam şekli olarak kabul etmiş ve icraatte bulunan biri, son suçundan sonra yakalandığında, çoğu kez yalnızca bu ‘son suçu’ için ceza görür. Evvelkiler unutulmuştur bile.

                       Çok seneler önceden elimde kalmış -ve şimdi pek değer vaat etmeyen- bir istatistiği size sunayım:
                       12543 ağır cezalı suçlu’dan ancak 2449’u muhakeme edildikten sonra ‘suçlu’ oldukları anlaşılmış ve öyle cezalandırılmışlardır:
                       Bunlardan o/o 13’ü fiilen ceza görmüşler;
                       394’ü, yani o/o 3,1’i gerçekten işledikleri suçun karşılığı olabilecek cezaya tabi tutulmuşlar; geri kalanlar -ki çoğunluktur-, çok daha hafif ceza’lara çarptırılmışlardır.     

                       Yukarıda da işaret ettiğimiz gibi, bir suçlu’nun hayatında en önemli zaman, yakalanması ile muhakeme edilmesi arası ve onları kapsayan anlardır. Tüm terapi imkanları o zaman düzenlenebilir. Yakalanmazsa, vak’alar gösteriyor ki insanlar yakalanıncaya kadar suç işlemeye devam ediyorlar, ve sonra, çok geç kalınmış oluyor.

                           C e z a’nın insanları topluma “uyum sağlar” hale getirdiğini iddia etmek pek doğru olmayabilir. Fakat onun özellikle çocuklar üzerindeki etkisi tartışılmalı ve saptanmalıdır. Başka bir deyişle, c e z a l a n d ı r m a, yalnızca toplumun kınaması için yapılmamalıdır.

4) Suçluluk’un ceza ile yanıtlandırılması konusunda,  y a ş a  göre de değişmektedir. Bu konuda biz Amerika’da bir paradoks ile karşı karşıyayız. Özellikle  ç o c u k  p s i k o l o j i s i  ile uğraşanlar, bir suç oluşumunda, onların cezalandırılmasına karşıdırlar. Bu bir dereceye kadar doğrudur. Bununla beraber, hep biliyoruz ki, insanoğlunun en etkilendiği hayat periyodu, onun  ç o c u k l u k  devresidir..

 5. ‘Büyük’ ile ‘Çocuk’ arasında ayrım yapmadan, suçlunun  ‘niçin’ cezalandırıldığını bilmesi lazımdır. Bzaen, cezalayan ile cazalanan arasında iyi bir iletişim vardır, bu çok olumlu etki eder; bu çok özel beceriyi gerektirir ki her zaman mümkün olamaz.

6. Cezalar, suçun ‘şiddet’ine değil de mevcut bütün koşulların toplamından alınacak toplu sonuç ile ölçülmelidir. Örneğin, bir aile yuvasında bir çocuk bir kabahat yapsa, aile önünde olduğu için, çocuk onu cezalandıran annesinin boynuna sarılır. Tezat bir nokta: Evde çok kötü bir atmosfer varsa, çocuk cezalandırıldığı halde bir yarar edinememiştir. Anne’nin çocuğu “Çocuk Mahkemesi”ne götürdüğünü farzedelim ve oradaki görevli yetkililere: “Ben çocuğumla başa çıkamıyorum, siz çaresine bakın!” dediğini düşünelim. Bu demektir ki, verilen ceza etkili olmamış demektir. Bu tür davranış, olumlu ve pozif bir sonuçtan ziyade, korku ve nefret doğurabilecek bir durumla sonuçlanmış demektir.

               Karakter’lerin değişik niteliklerine göre, ceza, bazen ‘olumlu, yapıcı’ bir etki ile sonuçlanabilir. Fakat genellikle, bir süre sonra bu tarz davranış da olumlu sonuçlar vermez. Özellikle  a ğ ı r   s u ç l u l a r a  uygulanan cezalar, onlar üzerinde, onları doğru ve verimli sosyal davranışlara itedeceğine onlardan uzaklaştırır da. İnsan tabiatıdır; insan, cezaya alışınca, yüz-göz olunca, cezayı ortadan kaldıracak tedbirleri aldıktan sonra yine bildiğini yapabilir. Aynı neenlerle, suçlular, hapisten çıktıktan sonra, girmeden evvelkinden çok daha fazla “halk düşmanı” olmaktadırlar. Hapishane içinde, disiplini mahiyette verilen cezalar, o suçluyu, aynı suçu işlemekten alıkoyabilir; fakat ‘o müddet’ dolunca koruyucu etkenlik ortadan kalkar, tam tersine, planlı intikam hisleri yine filizlenmeye başlar.

7) Cezalandıran, ceza verilen için o cezanın bir dert, elem, bela oluşturduğunu görerek ondan zevk alıyorsa ve suçlu bunun farkında ise, ceza etken olamaz.

8) Ceza, şayanı hürmet olmayan bir kimse tarafından uygulanmazsa, yine etken (müessir) olamaz. A.B.D.’de, eski tip Hapishane yöneticileri, siyasi nedenlerle, çoğu kez gereken nitelikleri sunmayan, iltimasla tayin edilmiş kimselerdi. Mahkumlar, onların -adeta içyüzlerini okuyarak ve sonuçta, onları da hiç olmazsa kendileri kadar suçlu addederek- pek saymazlar. Dolayısıyla, o kimselerin verecekleri ceza etken olamaz.

9. Cezalandırılan, cezalandırılmasına neden olan akt’ın icra edildiği toplulukta (ya da çete’de), onun itibarını yükseltecek bir uslamlama yaratıyorsa, ceza’nın etkisi yine sıfırdır. A.B.D.’de, bu çok görülen bir vak’adır. Bir suç işleyen bir genç, yakalandıktan sonra, ilk önceleri bu işe üzülür, fakat vaktini ödedeyip de dışarı çıkınca, o cezaya “tahammül edebildiği”nden dolayı kendine bir paye verir, itimat ve güven sahibi bir kimse gibi, bazen bir ‘kahraman’ olarak eski çete mensupları arasında sanki değer kazanır. Bu itibarla da,  cezalandırılan insanın ait olduğu “çevre”, son derecede önemlidir.

                        Bir kimse, suç işlememiş, yapıcı bir grup içersinde, mevki sahibi olarak ıslah edilirse, o kimse, suçtan alıkonulmuş demektir. Mesela bazı “Oyun Kulüpleri” vardır, bunlare bir fikir etrafında toplanmışlardır; araya giren, onlara da karışır. Bu gruplar, tedavi kapsamında, özel gayelerle hazırlanmış olabilirler. Her halü karda, kriminal bir tipi, sosyal bir topluma ayak uydurabilecek bir duruma getirmek, cidden bir problem olarak karşımıza her zaman çıkmıştır ve çıkacaktır da.

                       Zamanımızda en büyük ‘ölüm’ tehlikesi ve ‘suç’lar, kaatillerden ziyade,beyaz yaka-roet suçluları ve otomobil sürücülerinden nedenlenmektedir.

                       Bu sözlerimizle hırsızları onayladığımız sanılmasın. Aynı sonucu doğuran diğerlerini de hesaba katmamız gerektiğini arz etmek istedim. B e y a z    Ya k a (white collar) suçlarına, A.B.D.’de sosyal bir mevki verdiğimiz ve birçok hoşgörü tanıdığımız bir gerçektir. Neden adi suçlulara daha ağır bir tavır takınalım ve öyle davranalım?

                         ‘S u ç’a karşı davranılan tavırla, ‘s u ç l u’ya karşı davranılan tavrı ayırdetmeliyiz. Suç’u <per se>, hiçbir zaman onaylamıyoruz. Toplum içinde güven, o şahsın içinde bulunduğu yapıcı gruba dayanır. Böyle yapıcı bir gruba dahil olmayan bir insana kolay kolay itimat edilemez. Bu itibarla A.B.D., büyüklerden ziyade çocuklar için yapıcı gruplar teşkil etme ve suça yönelmişleri onların içine koymaya çalışıyoruz.

                        Ankara’da 11-15 yaşları arasındaki suç işlemiş çocukları gördük. Birçokları adam öldürmekle itham ediliyorlardı. Onları doğru yola yöneltmek (ıslah etmek) için ortaya konulan faaliyet branş’larını gözlemledik. Bazıları, yemi okuma yazma öğreniyorlardı. Okuma-yazma öğrenme suç’a mani olmaz ammma, o yeti, topluma tekrar uyum sağlamak çabasında önemli öğelerdenm biri olabilir. Diğer sınıflarda da el sanatleri öğretiliyor ve oyun oynanıyordu.

                              Amerika’nın birçok hapishanelerinde bu grup çalışmalarına yeni yeni başlanmıştır. Beni hayerete düşüren şey şu: Ankara’da bir orta okul öğretmeni, Iowa Hapishanesinde uygulanan aynı şeyi burada da uygulamaya çalışmaktadır.

                              G r u p   T e r a p i’sinin sonraki safhaları araştırılıp sonuçları tesbit edilmiş değildir. Ben, samimi olarak şunu söylemek isterim ki, bugenç adamların geleceği, hapishaneden çıktıktan sonra girecekleri sosyal ortamlara bağlıdır. Dolayısıyla, burada uygulanan tedavi yöntemlerini, hiç olmazsa bir dereceye kadar, çıktıktan sonra da devam ettirmek zorunludur. İstatistikler, çıkanların, maalesef beşte dördünün yine suç işlediklerini göstermektedir.

                              ÖLÜM CEZASI konusu da çok önemlidir. <Bu konferans’ın verildiği tarihte, Türkiye’de, maalesef idam cezası henüz mevcuttu!>

                          İngiltere’de halihazırda 1,240 çeşit suç mevcuttur ki hakim ölüm cezası verebilir. Bu konuda söylenen hikayelerde, hiç olmazsa yarı yarıya bir gerçeklik payı vardır: “Hırsızlık yaptığı için bir kimseyi arasanız, onu seyredenler arasında yankesiciler yine faaliyette bulunurlar!” Bu neye
denmiştir?
                        1) Ölüm cezasına karşın, onu vermeyi icap ettirecek suçların işlenişi önlenememektedir!
                         2) Yapıcı Programlarla suçlar ve bunlar arasında ölüm-kaatil olayları azalmaktadır.

                          Benim, Kriminoloji öğrencilerine, imtihanlarda sorduğum “düşünme” (tefekkür) sorusu şudur: “Acaba toplum için tehlikeli olduğuna inandığımız suçluyu, onun o toplumun bizzzatihi kendisinin mahsulü olduğunu kabul eder ve onu hala elektrik sandalyesine gönderir miydiniz?”

                          Eğer toplumu başka tür yollarla korumaya imkan yoksa, ben de öldürmeye taraftarım. Acaba  i d a m   c e z a s ı  o tür suçları işlemeyi önlüyor mu?

                           İngiltere’de bilimsel bir komite bu konu üzerinde çalışmış ve 500 sahifelik bir kitap yazmış, idam’ın kaldırılması hususunda bir teklif getirmişlerdir. Bir ara durdurularak, beklenilmiş, acaba cinayetler çoğalacak mı?

                           İstatistiklerle konuşacak olursak,
1) Umumi “tarih”in genel seyrini göze alırsak, idam cezalarının gitgide daha az kullanıldığını görmekteyiz;
2) Hukuk biliminde, Yasa gözünde, ‘idam’ cezası ile cezalandırılması gereken cezaların sayısı gitgide azalmaktadır. A.B.D:’de bununla cezalandırılan suçların sayısı yalnızca (8)dır. 1952 yılında, Amerika’da 48 Devletin 28 tanesinde 2 suçtan örtürü idam cezası uygulanmıştır. 5 Devlette de Ölüm Cezası yasada mevcut değildir.
3) Bu gayretlerin akımında, bazı devletlerde, ‘ölüm’ cezasını tadil edebilecek-değiştirecek jüri’ler oluşturulmuştur.
4) Bilfiil idam edilenlerin sayısı azalmaktadır. (1955’te yalnzıca 135 kişi!)
5) İdam cezasının infazı gitgide daha özel, gözlerden uzak yapılmaktadır. Eskiden, “Herkes görsün, ibret alsın'” derlerdi.
6) Elektrikli İskemle, gitgide revaç bulmaktadır. Ölüme mahkum edilen kimseye mümkün olduğu kadar az ıstırap vermek düşünülmektedir. “Asılma” yoluyla idamda önemli bir azalma vardır. A.B.D.’de, (5) devlette “Gaz odaları” mevcuttur.

                 (Benim, yani Dr. İsmail Ersevim’in hocaya sorduğu soru): Yani, suçları hafifletmeye doğru sosyal bir eğilim mi var?
                 (Yanıt): İnsani-beşeri fikirler gerçekten gitgide yayılmışa benzerler. Niye arttığı üzerinde düşünülmesi gereken ‘muazzam’ bir sorudur; belki insanlararası ilişkilerin artması buna neden olmuş olabilir. Fakat, bir yandan ‘demokrasi’ ilerlerken, totaliter rejimlerde cezaların şiddetlendiğini de gözlemlemekteyiz.
                       Diğer bir neden de, cezaları ağırlaştırmakla pratikte “daha az suç” rüyası tam gerçekleşmemiştir.

Soru:    Cinayeti işleyenleri feda etmekten niye  çekiniyoruz?
Yanıt:   Bu konuda, yalnızca ‘biyolojik alan gözlemleri’ yapılırsa, pek sağlıklı sonuçlara varamıyoruz. Bizler belki daha beşeri-insani hislerle hareket etmekteyiz. Halihhazırda, Toplum’da zayıf olanlardan mümkün olduğu kadar faydalanma düşüncesi de itibar görmektedir. Topluma karşı tehlikesi büyük, faydasız kimseler kimlerdir? Ben ihtiyarlarsam beni çöplüğe mi atsınlar? Toplum iç.inde kimlerin faydalı kimlserin zararlı olduklarını her zaman kat’i kurallarla tayin edemeyiz gibime geliyor.

                        Sizleri şaşırtacak ama, şu aşağıdaki istatistiklere bir bakın:

GEORGIA : 61: (Zenciler çoğunluktadır,                NORTH DAKOTA : 1
                             ırklar arasında ihtilaf çok)            Adam öldürme cezası yoktur.

                      34:  Beyazların, Georgia’daki               MASSACHUSETTS : 1   
                              işledikleri katil                                Mass.’da ölüm cezası
                                                                                             mevcut değildir-

                    A d a m   ö l d ü r m e  suçunun lehinde ve aleyhinde bazı anektod:

(A) B i l i m’e dayanmayan sonuçlar:
      (1) Amerika’da, ‘idam’ı haklı göstermek için İncil’i örnek alıyorlar olabilir. (Türkiye’de belki ‘Kur’an?’)
      (2) Hemen tüm insanlarda, doğal olarak, intikam alma hisleri mevcuttur.
      (3) İdam cezasıyla, bir “denge” kurulmaya çalışılmaktadır: “ölüme karşı ölüm” (Tooth for tooth, eye for eye: Dişe diş, göze göz misali İ.E.).
    

            Amerika’da , suçlu kadınların sayısı, suçlu erkeklerden çok azdır.
 Başka bir deyişle, Amerika’da kadınların çoğu suçlu değildir. Fakat suçlu kadın ve erkekleri karşılaştırınca, kadın katillerin suçlara oranı, erkeklerinkinden daha yüksektir.

             Ben, Illinois’de, hapishane personeline ders veriyordum. Söz, hapishanede mevcut kadın katillere gelmişti:
             -Susie hakkında ne dersiniz? dedim,
             -Göründüğü kadar çok fena değildir.
              -Ee, kocasını öldürmüş?
              -Öldürmüş ama, o da haketmiş!
              -Bir kadının kocasını öldürneye hakkı var mı? Kavga etmişler miydi?
              -Etmişlerdi.
              -Sinirlenmiş miydi?
              -Evet.
              -Tabancaya sarılması doğru mu?
              -Evet.
              -Tetiği çekmesi?
              -Hayır!                                    Kim haklı ya da haksız olursa olsun, ölümle-öldürmekle dengeyi yapılandırmak güçtür.

(B): Bilim’e dayanan bilimsel gözlemler:
                Amerika’da, ölüm cezası bulunan devletlerde, ölüm cezası olmayan devletlere nazaran, “adam öldürme sayısı” daha fazladır. Mesela, Illinois’de adam öldürme için ölüm cezası vardır, Michigan’da yoktur. Ama, Illinois’de birisi birisini öldüreceği zaman, kurbanını Michigan’a götürüp orada öldürmeyi tasarlamış olabilir ve bunu cidden yapanlar da mevcuttur.

                       Amerika’da, çok nadir olmakla beraber, “mesleki-profesyonel katil” paralı katiller de mevcuttur ve para karşılığında cinayet işlerler. Bunlar tipik değildir. Adam öldürmek suçundan dolayı gerçekten cezalandırılanların oranı: 1/50’dir. Ceza, idam cezası olmazsa, bu oran daha da artar. Gerek ‘jüri’, gerek ‘hakimler’ çlüm cezası üzerinde, diğer cezalara oranla daha dikkatli davranır, vermemeyi yeğlerler.
                        Rhode Island Eyaletinde ölüm cezası yoktur, keza Massachusetts’de de, ama bu sonuncuda, daha az adam ölümle cezalandırılmaktadır. (Amerika dönüşü intibaım: R.I., o/o 90 Roman Cathooli’tir. Ahalinin çoğu daha radikal ve dinsel düşünür; Massachusetts’in çoğu, hemen tümü Protestan’dır, R.I.’e oranla çok daha fazla oranda siyahlar ve husumet mevcut olmasına karşın daha entellektüel ve sosyaldirler; aynı şekilde, rehabilitasyon imkanları daha fazla mevcuttur. Dr.İ.E.)

                        İdam cezaları olan yerlerde, idam cezalarının infazı muıhtelif yerlerde yoğunlaşır. Bunun, ceza’nın uygulanma nedenlerinden ziyade, sosyal diğer faktörlere bağlıdır sanıyorum.

                        U.S.A.’da, birçok eyaletlerde, idam cezası kaldırılıp sonra yeniden konarak, mukayeseli çalışmalar yapılmıştır. Mamafih, bilimsel bir ilinti bulunamamıştır: Bazı yerlerde öldürme vak’aları çoğalmış, bazı yerlerde ise azalmıştır. Bu nedenlerle, sebepleri, değişen dünya, değişen Amerika, değişen insanlar: artan insanlararası ilişkiler, dünya haritasının diğer yerlerinde süregelen savaşlar, savaşta nahak yere verilen ölüm vak’aları vb nedenlerde aramak gerekmektedir.

                        İ d a m  taraftarı olanlar, “elektrik sandalyesinin karşısına gelen adamın yüzünü bir görseniz” diyorlar. Fakat asıl etken olan şey, karısını ya da kocasını öldürmeye karar verdiği anda bu korkuıyu hissetmesidir.
                        İ d a m ı n  aleyhinde söyleyenler ise, ölüm için, “kabili telif – yerine konması mümkün olmayan” bir cezadır diyorlar. Diğer bir gerçek de şudur ki, toplumda, bir kimseyi öldürmeden de idama mahkum edilmiş kimseler mevcuttur. Demokratik bir memlekette esas, cezalandırılmayacak suçluya mukabil, haksız yere cezalandırılacak ya da idam edilmesi istenmeyen fikirlerini benimsemek olmalıdır.

                         “Ölüm cezası”nın bizzatihi ‘suçlu’ ve ‘toplum’ üzerindeki etkisi nedir, bu da önemli problemlerden biridir. Adam idam ederken, celladın ‘adam öldürme hissi’nden, veya başka bir deyişle, ‘adam öldürmenin cellat üzerindeki etkisi’nden de bahsetmek gerekir. Kişisel bir suç duygusundan -kısmen- uzaklaşmak için, Georgia’da, 4 gardiyan, 4 düğmeye aynı anda basarlar, ama tek düğmeden giden ceryanın nerden başlatıldığını onlardan hiçbiri bilemez. (Ancak elektrikçi bilir!) SİNG-SİNG’te bir mahkum, bu konuda çok önemli, -tabii öüm cezasının aleyhine- his dolu bir kitap yazmıştır.

                         İ d a m’ın toplum üzerindeki etkisi hakkında kat’i birşey söylenemez. Ama denilebilir ki, daha az uygar düzeye ulaşmış bir toplum, bu kararı, daha yüksek düzeye ulaşmış bir uygarlıktan daha fazla onaylamaktadır.

                         Bu  i d a m  konusunda, herkes farklı bir kanaat sahibi olabilir; bir toplum ve onun mensupları bir ‘idam’ kararı verirken şunu nazarı itibare almalıdırlar: “İdam’ın per se suçu önlemede kat’i bir önleyici etkisi yoktur. Bazı vak’alarda, kişiler, önceden tasarlamadığı halde, korku ya da benzeri bir heyecanla bir cinayet işleyebilirler. Maamafih bu da o kadar rahatlıkla genelleştirilemez.”

                                                                   *

                         H a p i s h a n e, bize evimiz ne duygu veriyorsa, suçlular için de odur: Barınılacak, yiyecek bir şey bulacak vb fizyolojik ihtiyaçlarını da giderir ama, hepimizin gereksinimi olduğu “sevgi-love” çok karmaşa bir anlam taşır burada. Yakın arkadaşlıklara, ‘kan kardeşliğine’, “Hayatımızın son gününe kadar beraberiz, ölmek var, dönmek yok” benzeri idealüstü sözleşmelere, zıtlıklara imkan veren bir yerdir orası.

                         İdeal olarak hapishaneler, barındırdıkları suçlulara, “dış dünya” ile bir bağ, köprü, “time off” verebilmelidir. Zira içersi, “karanlık bir tecrit”ten ibarettir. Bu nedenlerle Amerika’da, Islahhaneler’de, özellikle din adamları – rahipler, kişisel görüşmelerden toplu din eğitimine kadar bir seri seanslar yaparlar. Ama, arada bir “iyi zaman geçirmek”, “eğlence” faaliyetleri de yapılır: ekstra yiyecek-tatlı-alkolsüz içkiler, müzik vs. temin edilmesi pek faydalıdır; fakat bunlar, ender koşullarda kısmen yapılsa bile hala suçlular ‘kafestedir”. Çok ender olarak, suçlular, dışarda çalışmaya gidip hapishaneyi “gece oteli” olarak kullanabilir; ya da, seçkin kişiler önemli maçlara, tur’lara katılabilirler. Bunlar, “iyi davranış” ve “geleceği planlama” bakımlarından daha ümit verici ve olumlu olaylar olmakla beraber, ne yazık ki, gerek anlayış ve gerekse yeterli ve nitelikli gardiyan eksikliği, bunları bir rüya mahsülü halinde tomurcuklanma safhasından çiçek açmaya getiremez. Yıllar önce, hatırlarım, Illonois hapishanelerinde futbol takımları yetiştirilirdi ve bunlar rakip hapishanelere maç için götürülürlerdi. Ekseri yenerlerdi de. Antrenörleri bana derdi: Teker teker gayet iyi oynuyorlar fakat takım halinde oynamaya bir türlü yanaşmıyorlar. Bu da onların, “topluma-birlik beraberliğe uyum sağlamakta”ki olası çocukluklarındanberi mevcut eksikliğinden gelse gerek.

                         Gerek ekonomik (hapishane masrafları) nedenlerden ve gerekse suçluyu, topluma karşı kin besleyen fırsatçılar olarak yetiştirmemek için, yukarıda da söylendiğ gibi, “parol” – “Şartlı salıverme” sistemleri, çıktığı anda topluma hemen zarar verme olasılığı az, yani piromanyak-yangın çıkaran, çocuk ve kadın katilleri vb. olmayanlar bir şans verme bakımından önemlidir. Fakat bunları zamanlama en önemli iştir. “Parole meclisleri”, suçluluk psikolojisi ve sosyolojisi hakkında bilgili -ya da dereceli- insanlardır; hapishanelerin çoğunun içerde sürekli kalan ve tüm zamanını rehabilitasyona veren psikolog-psikiyatr staf’ları yoktur; mamafih sık sık konsültasyon alırlar. Ama açoğu kez, suçlu’nun iyi niyetine karşın, onu suç işlemeye ilk kez sevkeden nedenlerin çoğu, dışarda hala mevcuttur; zaten damgalanmıştır ve bunun için “residivism”= hapishaneye geri dönüş ortalama o/o 83-90 arasındadır.

                         Birçok kentlerde, 18-21 yaş arasında gençliğin en ateşli ve olası birlikte olumlu olarak çalışmaya en müsait safhadaki suçlular için, “Gençlik Otoriteleri” denen, ve yukarda saydığımız propfesyonellerle sıkı bir işbirliğiyle çalışan gruplar vardır. Bunların kurulmalarında Hukuk müesseseleri önemli rol oynamıştır, zira, bilindiği gibi, mahkemelerin, hakimlerin ödevi, bir çocuk, huzurlarına getirildiğinde, onun kişiliğini ya da geleceğini inceleme gibi bir ödevleri yoktur: Birisi suçludur içeri gider, suçsuz bulunur, dışarı salıverilir, gelecek zamana kadar.

                        Pek az olmakla beraber, eğer bu tür idari “Gençlik Otoriteleri” belirli bir süre ceza çekildikten sonra, bu gençleri ziyaret ederek, bir seri görüşmeler yaparak, gerekirse psikolojik test’lerle değerlendirerek bulgularını Mahkeme heyetine sunarlar.
                         Bu söylediğim cereyan pek yenidir; taraftarları olduğu gibi, karşıtları da çoktur, zira, idari otoritelere gereğinden fazla selahiyet verilmiştir, bundan ötürü, totaliter bir rejim haline manipüle edilebilmesi her zaman ihtimal dahilindedir.

                         Bizlere göre yanıt, işi (gencin rehabilitasyonu’nu), başından sonuna kadar izleyebilecek bir sisteme olan gereksinimdir. Bu işin iki esaslı öğesi vardır:
1) İzleme (takip),  2) Eşgüdüm (koordinasyon).
                         T a k i p, bir çocuğu ta başından sonuna kadar, aile-hapishane ve toplum ortamlarında yakından izleme prensibidir. Dayandığı öğe: <zaman>dır.
                         K o o r d i n a s y o n  ise, tüm yapılan bu işlerin, objektif olarak bir plan dahilinde yapılması ve birbirine bağlanmasıdır ki, dayandığı öğe: <mekan>dır. Çocuğun, ailesi ile uzun görüşmelerden sonra, büyüme-okul süreçlerinde nasıl olduğu, neler yaptığı, kişilik nitelikleri hep kaydedilir ve bir “sicil” teşkil edilmiş bulunulur. Neler olumlu olarak sonuçlanmıştır, anlamaya çalışılır. Ben Amerika’da yalnızca California’da buna yakın bir derinlik ve ciddiyet ile çalışan bir grup biliyorum; dünyanın hiçbir yerinde okul-aile-mahkeme-işyeri koordinasyonunu rahatlıkla ve ustalıkla yapabilecek ne bir bilim dalı vardır ne de bu konuda yeterli derecede eleman. Yine psikolog-sosyolog ve psikiyatr’ları konsültan olarak kullanmaya devam edeceğiz gibi.

                         ISLAH PROBLEMİNDE CEZAEVLERİ PROGRAMLARININ
                                                                   ÖNEMİ

                         ISLAH (Reform, iyileştirme, şifa buldurma)-Rehabilitasyon programları düzenlemek ve gerektiği gibi uygulamak için, hangi kurum bu işle meşgul olacaksa olsun, k r i m i n o l o j i k  bilgiler esas ve şarttır. Kriminoloji, P e n o l o j i’nin temelini teşkil eder.

                         K r i m i n o l o j i  ile elde edilebilecek bilgileri kısaca tekrarlayalım: İlk defa suçluya baktğımız zaman, “işlenen suçun hangi tür-nev’i suç” olduğpunu saptamak ilk işimizdir. Biz bunlrı üç sınıfa ayırırız:
1)  A d i  suçlar;    2)  R a k e t (Bir grup, teşkilat işi),  3) B e y a z   y a k a (tahsilli, diplomalı, toplumda hürmete şayan bir yeri, işi ve sosyal yaşamı olanların işi).

(1) A d i  suçlar : Bu, adi, tek hedefi açık olan: hırsızlık, yağma, adam öldürme gibi suçlardır. Bunda kişi, 100 0/0 birisinden bir şey almakta ve karşılık olarak hiçbir şey vermemektedir.
(2) R a k e t <Fr. raquette-slang-> : Uyuşturucuları, kumar ve fuhuşu içeren, yasa tarafından yasaklanmalarına karşın, halkın büyük bir kısmı tarafından talep edilen ve bir nevi ‘haz’ veren faaliyetlerdir. Bunlar, adi suçlarla kıyas kabul etmez derecede halka zarar veren işlevselliklerdir.
(3) B e y a z  y a k a  (takanlar; elbiseli kravatlı, kültürlü, tahsilli kimselerin işledikleri) s u ç l a r ı :  Bu, yüksek tabaka işlevinin sembolüdür: Emniyeti suistimal, konumundan istifade ederek bir ihaleyi almak, para getirecek işlerde monopoli tesis etmek, karşılıksız çek vermek vb.

                        Bu sonuncusunun en önemli karakterlerinden biri, çoğu kez, dışardan yaşamın “normal bir süreci ve sanki suç olmayışı” izlenimi verişidir. “Sen benim arkamı kaşı, ben seninkini kaşıyayım!” kabilinden. Mesleki cürümler de buraya girer. Hiyle yapan bir kimse, mensup olduğu kulübe giderek, suç işlemiş arkadaşını mahkemede yargılamış olan bir hakime, pekala şöyle diyebilir: “Oo, canım, para cezası mı verdin? Güzel… Gel golf oynamaya gidelim!” Ben, ceza veren hakimlerin, cürmü işleyen kişilerden özür dilediklerin bilirim. Bu tür suç, esasta, kendilerinden birşey vermeyip- ya da pek az, hatalı, kusurlu şeylerle takas- başkalarından, hem de karşılıklı menfaatı temin ettiğinden, gerçekten de muazzam bir suçtur.

                                                                
                                                         SUÇLARIN TÜR’LERİ

                         Suçların  t ü r l e r i, birçok bakımlardan sınıflandırılabilir. Herşeyden önce, insanların n e d e n  suç işledikleri tarih boyunca sorulagelmiştir. Bu sorulardan, “Kriminoloji” doğmuştur; zira o, sürekli olarak, “Niçin?”, “Niçin?”, “Niçin?” diye sorar. Bir insan “niye? nasıl? cani olur?”, “niye hırsızdır?”.

                         Sanıyorum ki, ‘niçin’den evvel, zamanımızda “kim?” yaptı, “ne yaptı?”, “nasıl yaptı?” daha çok sorulan sorulardır. Bunun nedeni, sorumluluktan gelse gerek; bu sorumluluk, “manevi” olduğa kadar, hatta daha çok, “sosyal” sorumluluktan gelir. “Herhangi bir suça kim neden olmuştur?” Şurası muhakkak ki, hepimiz, aile içive dışı, davranışlarımızdan sorumluyuz. Suçluluğu korumak, daha doğrusu kontrol altına almak, sosyal bir zorunluluktur. Toplum, Kriminoloji’nin ışığında, neden’leri tesbit edecek, suçluları fiilen önlemeye çalışacak, onu bulup yakaladıktan sonra hatta korumaya (linç’e karşı!) ve cezalandırmaya savaşacaktır.

                         M a n e v i  sorumluluk konusunda, “suçun nedenlerini aramamak” genel prensibine paralel olarak, kamu’da, ceza’ya fazla inanmama, bel bağlamama gibi bir eğilim vardır. <Dr.İ.E.: Fransızların bir ata sözü vardır: “Tel pere, tel fils“= Öyle babanın öyle oğlu. Ya da uslamlaş-tırarak, genellemelere kaçarız, “Ne yapalım? Babası evi erken terketmiş, oğlan ne yapsın?” vb.> Bizim önerimiz şudur: Ceza’yı mubalağa etmemlidir, ona  l a y ı k  o l d u ğ u   d e ğ e r i  vermeliyiz. Daha öncelerde de, suçun ‘neden’leri konusunda, suç işlendikten sonra soru sormanın, neden aramanın, -pratik olarak- çok geç olduğunu söylemiştik. Bu konuda, bakış açıları bakımından, 4 ekol’ün görüşlerini inceleyelim:

(1) K l a s i k   ö n c e s i (Prae-classical) :  “Eski” ve “Orta Çağlar”.
       Suç nedenleri konusunda kimse hiçbir şey düşünmüyordu;  “Şeytan” gibi olağanüstü kudretler tarafından kontrol edilen kötü insanlarım var oldukları ve onların, bu nedenle suç işledikleri ‘doğal’ gibi kabul edilerek cezalandırılıyorlardı.

(2) K l a s i k   Okul :  xvııı. yüzyıldan başlayarak, özellikle Fransız Felsefesinin etkisi altında, İtalya ve İngiltere’de gelişmiştir: Herkesin, düşünmesine yardım eden bir ‘aklı’ vardır; insan rasyonel bir mahluktur; doğaüstü inanç ve kudretler ne olursa olsun, insanoğlu, yaptığı işlemlerde sosyal bir sorumluluk sergilemek zorundadır, “yalnış düşünür, yalnış karar verir”se, herkese eşit olarak, kendi payına düşen cezayı öder. Bu c e z a, fiilin içeriğine ve ağırlık derecesine göre ifa edilmelidir.

(3) N e o –  C l a s s i c a l  (Neo-Klasik)  O k u l :
Bu akım da, xıx. yüzylın başlarında oluştu; bu okul, “irade serbestisini-özgürlüğü’nü kabul eder, fakat 3 istisna nazarı dikkate alınır:
                      a) 7 yaşından küçük çocuklar, işledikleri suçtan sorumlu
                           tutulmamalıdırlar;
                      b) A k ı l   h a s t a l a r ı  özel muamele görerek, prensip itibariyle
                            istisna edilmelidirler; ve,
                      c)  Olağanüstü hallerde (başkaldırı, savaş, kendini koruma, tahrik
                            vb.,) insanlar işledikleri suçtan -tümüyle- mes’ul olamazlar.
                      İlk Neo-Klasikçi’ler, (b) de açıklanan durumu kabul etmiyorlardı, zira işlenen bir suç için, ‘neden’ ve ‘sonuç’ birbiriyle ilintili tutulmamalıydı.

(4) P o s i t i v i s t’ler :  Bugünün düşünce sistemidir; yakından incelendiğinde Neo-Klasik’çilerle aralarında felsefi bir fark görülmez. Ana fark “pozitivist” ‘lerin s u ç u n   n e d e n   i ş l e n d i ğ i n i  gözönünde tutmalarıdır. Ek olarak da, bu insanları bir tür ‘hasta’ kabul ederek, onların ıslahında, “treatment” =
tedavi’yi de hesaba katmaya çalışıyoruz.

                          A.B.D. ve Türkiye’nin Ceza Hukuku’nda, “Treatment – Tedavi” ciddi olarak ele alınmaktadır. Psikiyatrist’ler – Terapist’ler, akıl hastası suçluları tedavi ederler. Onlar derler ki, “Akıl hastalığını tedavi edersek, suçu da önlemiş oluruz.” Bu, olumlu (pozitif) bir düşünüştür.

                          İ m r a l ı  Cezaevi’nde, eskiden -belki şimdi de hala öyledir- mahkumlar çalıştırılıyor. (Not: Dr.İ.E. Benim Tıp talebeliğimde, 1945-51, Bakırköy Akıl Hastanesi’nin ünlü “10. Adli Koğuşu” hastalarından seçilenler, hastane çevresindeki bağlık arazide, hem de günde 50 kuruş ödenme yapılarak çalıştırılıyorlardı.> Bu, pozitif bir görüştür. Hiç olmazsa şunu düşünebiliriz: “Belki işsiz oldukları için suçu işlemiş olabilirler. İlerde elbet -ya da olası- bir iş sahibi olabileceklerdir. Eğer böyle düşünmüyorlarsa, sunulan iş-tedavi programının anlamı kalmaz. Kurum ve programlar, suçluyu, karmaşa birçok nedenlerin sonucu olarak görüyorsa, bu olası nedenleri ortadan kaldırmaya yönelik programlar uygulanmaya konulmazsa, bu ‘neden’ aramaların da bir anlamı kalmaz.

                          C e z a  ve cezalandırma, ancak özel ve genel önleme fonksiyonu bakımından, bir dereceya kadar da cezalandırmanın, suçlunun üzerinde yapacağı etki açısından düşünülmesi de bir tür pozitivistik görüştür. Yoksa ‘intikam’ hissi uyandırılmış ve beslenmiş olur.

                          S u ç’ların nedenlerini anlamak ve onları saptamak bakımından, en basit bir sınıflandırma yapmak ve açıklamada bulunmak için, şu 3  yönü gözönünde bulundurmak gerekir:
(1) Suçlunun, “anormal kişiliğe” sahip olduğunu esas kabul eden yön. Halk arasında, bir suçlunun ‘farklı’ bir kişiliğe sahip olduğu hakkındaki kanaat oldukça geneldir. Eğer bu ‘farklılığı” düzeltebilirsek, onun tekrar suç işlemesini önlemeye bir şansımız olabilir. Bu, psikiyatrist’lerin genel görüş tarzıdır (İ.E.: Aile içi dengeleri, ekonomi ve sosyal koşulları da kale alarak, evet!). Modern psikiyatrist’ler, bu noktada kalmayıp daha ileri de giderler.
(2) Suçluyu,  geçirdiği anormal-uyumsuz hayat deneyimlerinin ürünü olduğunu kabul eden fikrin yönü. Burada da, normalden aykırılık, kişinin ‘bünyesi”nden değil, onun, farklı (ve olumsuz!) bir sosyal faktöre ya da faktörlere maruz ve tabi olarak yetiştirildiğindendir.
(3) “Normal” (gözüken) Toplum’un yapısında ezeldenberi varolan suça yöneltici nedenler, esas alan düşünce tarzı. Niye bir devlette, diğer komşu ülkelerden daha fazla suçluluk mevcuttur? Bu, ancak, o toplumların şç bünyelerini tetkik etmekle anlaşılabilir.

                         Kriminolog’ların ekserisi bu üç yöne yakından bakmak gereksinimini hissederler. Fark şudur ki, bazıları, “peşin” hüküm vererek, bu üç yönden birine diğerlerinden daha fazla önem verir, ağırlığını koyar. Örneğin ben, bu sonuncu, yani üçüncü bölüme çok fazla önem veririm.

                         Bu yaklaşımlardan farklı olarak, bakış açıları koleksiyonuna şunları ekleyebiliriz: 1) Psikoanalitik, 2) Psikolojik, 3) Geografik, 4)Ekonomik. Böyle geniş açılardan bakmak, kendi prensiplerinizi oluşturmakta çok faydalı olabilir. Ben şahsen, “grup yaklaşımı”na, yani “sosyal” öğe’ye çok önem veririm. Bu, diğer görüşleri nazarı itibare almamak demeye gelmez. Her alandaki uzmanların görüşlerini almaya, ve beraberce hareket etmek zorundayız.

                         S u ç’un, çok kompleks-karmaşa olan nedenlerinin tayini için, çok uzmanlara gereksinimiz olduğu gibi, değerlendirmemizi üniversal bir-takım kalsmanlara yerleştirebilmek için, birçok yöntemler kullanmak zorundayız. Örneğin:
(1) Kişi’nin “kişisel hayat-özgeçmişi”nin tetkiki gerekir;
(2) Suçlu kişilere, kendi ‘hayatlarını değerlendirmeleri”ni sorabiliriz;
(3) Genel sosyal istatistikler incelenir;
(4) Şu ya da bu şekilde, bu kimselerin aralarına karışarak yakından gözlemleme yapmak.

                        Bu yöntem ve görüşlerden bahsetmemizin ana gerekçesi, suçlu’nun kişiliğine uygun “therapy”-“treatment” (Tedavi) seçeneğini bulmak ve uygulamaktır.

                       Bir  p e n o l o j i  öğrencisinin, yukarda ayrıntılarını verdiğimiz bilgilerle  yakından ve derinden meşgul olan K r i m i n o l o j i’yi de oldukça iyi bilmesi şarttır. Tüm gayretlere karşın, ‘suçun nedenleri’ konusunda maalesef geniş bilgimiz henüz yoktur. Bu konuda, daha evvelden de işaret edildiği gibi, birçok ‘kardeş’ alanlardaki uzmanların elbirliğiyle çalışması gerekir ki, çok yüksek derecede fakülteler-arası işbirliği yapan Üniversite’lerde bile optimum bir “berbaberlik” sağlanmış değildir.
                       SUÇLULARA YAPILAN TEDAVİ SONUÇLARI

 . ANORMAL Şahsiyetlerin Tedavileri : Bu tür terapileri psikiyatrist’ler yaparlar. Eğer bir suç, bir şahsın geçirmekte olduğu bir akıl hastalığı nedeniyle işlenmişse, doğaldır ki, o şahsın akıl hastalığının tedavisi ile suç sebebi de ortadan kaldırılıyor demektir. Son zamanlarda, psikiyatri’nin de gelişmesiyle bu alanda bir az farklı düşünmekteyiz; Yani, hastalık, o insanın şahsiyeti üzerinde muhakkak olumsuz bir etki yaratıyor (Dr.İ.E.: İşini, eşini kaybetmek; tekrar hastalığa yakalanma kaygısı; hastalığın, bir yaşam şekli: savunma sistemlerini, hayatını idame ettirebilmesi için, normal ile anormal arası bir hale dönüşümü?) Bu, Amerika’da ve İtalya’da hala üzerinde çalışılan ve fakat tümüyle çözülememiş bir alandır.

                                                                           *

                  ADAM ÖLDÜRME SUÇU’nun İDAM‘la Cezalandırılması Konusu:

       I.            Önce, ilmi olmayan çalışma ve sonuçları zikrediyorum:

1) Amerika’da, “idam”ı haklı göstermek için, İNCİL örnek gösterilmektdir.
     -Türkiye’de de , belki KURAN örnek alınıyordur.-
2) İnsanlarda, doğal olarak, “acılarını hafifletebilmek” vb duygular için, bir “intikam alma” hissi mevcuttur.
3) ‘İdam’ cezası, “bir hak, hukuk ve eşitliği, dengeyi kurmaktadır: Göze göz, dişe diş, ölüme ölüm!

                       Bunlar bana, Amerika’da, bir “Kadın Islah Evi”nde, oradakiler sorduğum bir soruyu hatırlattı:
                     Amerika’da, Islahevleri’nde bulunan “suçlu”(?)ların çoğu masumdur.
(Bunlarda adalet yalnış işlemiştir, ama gerçek bu!) Daha önceden de işaret edildiği gibi, Amerika’da, “kadın” katillerin sayısı-nisbeti, erkek’lerden daha yüksektir.)

                         Ben, ILLINOIS Eyaletinde bir hapishane personeline ders verdiğimden yukarda bahsetmiştim. Söz, döndü dolaştı, hapishanelerde mevcut ‘kadın katiller’e intikal etmiş ve “Susie”nin esasında “pek de fena bir kadın olmadığı” kanaati açıkça söylenmişti. Yani, belirli koşullarda, “iyi” denebilecek insanlar da tetiği çekebiliyor, katil olabiliyor. (Özel not. Amerikada iken, buna benzer bir tartışmada, bir “deneysel psikolog” demişti, ‘Bana istediğiniz deneği getirin, istediğim koşulları elime verin, onu katil yapabilirim ya da keni kendini öldürtebilirim!”  Tıpkı Archimedes’in söylediği gibi: ‘Bana uzayda sabit bir nokta ve yeterli derecede uzun bir sopa verin, dünyayı yerinden oynatayım!’ Öldürmek, kontrolden çıkmış bir agresyon’dur ve kişisel-çevresel faktörlere-koşullara  göre ayarlanır. Eğer Alman’lar Avusturya’yı işgal etmeselerdi, Stewan Zweig sonradan kendini ve (ikinci) eşini öldürür müydü? dersiniz. Hiç zannetmem! Dr.İ.E.)

 II.  B i l i m s e l :  Kayıt ve bulgulara, gözlemlere dayanan görüşler:

                        Daha önceden de bahsedildiği üzere, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’nde, ölüm cezası bulunan eyaletler’de, olmayan eyaletlere oranla, adam öldürme cezaları daha fazladır. ILLINOIS’de biri adam öldürürse, cezası idamdır; ama yandaki eyalette, yani Michigan’da idam cezası yok diye, Illinois’de adam öldürenlerin hiçbiri kurbanını o eyalete taşımıyor. (Para için yapanlar, denemiş olabilir!)

                         İdam cezası meriyette olan eyaletlerde, ölüm cezasını hakeden mahkumlarıa idamcezasını uygulama aşağı yukarı 50 o/o’dir. İdam cezası olmayan yerlerde, hayrettir, jüri’ler de “müebbet hapsi” o denli fazla vermezler, yukardaki oran 40  o/o’a düşer. İdama mahkum kişi, idam’ın infazı zamanında, cellat’ın yüzünü gördüğü andaki his’ten bahsetmiştik. Bu kimseler, keşke karılarını ya da kocalarını öldürmeden evvel, bu ‘sevdikleri’ kimsenin gözlerine şöyle insanca bir bakabilseler çok daha iyi olurdu! Bu, tamamen çözülmüş bir izahtan uzak bir gerçektir.
(Kişisel not: Benim bir psikiyatr-analist olarak kişisel görüşüm şudur: Agresyon, sari bir hastalık gibi bulaşıcıdır; ölüm derecesinde bir agresyona izin verilen bir toplumda, öldürmek daha ‘doğal’ gelir; bu, bilinçüstü ve bilinçaltı düzeylerinde oluşur; yakın birisini öldürecek kadar agresyon idaresinde zayıf bir kimse, ölüm cezası olan yerde yakınını öldürmekle, kendini, ölüm cezası olmayan yerlere oranla, hayatının sonuna kadar suçlu hissetmesini bu şekilde önlemiş ve ‘denge’yi kurmuş olur.)

                  B a z ı     H u k u k    A k ı m l a r ı       :

                        Bazı hukukçular, h u k u k’a, “insan davranışının bir ilmi” olarak bakarlar. Bu nedenle, örneğin “Amerikan Hukuk Cemiyeti-Enstitüsü, ilmi araştırma yapma yoluna girmişlerdir. AMERİKAN BARO BİRLİĞİ ki çok mümtaz simalardan oluşmuştur, yeni yeni birtakım bilimsel çalışma planlarını gerçekleştirme yolundadır. Şu anda Enstitü, iki a ş ı r ı -ifrat yolun ortasında çalışmaktadır:
                       1. ifrat kutbu : “soyut” konularla ilgilenip, eski zihniyete dayanan, gerçek hayatla direkt bir ilişkisi olmayan konularla meşgulderler;
                       2. ifrat kutbu : Araştırma ve bulgularını, sosyolog, doktor gibi Hukuk dışı birliklere müracaatle, sonuçların değerlendirilmesini onların takdirine bırakmaktadırlar. Birçok olumlu düşünen hukukçular ise, bu iki zıt kutbun orta yolunu aramakla meşguldürler.

                      Mesleğinde çok ileri gitmiş hukukçular dahi, idari bakımdan aşırı sorumluluk verilmiş makamlara karşı, kişisel-ferdi özgürlüğün zarara uğratılacağından endişe duymaktadırlar. Bu itibarla, yıllardanberi süregelen mesleki pratikten uzak düşmemek için, Yeni Ceza Yasası düzenlerken bile, eski hukuk kurallarına riayet etmeye devam etmektedirler. Örneğin, şu kurallar hala mer’iyettedir:

                        a) A ğ ı r  suç işleyenler, ağır ceza almalıdırlar.. Hukuk, halkın kanaatlerinden ileri olmalıdır; hatta beklenti, halkın ekserisinin kanaati ters dahi olsa, ona uymamak zorundayız.
                        b) Ceza’nın “önleyici” niteliğine önem vermek zorundayız.
                        Bana sorarsanız, benim düşüncem farklıdır. 
                        İ l k  prensipte (öge’de), halk, çıkan sonuç kararda, bir “adalet” hissi duyabilmelidir. Halkın böyle bir fikir beslemesi, alışılagelmiş bir zarurettir. Kanun-Yasa’ların diğer bir ödevi de, t e r b i y e v i’dir. Bu itibarla, halkın günlük pratik yaşamından, bir iki kademe ilerde olması gereklidir.

                        Bu itibarla yasaları bu iki farklı prensibi <hukuk vs. halk inancı> göz önünde bulundurarak yapmalıdır. İkinci şık için, ben çalışma ve değerlendirmelerin ‘pozitif’-olumlu metod’larla değerlendirildiğine inanamıyorum. Örneğin ağır ceza vermekle, bunun önleyici tedbir olduğuna inananlardan değilim. Zira, arada mutlak bir ilişki yoktur. Bu işlerde, diğer birtakım faktörler mevcuttur. Örneğin, ‘adam öldürme’yi, ‘yağma’ suçundan ağır sayalım. Ağır ceza vermekle, ‘profesyonel yağmacılığı’ önleyebiliriz, fakat adam öldürmenin kendine özgü ‘farklı’ nedenleri ve koşulları vardır ki, onu hiçbir zaman önleyemeyiz.

                        Karar vermekte tereddütte bulunduğumuz başka önemli bir vaka
da   b a n k a    s u y g u n c u l u ğ u’dur.  Amerika’da, son zamanlarda, banka soygunculuğu sayı itibariyle azalmaktadır. Nedenlerden birinin -bankaların daha iyi korunmaları, iletişim sistemleri vs.’nin ötesinde, cezaların ağırlaştı-
rılmış olması da en önemlilerinden biridir. Yakalanma riski yüksek olduğundan, yapacağı işi ‘evvelden’ oturup düşünerek vazgeçebilir; adam öldürmede ‘düşünme, iç muhasebesi yapma’ yoktur. Şu noktayı da belirtelim ki, banka soygunculuğundan düşünüp de cayan birinin tümüyle ıslah olduğunu, artık dürüst bir entite olarak toplum içinde bir iş tutacağını düşünmek hayaldir; olası, daha az ceza alabileceği seçenekleri kullanmakta olduğu hemen hemen muhakkaktır.

                       Amerikan hukukçuları arasında, insanların suç işleme nedenleri hakkındaki araştırmalara katılan, merak edip okuyanların sayıları gitgide artmakta; psikoloji, sosyoloji ve psikiyatri’nin muta’larından <donné-veri>  istifade etmektedirler. Bu gayretler, henüz sabitlenmiş, yerine iyi oturmuş değildir, bir intikal-geçiş devresi içinde bulunuyoruz. Fakat hukukçuların kürsülerinden inip, taşlaşmış prensiplerden inip bu konuya girişlerini, çok hayırlı, çok sevinçli bir başlangıç olarak kabul etmeliyiz. Giitgide bilimsel yolda ilerleyen psikoloji, sosyoloji ve psikiyatri’nin gerçekten Hukuk’u etkilemeye başladığının bir işareti olsa gerek.

                         Bahis konusu ettiğimiz “ikinci eyilim”, insan hareketlerinin daga geniş kısmına hitap etmektedir. Daha çok ‘hareket’ ve ‘davranış’lar ‘Hukuk’un konusu içine girmektedir. Bu olayı, Batı ile S.S.C.B. arasındaki “soğuk harbe” de atfedebiliriz. Bu konuda, bir Devlet’in aleyhine sarfedilecek en ufak sözler bile (Örneğin Komünizm) suç addedilmektedir. Bizler, bir sosyal toplumu gerçekten sarsacak gerçek nedenlere karşı, koruyucu müeyyideler-unsurlar koymak isteriz; fakat bu korkuyla yüzlerce, binlerce kişiyi, özgürlüklerinden alokoymağa kimsenin hakkı yoktur.

                         Söz “özgürlük-hürriyet” konusuna gelince, özellikle “söz özgürlü-
ğü”nde, tüm Amerikan mahkemeleri üzerlerinde çok hassasiyetle dururlar. Kişisel özgürlüğü gözetme ve fakat, fazla müdahale-karışma’da bulunma, ilk anda belki bir paradoks gibi görünebilir. Fakat bu müeyyideler, A merika Devletini totaliter bir rejimden korumak üzere meriyete konulmuşlardır.

                         C e z  a    H u k u k u, “İş” ve “Sanayi” konularında da gitgide bir
takım müeyyideler koymaktadır. Sonuç: ANONİM şirket sahipleri, gitgide daha fazla hinaye (korunma) görmektedirler.

                         Amerika’da, süregelmekte olan  ü ç ü n c ü  akım, F e d e r a l  yasaların hudutlarını gitgide daha genişletmeleridir. Özel bir kuruluş olmasına karşın, F.B.I. (Federal Bureau of Investigation) ile Devlet’lerin işbirliği, gittikçe artmaktadır.

                         C e z a   H u k u k u  konusunu kaparken şu gerçekten bahsetmeyi unutmayalım: Toplum’un savunulması-korunması ile ferdi-kişisel özgürlük arasında bir denge kurmak, ideal bir amaçtır DEMOKRATİK rejimde, özellikle kişisel özgürlüğe çok önem verilmektedir. Bizler Amerika’da, bunu en ön planda tutmaktaryız.

 

                                      AMERİKDAKİ    POLİS    TEŞKİLATI

                        Y e n i   P e n o l o j i  düşünüş ve uygulamalarıyla, etken (müessir-tesirli) bir Polis faaliyeti, birbirlerine zıt faaliyetler demek değildir. Suçluların çabuk yakalanmalarının önemi gayet açıktır. Edgar G. HOOVER’in (USA, FBI Kurucusu ve Şefi) yeni bir makineli tüfeğe gereksinimi olması, kriminolojik araştırmalara 5 kuruş yardım etmeme engel oluşturmaz.

                        Bu iki gereksinim arasında bir zıtlık-terslik mevcut değilse de, suçluılukla savaşmanın pratiğinde, mamafih, bu bir “çatışma” konusu olarak göze çarpmaktadır. Polislere, suçluyu yakalamak ve onu hırpalamak hususunda daha fazla talimat ve önem verilmekte ve fakat suç nedenlerinin araştırılması, ve rehabilitasyon babında hemen hiç önem verilmemektedir. Bu düşünce ve pratik, yalnızca polislerin eğitim ve terbiyesi oranında değil, polislerin yakaladıkları suçluların sayılarının, onların “başarılı” sayılmalarında bir ölçek olarak tutulmasından da ileri gelmektedir. Bunlara rağmen, Amerika’nın birçok Polis teşkilatında, suçlular kadar, suç nedenlerinin ortaya çıkarılması hususunda çalışmalar devam etmektedir.

                         3.  d e r e c e   denen hal :

                         Bu, suçluyu sorgularkeni ona yapılan z u l ü m’dür. Pratikte, yapılan işkencenin sayısı ve derecesi, önemli bir yüzdeyle, yasa dışıdır. Yüzlere kuvvetli ışık tutmak, kauçuk sopa ile dövmek, yasa dışıdır. Eski ve hatta bazı yeni polisler, buna mecbur kaldıklarını iddia etmektedirler. Bize göre, bu tür hareket, önemli bir suç teşkil eder. Duruma bakın: Yasaları uygulamak zorunda olan kimse, bizzat yasayı çiğnemektedir.

                         Esas problem, h a l k ı n, bu “3. derece-durum” denen duruma verdiği tepkidir. Bu konuda ufak bir araştırma yapılmıştır. Halkın büyük çoğunluğu, ufak olmak koşuluyla, böyle bir muameleyi kabul etmektedir. Bu problem, bizleri, biraz evvel bahsettiğimiz, yasanın, halkın bakış açısını, yani yasanın ne dereceye kadar uyması gerektiği noktasına getirmektedir.

                         Halk, suç işlemeyi istemez. Halk, 3. dereceyi de ister. Yasa ise bunu menetmiştir. Bu, ortaya bir paradoks getirmektedir. Bunun tam yerini bulmak için bilimsel yollar mevcuttur. Ama pratikte, bunları kullanarak bir ‘itiraf’ elde etmek pek zordur. Örneğin, bir telefon konuşmasını dinlemek suretiyle ‘delil’, ancak bir yargıcın izniyle geçerli sayılabilir; U.S.A.’da telefon dinlemek yasaktır. Bununla beraber, telefon dinlenmelerinin k o m ü n i z m’de geçerli olduğunu bana dostum HOOVER şahsen söylemişti.

                         Polislerin  r ü ş v e t  yoluyla bu gizli dilemeleri ‘ifşaat’ta bulunmaları da önemli pratik noktalardan biridir. Bu yüzden, bazı suçlar saklanabilmektedir. En önemli konu şimdi, r a k e t  (teşkilatlı gruplar) suçlarıdır. Zira, polis himayesi olmadan bu suçlar işlenemez. Söylenildiğine göre bazı Amerikan şehirlerini, raket suçluları idare etmektedir. Bu kentlerde, tüm polis teşkilatının haydutlarla birlikte olduğu düşünülmektedir. Yalnız küçük bir kısım polis yardım etse bile yeterli olabilir. R a k e t  suçları, önem bakımından, “white collar=beyaz yaka” suçlarından hemen sonra yerini alır. Bu suçlar, genel zevke ya da arzulara (beyaz kadın ticareti, uyuşturucular) el uzatan yasaların varlığından kaynaklanmaktadır. Yasaları mukayese edersek, benim aldığım bilgilere göre, Türkiye’de “fuhuş”, hemen hemen yasaldır, Amerika’da ise hayır.
Bu noktada Hoca’ya bazı itirazlar yükseltildi; burada “genelevler”in varlığının cinsel temas gereksinimini kısmen tatmin ettiğini; dini ve moral, sosyal bakımdan, bazı semtlerde iki karşıt cinsin, el ele bile dolaşamayacağını bildirenler oldu.  Vesikasız çalışanların sayısı da bir hayli fazladır. Ben bunların çoğuna yakından tanık oldum! 

                          <O noktada,  ben de, henüz 2 yıl evvel, şimdi evli olduğum 4 yıllık doktor nişanlımla, Eyüb’ün tepelerinde “Pierre Lotie” kahvesinden çıktığımızda, gün batımında, tek bir kimsenin bile görünmediği kayalık bir köşede nişanlımı öpmeye yeltendiğimde, kayanın ardından sivil bir polisin çıkarak “kanuna aykırı hareket ettiğimizi ve karakola gitmek zorunda olduğumuzu” kibarca söylediği zaman, utancımızdan yere batıyorduk; doktor olduğumuzu -yüzüklerimizi göstererek- yarı rica, yarı korku ile, yakında evleneceğimizi, grubun güzelliğini paylaşmak istediğimizi kibar bir dille söyleyince, ‘bu defaya mahsus olmak üzere affedildiğimizi’ söyleyince bütün sınıf güldü, Hoca da o kadar serbest bir memleket olmadığımızı anladı sanırım! Gariptir, bu olaydan hemen bir yıl sonra, Temmuz 1957’de gemiyle Amerika’ya gidiyorduk ve Napoli’de transfer Transatlantiğini bekliyorduk. Aynı eşimle, İtalya Ulusal Müze’sini gezmek için halka açık bir parktan geçerken, bir bank’ta yirmi yaşlarında bir gencin bir sağındaki bir solundaki yaşıtı olduğu genç kızlara sürekli olarak buseler dağıttığını görünce, acı acı gülümsedik. Herhalde, o uygarlık düzeyine gelmemiz için, daha çok çalışmamız gerekecekti.>

                        Amerika’da, maamafih, “fuhuş raketi”, ‘raket’lerin en önde gelenlerinden değildir, zira ona gittikçe gereksinim kalmamaktadır.  Birinciliği, k u m a r  raketi alır. Tüm bu sosyal yasa dışı hareketlerin kontrol edilmelerinde, polislerin yeterli derecede eğitim almadıkları da bir gerçektir. Son zamanlarda, bu yolda bazı kazançlar elde edilmiştir. Polisin işi suçluyu ‘yalnızca yakalamak’ daha olsa, yine de bir eğitime gereksinim vardır. Eğer bu konuda, yani “suç önleme” tedbirleriyle donanmak ister isek bu eğitimi kat kat fazlalaştırmamız gerekecektir. Böyle bir eğitim, şu anda, tüm Amerikayı kapsayacak derecede olmamakla beraber, gereken yapıcı programlara katılım ve paylaşım, yavaş yavaş artmaktadır.  

                         Polislerin bu  e ğ i t i m  programında, süreç şöyle işlemektedir:
                         Polisler, çocukların suçlarından ötürü onları cezalandıracak-larına, onları yerleştirecek işler aramaktadırlar; orada suç işlerlerse, teşkilata bildirmektedirler. Çalışmanın ötesinde, bu yolla, eğlence ve oyun imkanları da sağlanmış oluyordu. Özellikle kadın polisler, teşkilatta çok yapıcı rol oynamaktadırlar. Mesela New York’ta, bir “G e n ç l i k   M e c l i s i” mevcuttur. Bu, yarı-resmi bir kuruluştur. Üye bir çocuk eğer yeni bir suç işlemişse, polise gideceğine bu kurula gitmekte, dolayısıyla hakkında daha yapıcı tedbirler ele alınmakta ve denenmektedir.

                         Bazı kimseler diyebilirler ki, “Polisler bu işi yapmasınlar, zira bu işi (daha doğrusu iş psikolojisini) layıkıyla kavrayacak derecede eğitilmiş değildirler; bu doğrudur; artı, polis teşkilatı resmi bir teşekküldür ve yasaları uygulamakla mükelleftirler (Not. Kişisel ilişkilerde bazen ruhsal bağlantılar olabilir ve kararlar öznel-subjective olarak verilebilir. Onlar, motorsiklet, telsiz vb. aletlerle de donanımlı olduklarınan, bir suç işlendiğinde bu tür çocukları daha karmaşa güçlüklere düşmeden, bir nevi koruyucu ödevi yaparak, çocukları, psiko-sosyal bakımdan, istediği anda temasa geçebileceği dış kaynaklara götürerek doğru bilgileri iletebilirler.

                         Amerika’nın birçok şehirlerinde, iki türlü polis müdürü-amiri mevcuttur:
(1) Şehrin genel “Polis amiri”,
(2) Onun emrinde bulunan birkaş  p o l i s   ş e f i. Bu sonuncular, daha ziyade ‘hırsızlar’ı yakalayacak polisleri kontrolla meşguldürler. Bunlar, askeri bir terbiye ile yetiştirilmişlerdir ve şehrin gerekli görülen yerlerinden sorumludurlar. Bunların üstünde bir de “P o l i s   M ü d ü r ü”  bulunur. Bu kimse, daha geniş görüşlü, yapıcı tedbirlere olanak sağlayan bir kimse olmalıdır. İşi de, şeflerin süpervizyonu ötesinde, kentte suş işleme ve işleyenlerin ıslahı yolunda bulunan diğer sivil organizasyonlarla sürekli temasta bulunmaktır. Türkiye, farklı yapıdadır ve bunu tartışma konusu etmeyeceğim.
(Bu noktada, Sayın Prof.Taft, o zamanlar Türkiye’de henüz mevcut olmayan SOCIAL CASE WORKERS, ve CASE WORK’den bahsetti. Bu, gerçek büyük eksiklikti, bunun tamamlanması ve Ankara’da “Sosyal Çalışma Uzmanları”nı yetiştiren bir Yüksek Okul’un açılması 1963’lerden sonra açılmıştır. O zamanlar, ben Amerikada, Boston’daydım ve böyle bir okulun açılmasında ve programlamlanmasında elimden gelen yardımı yapmıştım. Dr.İ.E.)

Case work :  Vak’a için bir dosya açmak, gerekli uzmanlarla: Mahkeme, polis ve terapötik kimseler: Psikolog, okul öğretmeni vb.
Case-Social Worker :   “School of Social Work” mezunu, suç ve çocuklar üzerinde uzmanlaşmış; gerektiğinde aile üyeleri, okul ve mahkemelerle temasa geçerek çocuğun gerçek temsilcisi, bir nevi koruyucu ve yol göstericisi.

 

                         SUÇLULARIN TUTUKLANDIKLARI ANDAN İTİBAREN
                                         BARINDIRILDIKLARI  TUTUK-EVLERİ
                                      (O zamanki isimleriyle T e v k i f h a n e’ler)

                         Türkiye’de, en ufak yevkif evleri bile, Adliye Bakanlığı’nın,
“Ceza ve Tevkif Evleri Genel Müdürlüğü”ne bağlıdır. Bunlar, ‘özgür” değildir. Amerika’da, her eyalette, “nüstakil” tutuk-evleri mevcuttur. Ben, şahsen, orada da, Türkiye’de olduğu gibi Bakanlığa bağlı olmalarını arzu ederdim.
Zira, oradaki “ev”lerin kendileri en büyük suç merkezleridir. Çok kötüdür. Bunlara birkaç yüzyıldanberi sahibiz, ve ‘ne’ ve ‘nasıl’ olduklarını anlamak için, kapıdan içeriye bir kez bakmak yeterlidir. Bir kimse tevkif edilince-tutuklanınca, o şahıs, ‘korunmalı’dır.  Amerika ve Türkiye’de, “Kefaletle Tahliye” usulü vardır; yahut, ‘Devletin sınırlarından dışa çıkmamak koşuluyla”, “para” <bail> karşılığı tahliye olabilirler.

                         Şimdi “tevkif = tutuklanma” olayını adım adım izleyelim:

                          Bir şahıs, polis tarafından , “sanık” olarak, p o l i s   k a r a k o l u’na getirilir. Oradan,
                          a) Ya, “kefaletle tahliye”, edilir, ya da,
                          b) Yerel bir “tevkifhane = tutukevi”ne gönderilir. Bu arada, yasal olarak, avukatı ile görüşme hakkı vardır.

                          İşlenen suç’ta  “cürmümeşhut” – yani vak’a üzerinde yakalanma- olmamışsa, şahıs bir dilekçe ile “savcı”ya <müddei umumi>müracaat ederek -bugünlerde, savcının huzurna çıkarılmayı hatta aylarca bekleyebilir Dr.İ.E.-
vak’ayı anlatır, salıverilmesini arz eder; Savcı bunu kabul ya da red edebilir; hatta tarafları huzuruna çağırarak barıştırabilir de.

                         Eğer vak’a ağırca ise, hakimi çağırır -genelleklile ona havale eder, suç özellikle çalışma saatlerinin dışında işlenmişse, nöbetçi mahkemelerdeki  <nöbetçi> h a k i m’e gönderilir. Kararı o verir: Serbest kalır, ya da, tutuklu olarak cezaevi’be konur.

                          S  a n ı k  eğer verilen kararı doğru bulmazsa, çoğu kez avukatı yoluyla, i s t i n a f  -bire üst mahkemeye- başvurarak kararı kat’ileştirir. İçerde kalırsa, sanık, hakkında savcı tarafından hazırlanan iddianame’ye göre, mahkemeye, hakim huzuruna,  i l k   d u r u ş m a’ya çıkarılır. Bu, genellikle hemn her sefer yapılır; fakat bazı vak’alarda, hakim öyle lüzumlu görürse, bu safhayı atlayarak,  “i k i n c i   s a f h a y a” intikal eder. Bu 1. duruşma devresinde, s a v c ı’nın, vak’ayı takip edip etmeme hakkı mahfuzdur.

                     A m e r i k a  dahil, bazı memleketlerde, J ü r i  sistemi vardır. Sorgu Hakimi, suç hakkında emin ise, vak’ayı jüri’ye havale eder.
                      İ l k   d u r u ş m a  aleni’dir = açık’tır; dfava devam edecekse, kişi, tutukhane’ye döner; ya da kefaletle – dışardan, tutuksuz yargılanmaya devam eder. Sanığın, daima HABEAS CORPUS hakkı vardır. < Gözaltına alınan şahsın, derhal hakim huzuruna çıkarılma istemi. Bu, İngiltere’de, II. Charles zamanında -1679- çıkarılmış olup, rastgele tutuklama ve hapsetme tehlikesini önlemek gayesiyle koyulmuş bir kural, insani hak. Latince çeviri:
“Siz, vücudunuza sahip olmalısınız!” (You must have the body) Dr.İ.E.>
 Sanık, aynı şekilde, “Akıl Hastanesi”ne yatırılma arzusu ve hakkına sahiptir

                              B ü y ü k   J ü r i, suçlanan şahsı hiç tanımayan, onun hakkında açılan davanın esasını, teferruatını gazeteden, radyo’dan duymayan, bilmeyen 22-23 kişiden ibaret vatandaş gurubudur. Bunların önüne yalnız savcı’nın arayıp bulduğu deliller sunulur. Bu kimseler doğal olarak hukukçu olmadıklarından, çoğu vak’alarda, savcılar, delil sunarken, kendi fikirlerini empoze etmeye gayret edebilirler. Deliller, büyük titizlikler hazırlanır ve sunulur. Gerçekten de, yazılı  olarak sunulan iddianamede, eğer (i) nin noktası unutulup (ı) olarak yazılmışsa, reddedilir. Olay, bir formül dahilinde arzedilir. “Büyük -Grand- Jüri”, izole bir şekilde (otel odasında vs.), evlerine gitmeden, kimseyle görüşmeden münakaşaya dalar  ve sonunda kararını verir (deliberation ): 1) “men-i muhakeme” : Serbest kalır,
                                            2) “lüzum-u muhakeme” : Hakim celselerini açar.

                         Görülüyor ki, a d a l e t, çok ‘katı’ bir sistem gibi görülmekle beraber, pençesinden kurtulabilmek için peşpeşe bazı imkanlar sunuyor. Esasında, şüphesiz bu pek doğru bir şey değildir; fakat Demokrasi’nin ana hükümlerinden biri şudur: “Masum bir insanı içeri tıkmaktansa, suçlu bir insanı kaçırmak evladır.”

                     3) A s ı l   M u h a k e m e   –   D u r u ş m a

                      Amerika’da, tevkif edilen kimseyi (sanık-mevkuf), ş e r i f  mahkemeye getirir. Kefalet parasını kendisi vermişse kendisine, başkası vermişse o kişiye “davetiye” gönderilir. Sanık eğer ilk duruşmaya gelmezse, “tevkif müzekkeresi” kesilir ve savcılığa bir yazı yazarak, teminat akçe’sinin ‘hazineye gelir’ yazılması istenir. Bu tür yazma çizme devlete zaman ve paraya malolduğundan, sistem çok tenkide uğramıştır. Fakat bu, daima böyle yapılır. Hakimin ilk sözleri sanığa, “suçlu” olarak mı, yoksa “masum” olarak mı yargılanmak stediği sorulur; hatta, “sağlam” ya da “akıl hastası” olarak mı telakki edileceği sorulur. Genellikle, eğer suç aşikar ise ve sanık pişmanlık gösterme ya da yaptığını kabullenme gösterisinde bulunursa, bu sanığın lehine bir hava yaratır.

                        Bu safhada dahi, s a v c ı, müdahale ederek davayı düşürebilir. Hakim de bu karara uyar. Fakat maznun’un avukatı, savcının, sanığın manevi şahsiyetini kamu gözünde rencide ettiğini ve ‘onun temize çıkması’ için mahkemenin devamını isteyebilir. Hakim de davaya devam eder.

                        S a v c ı y a  herhangi bir şekilde bir rüşvet vermemek amacıyla, “çekilme” nedenlerini etraflı bir şekilde hakime arzetmesi gerekir, yani hakim de savcıyla hemfikir durumunda olmalıdır.

                        M ü d a h i l  taraf, ancak  h u k u k  mahkemesinde hakkını arayabilir. Savcı, isterse, iki tarafı -tazminat konusunda- uzlaştırarak meşru (kabul edilebilir) bir şekilde davanın düşmesine yardımcı olabilir. Davanın düşmesi, ondan “vazgeçilmiş” demek değildir. Ancak, yalnızca “savcı” bu davayı yeniden açabilir.

                         Yasa, d a v a y ı   t e h i r   e t m e y e de izin verir; iki taraftan biri bunu isteyebilir. O takdirde dava,  k ü ç ü k   j ü r i’ye takdim edilir.
                         Küçük Jüri’nin seçimi şöyle olur:
                         Bu jüri’ye seçilecek kişilerin isimleri öncelerden tanzim ve mahkemye takdim eilmştir zaten. Her iki taraf da, makul bir neden (esbab-ı mucibe) göstererek bu şahısları reddedebilir. Her iki taraf, bir neden göstermeksizin üçer kişiyi reddedebilir. Bunun üzerine, mahkeme heyeti yeni isimleri listeye alır.

                         J ü r i, hemen her yerde (U.S:A.), 12 kişi olarak seçilir.
                         BÜYÜK JÜRİ , “ekseriyet” oyuyla karar verebilir, 
                         KÜÇÜK JÜRİ’nün “ittifakla” karar vermesi şarttır.

                         S a v c ı, Küçük Jüri’ye vak’ayı takdim eder… Açıklar… Amme (Kamu) tanıkları dinlenir. Sonra, sanığın soruşturulması başlar. Karşılıklı soruşturmayı (cross examination), müdafi avukat yapar. Sponunda, “davanın reddini” talep edebilir. İ d d i a’yı kanıtlamak,  i d d i a  makamına aittir.(Türkiyede de olduğu gibi), müdafi avukat, kendi tanıklarını dinletir. Bazen, ‘davanın reddi’ iyi sonuçlar verebiliyor. “Sanığı”, “tanık” sandalyesine oturtup oturtmamak, sanık tarafının hakkıdır. Fakat, “Yahu, sanık niye tanık olarak dinlenmedi!” diye bir soru sorma usulü pek alışılagelmiş bir durum sayılmaz. Bittabi  j ü r i, karar vermek için içeri çekildiğinde, bu konumu dikkate alacaktır.

                          Niye bir ‘sanık’, ‘tanık’ sandalyesine oturtulur:
                   a)   Hakim ve jüri üzerinde olumlu bir etki bırakmak;
                   b)  Onun şahsiyetini kazandırmak.

                           Bu usul, bize fazla ilmi gibi görünmemektedir.
                    Ana prensip : Hiç kimse aleyhinde sorgulanmasını zorlayamaz! Yoksa, usta savcıların elinde, sorulacak sorularla sanık serseme çevriltilerek şahsı itirafa zorlayabilir.
                           Celse açıldıktan sonra, her iki taraf, diğer tarafın söylediklerinin içeriği konusunda “itiraz-objection”‘da bulabilir, hakim bu itirazları “kabul edebilir: sustained!”, ya da reddedebilir “Objection is refused!)
                           Celse esnasında, her iki taraf da birer nutuk irad ederler Yani, önce savcı, sonra savunma avukatı!). Bu takdimlerin merkezini, “deliller” teşkil etmelidir. Halbuki gerçekte, her zaman öyle olmaz. Nutuklar atıldıktan sonra, hakim, jüri’ye hitap ederek onlara görevlerini hatırlatır ve ihtar eder:
“Kararınızı vermedene önce, bilmelisiniz ki, k a r a r, a) Burada serdedilen delillere dayanarak verilecektir; b) Karar, herhangi bir ‘şüphe’den ari olacaktır. Makul şüphe hiçbir şey ifade etmez!”

                        H a k i m, hiçbir zaman, delillerin güvenilebilirliği konusunda kanaat ve görüşlerini jüri’ye söylemez.
                        J ü r i, müzakereye çekilir. Bu zaman, birkaç dakikadan birkaç güne kadar olabilir. Yukarıda da söylenildiği gibi, Jüri üyeleri kimseyle görüştürülmez, kapı üzerlerine kilitlenmiştir. Jüri karara varınca, kapılar açılır ve heyet, celseye gelir. Jüri başkanı, jüri’nin kararını, yazılı olarak takdim eder.

                         Eğer Jüri  a l e y h t e  karar vermişse, müdafi avukat, mahkeme hatalarından (eğer yapılmışsa!) yararlanarak “Yeni bir Mahkeme Kararı” isteyebilir. Bundan maksat da, ‘suçlu’nun bir süre serbest bırakılmasıdır.
Jüri, sanığı “suçlu!” bulmuşsa, hakim, cezayı tayin eder. Bunda, tüm deliller gözönünde bulundurularak açıklama-şerh yapılır.

                           Mahkeme esnasında s u ç’a ve  s u ç l u’ya dair toplanan bilgiler, kriminoloji bakımından çok önemlidir. Maamafih, toplanan bilgi ve malzeme, “yalnızca bu adamın suçlu ya da suçsuz olduğuna dairdir.”

                            Sanık, ‘suçlu” bulunmuşsa, “Probation: (Şartlı tahliye: Suçlu’yu gözönünde bulundurma, yani zaman zaman mahkemenin <Probation: Koruma departman’ına gelip, bir görevli: Probation Officer tarafından görülme, izlenme süreci) istenebilir. Sanığın tarafı, mahkemenin “suçlu!” kararını beğenmezse, daha yüksek hukuki bir kuruma (Örneğin: İstinaf Mahkemeleri)na itirazda bulunabilir. Bereat ederse, ‘İstinaf’ da yoktur.
Buna mukabil, “Bereat” eden bir maznun aleyhine, savcı “temyiz” ya da “istinaf”ta bulunabilir; Türkiye’de bu olmaz!

                     Ö z e t :  B u  s i s t e m  n a s ı l   ç a l ı ş ı y o r ? -İntibalar!

                     T o t a l i t e r  Rejimlerde daha az suç işlenmektedir. A ç ı k  kapıların çoğu kapalıdır. Suçluya, kendini müdafaa (savunma) hakkı verilmemektedir. Kişisel özgürlikler de pek çok sınırlandırılmıştır.

                     D e m o k r a t i k  Rejimlerde ise, kişsel özgürlüklere daha fazla saygı gösterilir. Birçok ülkelerde, (Türkiye dahil), j ü r i  sistemi mevcut değildir, olanlara da itiraz edilmektedir. Jüri’ye yapılan itirazlarda, hakimler, kanaatlerini söyleyebilmektedir.

                     K u r s’un sonuna geldik. Özetle diyebilirz ki, Amerika ve Türkiye’de olagelen s u ç l a r ı n  n e d e n l e r i  hakkında bilgimiz, bilimsel yöntemler ve kuramlar açısından, pek kısıtlıdır. Onları açıklarken,
                    a) Suçları, şahsın “iyiliği”ne ya da ‘kötülüğü’ne atfediyoruz;
                    b) Burada ve A.B.D.’de, c e z a  ile,  s u ç l a r ı n   a z a l t ı l a b i l e c e ğ i’ne inanıyoruz.

                                                            ————————–

Prof.Dr. Ismail Ersevim -c.v.-

                           Prof. Dr.ISMAIL ERSEVIM, LPIBA AIOM HonDG
                       
       Correspondence Address: P.O. Box 52 – Kadıkoy, 34711 Istanbul                                                                                  TURKEY
                                          e-mail : info@ismailersevim.com
                                 Web-site: http://www.ismailersevim.com

                                            ———Curriculum Vitae——–

Place & Date of Birth :         October 11’1929, Istanbul, Turkey
                                                     (Legally corrected as 1926)
                                                       
Primary Education :             Istanbul; 37th School, Tophane, Istanbul 
Secondary Education :        Manisa (1939-42), Denizli Lycée (1942-45)
Medical School :                     Istanbul Univ. Medical School (1951-52)
Specialty        :                          Istanbul Univ. Psychiatry Clinics (1955) in
                                                      Neurology & Psychiatry.
Post-Certification       :          Chief Resident, Istanbul University Psych. 
                                                       Clinics, Istanbul, Turkey
1955-1957                :               School Psychiatrist, Ağaçlı, Eyüp, Istanbul
Military Service          :           Kasımpaşa Naval Hosp., Ass.Chief (Turkish Navy)
                                                        (Lieutenant), (1955-57, Istanbul, Turkey

                                                           CANADA and  U.S.A.

1957 – 1958              :               1.y. Psychiatric Residency, Ottawa Gen. Hosp.
                                                       Ottawa, Ontario, CANADA
1958 – 1959               :              2.y. Psychiatric Residency, Edward J. Meyer
                                                       Memorial Hospi, Buffalo, N.Y.-U.S.A.
1959 – 1960               :              3.y. Psychiatric Residency, Medfield
                                                       State Hosp., Medfield, Mass., U.S.A.
1961 – 1963               :               Senior and Research Psychiatrist,      
                                                        Medfield Foundation (Boston Univ.)
1959 – 1963               :               GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY Training-part time
                                                        Medfield State Hosp & Gerontologic Society,
                                                       (Founding Member of the Society) Boston, Mass.
1963 – 1965               :               CHILD PSYCHIATRY FELLOWSHIP (Harvard)
                                                        Metropolitan State Hosp.+ McLean Hosp.
                                                        (Beaver-Brook)-Belmont, Mass.

1965 – 1966               :                Staff Psychiatrist, Chief, Autistic Unit
                                                         Emma P.Bradley Hospital, Riverside, R.I.
1966 – 1967               :                Administrative DIRECTOR Newport County
                                                         Mental Health Clinic, Newport, R.I.

  -1967: Receiving M.D. degree in the U.S.A. passing Medical Boards in the State of Rhode Island-

1967 – 1971               :              CHIEF CLINICAL PSYCHIATRIST :     
                                                       (Administrator – Commissioner
                                                          of Mental Health)
                     Direktör  :              Rhode Island Mental Hygiene Services, R.I.
 1971-                                           Senior Psychiatrist – Assit. Chief
                                                        Park Davis V.A. Hosp, Providence, R.I  
                              

1971 – 1972            :                  Senior-Principal (Child) Psychiatrist,
                                                        Mystic Valley M.H.C., Lexington, Mass.
1972 – 1974            :                  DIRECTOR, Eastern Middlesex Guidance Center
                                                        Medfield, Mass.
1974 – 1977            :                 Private Practice, Adult and Child Psychiatry,
                                                        Malden, Melrose – Mass.
1976 – 1977             :                Senior Psy., Greater Lynn Comm.Mental Health 
                                                        Ct., Lynn, Mass. (Boston Univ.)
1977 – 1978             :                Medical Director, Narcotics Program, HARVARD 
                                                        Univ.-Cambridge Hospital, Cambridge, Mass.
1978 – 1983              :                Private Practice, Adult and Child Psychiatry,
                                                        Melrose, Swamscott; Mass.

1983 – 1984               :                Senior Psychiatrist, New Hampshire Hospital,
                                                         Concord, New Hampshire
1984 – 1990               :                Private Practice, Adult and Child Psychiatry
                                                         Manchester, Bedford; New Hampshire

                              Also :               MEDICAL DIRECTOR, Bedford Counseling Ser.
                                                         MEDICAL DIRECTOR, Brookheaven Psy.Serv.
                                                         MEDICAL DIRECTOR, Positive Pathways, N.H.

                                                         CHILD PSYCHIATRIC CONSULTANT, State of 
                                                         N.H. Mental Retardation Servic. – Rehabilitation 
                                                         Programs.

                                                                             *  *
                                                         Licensure in the U.S.A.

1962,  Oct.24    :               Standard E.C.F.M.G. Certificate
1967,  July 19   :               Rhode Island State License      (No.: 3908)
1967,  Oct.22    :                New Hampshire State License (No.: 4126)
1972,  Aug.24   :                Massachusetts State License  (No.: 34765)

                                            _____Faculty Appointmentments_____

1968 – 1971        :                 PROFESSOR of  Psychology,
                                                   Salve Regina College, Newport, Rhode Island
1968 – 1971         :                 PROFESSOR of  Psychology,
                                                    University of Rhode Island, Kingston, R.I.,
1969 – 1971         :                 Visiting Prof. of Psychiatry, Brown University, 
                                                     Providence, R.I.
1977 – 1978        :                  Instructor in Psychiatry; HARVARD MEDICAL
1978 – 1980         :                 SCHOOL; ASSOCITE PROF. of Psychiatry.
                                                    Director of Narcotics Program-Cambridge Hosp.

 1979-1980           :                Inst. in Psychiatry; Boston Univ. Medical School
                                                     Lynn, Mass.

                                                    
                                             ____Professional Memberships____

1952                 :      Neuro-Psychiatric Association, Istanbul, Turkey
1959                 :      American Psychiatric Association
1959                 :      BOSTON GERONTOLOGIC SOCIETY (Founding Member)
1967                 :      The Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, England
1967                 :      Rhode Island Medical Association
1968                 :      American Medical Association
1968                 :      New England Council of Child Psychiatry -Life Member-
1972                 :      Massachusetts Medical Association
1982                 :      New Hampshire Medical Society
1983                 :      American Orthopsychiatric Association
1987                 :      American Suicidology Association
1988                 :      World Health Organization
1989                 :      Academy for International Medical Studies
1989                 :      The American Association of Christian Counselors
1989                 :      The National Writers Club, Aurora, Colorado
1993                 :      The New York Academy of Sciences

                                              ______Honorary Mentions______

1974, 1975    :      Who’s Who in The East, U.S.A.
1974, 1992    :       International Dictionary of Biography, Intern. Biog.
                                    Center; Cambridge,  England
1985                 :       International Who’s Who in Medicine, World Premiere
                                    Vol.1 -Intern.Biogr.Centre, England
1986                 :       World Biographical HALL of FAME, Vol.II
                                    American Biographical Institute, No.Carolina
1986                 :       LIFE PATRON (LIBA),  Intern.Biogr.Centre, England
1986                 :       Commemorative Medal of Honor   -Bronze-                                    Amer. Biogr. Inst.-USA
1987                 :       5,000 Personalities of the World,   Excellence in Adult
                                    & Child Psychiatry, Amer. Biogr. Inst.-USA
1987                 :       Life Fellow (FABI),   Amer. Biogr.Inst.-USA
1989                 :       The World DECORATION of EXCELLENCE Medal  
                                   Amer.Biogr.Inst.-USA
1990                 :       MAN of the YEAR, Amer. Biogr. Inst.-USA
1991                  :      INTERNATIONAL MAN of The Year
                                    Intern. Biogr.Centre, England
1991                 :       Commemorative MEDAL of HONOR, (Gold),   –                                   Amer.Biogr.Inst.-USA
1991                 :       Lifetime Achievement Academy (Gold Statue) –       
                                   —–First OSCAR in MEDICINE—–
                                   Amer.Biogr.Inst.-USA
1992                 :       International Order of Merit, (WORLD CITIZEN)
                                    Intern.Biogr.Centre,  England
1996                 :       PLATINUM RECORD  for Exceptional Performance,
                                   -Amer. Biogr. Inst.-
1998                 :       MARQUIS  Who’s Who in the World, -USA
1998                 :       Albert EINSTEIN Intelligence Data Bank of America
1999                 :       World Biographical HALL of FAME
                                   -Intern. Biogr. Centre, Cambridge, Eng.-
2000                 :      2000 Outstanding Scientists of the 20th Century
2000                 :      The Europe 500 : (BARON’s Who’s Who)
2003                 :      The Founding Member of the  WORLD PEACE FORUM
                                    Intern. Biogr. Center, Cambdrige, UK
2006                 :      Honorary DIRECTOR GENERAL (HonDG)
                                    Inter Biogr.Centre, Cambridge UK
2007                 :      WHO is WHO in the World (Hübner’s), Germ.&T.C.
2007                 :      AMBASSADOR, International Order of Merit,  
                                    Intern. Biograph. Centre, Cambridge, UK
2009                  :     VICE-CHANCELLOR, World Academy of Letters,
                                    American Biogr.Inst., North Carolina, U.S.A.

                                                ________ Publications______

1953 -1955      :      Numerous publications from “La Presse Médicale”, publ.
                                     “Monthly Medical Journal”, Istanbul, Turkey,
1955                   :      “A Comparative Study of ECT and Insulin Coma”
                                     TURKEY     Acta Neuro-Psychiatrica, 1955, 4: 86-102
1956                    :     “Eshref Peygamber” , Doktorun Basımevi, Istanbul 
                                     -Short Stories-
1958                    :     “Statistical Data on the Inquiry upon 121 Drug Addicts”,
                                      The Criminology Inst., Faculty of Law, Istanbul Univ.

                                                                      —U.S.A.—

1963 ,Sept. APJ  :    “Evaluation of Combined Antidepressan and
                                          Tranquilizing drug (perphenazine+amytriptyline) 
                                         of  Hospitalized Chronic Schizophrenic Patients” 
 1976 :         Ed.     :    “Moonchild”,An Anthol.of Women’s Poetry,Suha Publ.,
                                          Tilton, N.H.
1979                        :     “Successful Treatment of an ‘Elective Mutism’ case with
                                           Behavioral Modification Techniques and a Multi-                                           disciplinary approach
                                           .Resources in Education (RIE), Febr.1979 issue,
                                           .Exceptional Child Education Resources (ECER),
                                            Febr. 1979 issue
                                  -Also presented at the Ortho Meeting in Washington, D.C.-
1984  (Eng.)          :       “Prophet Eshref and Other Stories”  (Short Stories),
                                             Exposition Press, Smithtown, N.Y. 1984
1983 – 1990          :          Several Poems published in various anthologies,
                                             incl., “Mention” ‘Silver Poet’: Amer.Poetry Assoc.
                                             1989 “Poet of Merit” Awards
1992   -Engl-          :       “I, Shaman & The Wheelwright” (Two Plays),
                                              Pentland Press, Cambridge, England

1997 -TURKEY-   :    “FREUD ve Psikanalizin Temel İlkeleri”
                                            <Freud & The Basic Principles of  Psychoanalysis>
                                               Nobel Press, İst.
1998; 2003                :      “Meydan Okuyan Çocuk” <Challenging Child>, tr.     
                                               from Stanley I. GREENSPAN, Ozgur Press, Ist.
1999;2003                  :     “Boşanma ve Çocuk Üzerine Etkileri”, <Divorce
                                                and It’s Effects Upon the Children>, tr. from 
                                                Yvette Walczak-Sheila Burns, Ozgur Press, Ist.

1999                                :     “Sistemde Elli Yıl” <Fifty Years in the System>
                                                  Tr. from: Jimmy Laing, Assos-Ozgur Press, Ist.
2000                               :     “Bir Doğumun Hikayesi” <The Story of A Birth>;
                                                  Short Stories, Ozgur Press, Istanbul   
                                       
2001;2004                   :      “Üstün Zekalı ve Yetenekli Çocukların Eğitimi”  
                                                   <The Education of the Gifted Children>,  
                                                    Tr.from: Norma E.Cutts-Nicholas Moseley;    
                                                    Ozgur Press, Ist. 
2002                    :                    “FREUD ve Psikanalizin Temel Ilkeleri”
                                                      Assos-Ozgur Press, Istanbul -II.ed.-
2003                    :                    “Hiperaktif Çocuklar ve Ritalin”
                                                     (Hyperactive Children & Ritalin), Ozgur, Istanbul

2004                    :                     “Özel Gereksinimli Çocuk” <Treatment of the Child
                                                        ren with Special Needs”  (Tr. from: Stanley I.
                                                        Greenspan, M.D., Ozgur Press, Ist.
2004                    :                     “YARATICILIK Üzerine ve Diğer Çalışmalar”  
                                                       (On Creativity and Other Essays), 
                                                         Assos-Ozgur Press, Istanbul.
2006    -Engl-  :                      “A.C. 2084 : The New Atlantis Republic” 
                                                       -a novel- Melrose press, Cambridge, UK;
2006                    :                      “Bebeklerde ve Çocuklarda Sağlıklı Gelişim”;
                                                       <The Healthy Growth of the Babies and The
                                                        Children>, Tr. from: Dr. Stanley I. Greenspan
                                                        Ozgur Press, Istanbul 

2007                    :                       “Ismayil”, a novel- Assos-Ozgur Presss, Ist. 
2007                    :                       “İNDİGO ÇOCUKLAR: Gerçek ya da Mit?”
                                                        <Indigo   Children: Truth or Myth?>
                                                        Ozgur Press, Ist.      
2008                    :                        “Aile Tedavisi” <Family Therapy>,
                                                         Ozgur Press, Ist.
2009                    :                         “Oyun ve Çocuklarda Oyun Tedavisi”
                                                         <Play and PlayTherapy in Children>
                                                          “İki piyes”  <two screenplays>:
                                                          “Eğer Ben Sen Olaydım”, adopted from 
                                                           Julian GREEN: <If I were you!>, and,
                                                          “Kompü Kid”: (Kid With a Computer> 
                                                          -children’s play- Cinius Press, Istanbul
                                   
                                                                                      ——-
                                     Activities Performed in Turkey      (1990 – 2007)
1991 – 1993  :        Establishing the Child Psychiatric Out-Patient Services
                                    at the Admiral Bristol Hospital, Nısantası, İstanbul
1991 – 1993  :        Dramaturg, at the “Istanbul Municipal Theatrical
& (1997-2002)     Research Laboratory (T.A.L.)
 
1992 – 1995  :        PROFESSOR at the Sports Academia, Marmara Univ.,
                                    Istanbul Lecturing in Sports’ Psychiatry and Psychology,
                                    Anthropology, Art and Mythology
1992 – 1995  :        Children’s Foundation, Nisantası. Consultation to families 
                                    for Children;  Chairman on Women’s and Children’s
                                    Rights Committees

1995                 :       Lecturer as PROFESSOR, at the Medico-Legal Institute
                                    Istanbul University on “The Psychology of Punishment”.
1996 – 1997   :       Turkish Street Children’s Foundation, Istanbul,
                                    as ‘Chief Consultant”, organizing of “Firststep House’ and
                                    “in-service” programs, Staff supervision, Television
                                    Programs, for “Prevention”.                 
1997 Febr.,    :       International Relations -“Vienna International Meeting”.
                                    Representing Turkey, for ‘Street Children’
           Also        :       For years, in IMAGO and INSIGHT and similar psycholo-
                                     gical Associations , CHILD PSYCHIATRY divisions of
                                     IST. UNIVERSITY (Çapa & Cerrahapaşa) Re.: Lecturing.
                                     Subjects:       Principles of ANALYTIC PSYCHIATRY;
                                     Post-Freudians (Sullivan, Horney, Klein etc.), PLAY
                                     and PLAY THERAPY seminars; Indiv. & Group Terapies.

1997 – 1998    :      Director, Nisantası Psychiatry & Psychotherapy
                                    Center, Istanbul
1999 – 2001    :      PROFESSOR and LECTURER, University of Newport;
                                     Direct Teaching in Classes and “Distance Learning”
                                     programs, as chief in Psychology, at the
                                     Kadıköy and Bakırkoy Campuses, Istanbul,
2000 – 2002   :      Kadir Has University, Business School; Istanbul;
                                     PROF. and LECTURER  in “Business Psychology”
2001 – 2003    :      Director, “Studio Drama”, Theatre Research Unit -pr.,
                                     Kadıkoy, Istanbul,
2002 – 30/06/07 :     Private Practice, Kadıköy, Istanbul -(Retired).

                                                               ——–EMEKLİ——–

A.C. 2084 , -Novel- by: İ.E.

A.C. 2084

<MELROSE BOOKS, Cambridgeshire, U.K. 2007>

-A Utopic Novel-

(THE NEW ATLANTIS REPUBLIC)

-Salute to More’s Utopia (1516)
Bacon’s New Atlantis (1626)
Orwell’s 1984 (1949)

-All Personal and Country names are fictional, except those which are registered in the history and the litterature, as cited.-

-3-

My special thanks to the publishers of

“UTOPIA : Thomas More”; Penguin Classics, N.Y. 1965, N.Y. ,    and,“1984 : George Orwell”, 1984 edition,  Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, N.Y.

To enlighten and give the spirit and
courage to write this little book.

Dedicated to suffering humanity!

-4-

1

A New Beginning For Many

Hi! My name is Ismailov the 3rd. I am the President (namely the Head) of “New Atlantis”. You very seldom see my picture on the Giant Screen; not because I am too important or too busy; contrary, in our Republic, no one is important, or rather, everyone is equally important or non-important (Nalimus aut velimus.). I am welcoming you to the ceremonies of the prospective new citizens’ acceptance to our union. We very seldom appehis much exclusively before the public eye. At the present moment not only I am appearing on our giant screens, namely our State of New Atlantis (N.A.) but on all the other three the most stated republics’ of the world; namely, “South-Freedom Republics” (S.F.R.), “Muslim-Hindu-Budhist-Arabian Republics” (M.I.B.A.R.) and the “New Oceanic Republics” (N.O.R.) televisions too. I shall mention a while later the details of the worlds’s new political composition. Like an historian, I would love to leave these documents to the future.

Unfortunately due to many wars, bombings and natural disasters, many valuable documents and buildings had been destroyed during the 20th and the first half of the 21st centuries. After the inclination of the axis of the World in the Space that had been shifted from 23.5 degrees to 23.55 degrees to the South-East, a new Ice Age -quite contrary at the South Pole of loosening the ice mountains and floating around freely- had re-occured on the northern hemisphere of the earth; hence a giant glacial flood had covered most parts the northern territories of the world, namely, with their old names the northern parts of Merica, Nada, Ounland, Gland, Orway, Weden and Beria in A.C. 2024. Simultaneously, about 500,000 square miles territory at the National Stone Park had sunk altogether and vanished instantly after a very serious earthquake at 9.9 level; in addition, the old mythical Atlantis, that here we are being on as ‘New Atlantis’, had re-appeared, as if nothing happened to it before. An unbelievable amount of people, perhaps 150 million or more, had moved to the different places, settled down on small islands, known and unknown territories. Most nations’ outer bundaries are not well-defined, including ours. Several of them, throughout tens of years which had been trying to get together under different names during the past century and a half, namely, “N.E.T.O.”, “Unified Nations”, “Ropean Unity” and alike, had lost their unique political roles and importance. We understand, in A.C.1984, exactly one hundred years ago, there were three the most important blocks, “East Asia”, “Eurasia” and “Oceania”. They did not work well, because human beings had not learned yet to control their aggression, passion to win and kill, continued to control the others through several means: Political parties, power, Big Brotherhood, money and petroleum. They let each other suffer inhumanly under the names of liberty, freedom and democracy. Then, we got wise, as I said above, after A.C. 2024 disasters, taking these as last ‘signs’ from the Lord of Universe to get together and establish the most eternal, the most respectable unity of human beings as ever could be.

-5-

Now, from the Big Screen, I see the conference room in the Guest House where about two hundred and forty eight candidates who arrived from three corners of the World to be considered our citizens. You my citizens, now please follow my opening speech to our guests. Some of my sayings shall be a repetition for you, but I am sure,  shall strengthen your immortal ties with this Land. Everyone seems to be sitting quietly and attentively, “Trans-care” ear-phones on, and are about to listen to me. I am not there of course, but, on the giant screen a sixty-year young gentelman’s smiling face ready to embrace everybody.

“Well, ladies and gentlemen, welcome to New Atlantis, Utopia Land of human kind. I am about to give you the opening speech of this mutual ecstasy. Before going any further, I want to be sure that your Trans-care’s, namely language translating ear-phones are working properly. In A.C. 1626, in a similar island, four languages were spoken: Hebrew, Latin, Greek and Spanish. Thanks to our ultra-modern scientific achievements that, through your ear-phones, tailored to your own native language which is either German, French, Italian or Spanish, are instantly translated into the English and vice versa. In other words, as you speak one of these languages in your own free-will, everyone will perceive it back in his or hers own language. Is there anyone’s machine is not working? Please raise your hand!  I see no sign. Good, indeed, very good. Let us continue.

“The first and utmost important constitutional rights you shall have that “FREEDOM” and “RESPECT” as human beings. There is NO CLASS DIFFERENCE here, whatsoever. Everyone, after getting through some genetic, neurologic and psychologic tests, shall be assigned to certain task or job. In this continent, there is always a job for everyone at his or hers own performance level. This is the constitutional rule. EVERYONE HAS TO WORK, at least eight hours a day, six days a week. There is no whatsoever a MONETARY SYSTEM in this continent, yes, I am underlining once more, there is no monetary system. All needs are taken care of at the best. NO ONE HAS PERSONAL PROPERTY. Everything is public property. Public buildings are built like-pyramids, therefore are earth-quake prove. The height is usually 33-storey that only one elevator may carry up to. NO TAXES, no banks. No rich companies, expensive cars and jewelry, gold and alike. According to your personal abilities and performance, you shall be registered accordingly at the State Personnel Department, Work Division and shall be provided with public utilities accordingly. Electrical public transportation systems, that is to say street cars and trains shall pass through your doors for every other ten minutes that cover whole territories like spider web. No fatal exhaust fumes, no gasoline, no even natural gas. Every kind of shops for either food or goods, are wide-open for everyone, for free. They are open twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. It is, in general, self-service.

“General correspondence is performed through your wrist-watches that are on your wrists and those could be projected onto the big “SCREEN” in your home, if you wish. Push the botton, and read the message, that’s all. Those private watches, carrying your Citizenship numbers, tailored to you only, that shall transfer home screen material to you, should you be out for any reason or other as well as being the main communicator on this continent. Within some distance, when you’ll be speaking to your closest ones, your personal pictures shall be projected, consequently be seen on the

-6-

watches and big-screens. So, it is advisable for every other thirty minutes or so, push the automatic button on your wrist-watch and read the message. Easy and comfortable.

“Your watch’s battery is charged with one of energy sources that either could be wind, water or organic based bio-energy. The batteries are good for 30 days only and at the end of this period, you shall have to exchange from “Energy Supplies Exchange Stores” that are available throughout. All important telephone numbers could be registered from 01 to 99 that through pushing the button, you may make calls automatically that way.

“When you have the message that you are assigned to a job, on the screen you’ll receive the initial instructions and road-map, time-table and the nature of the job. When you arrive at the job place, you may see or may not see the supervisor; sign in the work-sheet. The necessary supplies in reference to working clothes, material or tools like, all are indicated where and how to find it, how to use it. At the end of the day, you just sign out. Your records go automatically to the State Personnel Department. If you want to work extra and gain more points to raise your collected points, simply do so. You don’t have to ask anyone. İf there is no extra job is available, you shall read the sign as such. Thus, we eliminated every negative human factor that would effect your freedom and personal growth and happiness.

“As you may not have personal property, you also may not have personal books, records, astral-TV’s, three-dimensional CD’s, DVD’s and alike. Whatever you need, you just go to one of those utility shops and get what you need. There, you only have to register your citizenship number and sign it, that’s all. You can keep the tools until they are broken or not working anymore, for some reason or other, you return them to the shops and leave to some privately assigned “Deposit” places. No questions shall be asked. For portables like books, records, CD’s etc., you may have from the shelves any ‘reasonable’ amount you want, and register what you take, but you can’t keep them more than three months each. If you miss the returning time, from the State Personnel or Educational Department, you shall receive a friendly reminder. That’s all. But don’t forget, this kind of reminders, on long run, may lower your achievement points that you collect life long.

“As Adam’s children suffered throughout centuries, here we call for peace and tranquility. NO FIRE ARMS ARE PERMITTED, EVEN NO BREAD KNIVES TO BE CARRIED. We don’t have  NO DEFENSE MINISTRY, soldiers, jendarmes or uniformed policemen. WAR IS UNCONSTITUTIONAL. In each house, attached to the dining table with a chain, there is a MAGNUM DIRECTORY in which, you shall find the entire lists of doctors and hospitals, poison centers and emergency services that serve you for free. (We keep these directories handy, just in case, since the children under 12 are not allowed to use screens and watch T.V.’s without parental consent.) The specialties and the names are registered in alphabetical order. Also, the structure of the State, functions and branches of the ministeries are recorded in details with appropriate telephone numbers. Should you need anything, push the attached button, on the screen you shall see the istructions, indicating that either you shall go to Hospital or doctor shall come to your home, or whoever his or hers substitute might be, so other stately servives.

“When you have the message that you are assigned to a job, on the screen you’ll receive the initial instructions and road-map, time-table and the nature of the job. When you arrive at the job place, you may see or may not see the supervisor; sign in the work-sheet. The necessary supplies in reference to working clothes, material or tools like, all are indicated where and how to find it, how to use it. At the end of the day, you just sign out. Your records go automatically to the State Personnel Department. If you want to work extra and gain more points to raise your collected points, simply do so. You don’t have to ask anyone. İf there is no extra job is available, you shall read the sign as such. Thus, we eliminated every negative human factor that would effect your freedom and personal growth and happiness.

“As you may not have personal property, you also may not have personal books, records, astral-TV’s, three-dimensional CD’s, DVD’s and alike. Whatever you need, you just go to one of those utility shops and get what you need. There, you only have to register your citizenship number and sign it, that’s all. You can keep the tools until they are broken or not working anymore, for some reason or other, you return them to the shops and leave to some privately assigned “Deposit” places. No questions shall be asked. For portables like books, records, CD’s etc., you may have from the shelves any ‘reasonable’ amount you want, and register what you take, but you can’t keep them more than three months each. If you miss the returning time, from the State Personnel or Educational Department, you shall receive a friendly reminder. That’s all. But don’t forget, this kind of reminders, on long run, may lower your achievement points that you collect life long.

“As Adam’s children suffered throughout centuries, here we call for peace and tranquility. NO FIRE ARMS ARE PERMITTED, EVEN NO BREAD KNIVES TO BE CARRIED. We don’t have  NO DEFENSE MINISTRY, soldiers, jendarmes or uniformed policemen. WAR IS UNCONSTITUTIONAL. In each house, attached to the dining table with a chain, there is a MAGNUM DIRECTORY in which, you shall find the entire lists of doctors and hospitals, poison centers and emergency services that serve you for free. (We keep these directories handy, just in case, since the children under 12 are not allowed to use screens and watch T.V.’s without parental consent.) The specialties and the names are registered in alphabetical order. Also, the structure of the State, functions and branches of the ministeries are recorded in details with appropriate telephone numbers. Should you need anything, push the attached button, on the screen you shall see the istructions, indicating that either you shall go to Hospital or doctor shall come to your home, or whoever his or hers substitute might be, so other stately servives.

-7-

“EVERY CITIZEN HAS TO GO TROUGH 12-YEARS  LYCEUM EDUCATION. This already is provided at home. NO SCHOOL BUILDINGS, NO SCHOOL BUSSES, NO EXPENSIVE AFTER-SCHOOL COURSES. Lectures are given through visual media, except sports. There are Sports Arenas throughout the country where the attendance is obligatory. Examinations are performed through Supreme-Externets, except again sports.

“Here in this Continent, due to our simple but extremely healthy life standards and style, we live long. We have an EXCELLENT HEALTH CARE network. NO HEALTH INSURANCE COMPANIES and that jazz. When a baby is born, it is being taken care of at the best. Hospital care is mandatory. Needless to say, the care starts before the birth. Mothers are provided with free monthly check-ups prior to birth. Besides this pre-natal care, mothers are instructed at home through visual aids about the diet that they have to follow, the daily necessary physical exercises, and any advice they may need. Right after the birth, the baby is checked thoroughly GENETICALLY. Through our very sensitive health policies, since I am myself a doctor, as a matter of fact a professor, almost all genetically determined and handicapped illnesses are cured through GEN OPERATIONS right at the birth, even during the pregnancy if and when possible. Mental sub-normalities, including all types of Mongolism, diabetes, manic-depressive illness, fragile-x-syndrome, spina bifida occulta and aperta, meningomyelocele, Arnold-Chiari malformation, malformations of Sylvian aqueduct, hydrocephalus, syringomyelia, hydromyelia, anencephaly, micrencephaly, porencephaly, microgyria, agyria, cortical heterotopia, cerebellar hypoplasia, cerebrocerebellar atrophy, cerebral cortical atrophy, subcortical and cystic encephalomalacia, Alzheimer’s Disease, Huntington’s Chorea and Tuberous Sclerosis are literally eradicated.

“When the child is one and a half years old, mother goes to work. This is mandatory also. We have excellent baby-day care centers throughout the continent. Care-givers are educated superbly at the Child-Mother Care Centers and associated with Pedagogy – Child Psychiatry Clinics, in regard to babies’ developmental levels and emotional needs.

“Here, on this Continent, WE DON’T HAVE ANY IMPORT-EXPORT COMMERCE SYSTEMS. We cultıvate all what we use all. Clean air, green nature and stress-free life make us feel that we live in a paradise. As you may look around, you may easily see some 100, 120 even 130-year old people’s strolling about, upright. Life expectations are extended this far. Consequently, our government requires FIFTY ACTIVE YEARS WORK in toto for evey citizen before he or she can obtain a right to retire. (Your earned  extra achievement points may shorten this!) Once in a while, for any respectable reason, a worker may get vacation time until six months or so but this cannot be more than three times in a life time. When one retires, there are excellent “Retirement Houses for Mature People”, next to the sea-shore and in a three-storey dwelling. Again, NO WAITING LIST, NO FEES. Needless to say there too, health care, walks, gymnasium, exercise halls, swimming pools, tennis cords, you all are provided with.  Weekly dances, card games, family unions and do-it-yourself arts and ctafts courses also are the inseparable part of daily living. Only there, the chariots that are driven by graceful horses that replace the electrical systems of complex city life.

-8-

“We know well that all are still mortals. As Socrates had said, “The hour of departure has arrived and we go our waysI to die and you to live. Which is better, God only knows.” Again, as A. Sachs had mentioned, “Death is more universal than life; everyone dies but not everyone lives.” Anyways, if you look around, you will not see the accustomed cemetaries. Naturalize citizens may be willing to send their beloved ones’ bodies to their original countries, we permit to this. From our beuatful port New Renfusa where you all arrived at, we may sail to our neighbouring or far away republics. But after one is born here, when he dies, he and if willing, the others, are to follow our govermental rules. As a principle, we utilize “Cremation Grounds” to cremate the bodies and save the ashes. Cremations, of course, are the most sanitary, definitely preventive many infectious and contagious diseases, though they may be very rare. Nonetheless, the ashes are saved in private boxes, under the ground but in fully lighted rest-places where all the denominations sleep together. Yes, they rest eternally, altogether whether you are Jewish, Christian or Muslim. I advise you should visit there, for  just a meditation if you don’t have any beloved there yet. At the entrance of the Cremation Grounds (Smasana), on one wall, you shall read one of the Sanskrit Court Poetries, discovered by one one of the Buddhist scholar, Vidyakara, at A.C. 1100, and translated and published by Daniel Ingalls-Harvard Series, U.S.A. A.C. 1965, as follows:

“From my incarnation I infer that in a former birth
I surely gave you, Lord, no adoration
From bowing to you in this birth I shall in future
Be disincarnate and incapable of worshi
For these two sins, oh Lord, I beg forgiveness.”

Vidyakara

And, opposing it, great sayings from great Dante, who, under the guidance of Beatrice and conducted by Virgilius went to his journey through Paradise (Paradiso), Purgatory (Purgatorio) and Hell (Inferno), at the door of the latter where appears such as, hangs here too:

“Per me si va nella citta dolante,
(The roads that go to the suffering city pass-by from here),

“Per me si va nell’eterno dolore
(The road that goes to the eternal suffering passes-by from here),

“Per me si va tra la Perdua Gente.
(The road that exists between the lost humans passes-by from here).

Dante Alighieri

-9-

As to “energy” issues in daily living, we favor an old slogan in old America: “NO NUKES!” There is no reason to pollute the air, one of the most basic four elements of life, to destroy the nucleus of an atom that is the very essential, fundemental of human biology, make star wars and inhale the fumes either from those destructions directly, or from the bottom of the deserts or oceans where some leaks of the remnants of the nuclear material and eventually be a Hiroshima victim. No sir. The nature provided us with plenty of air that produces the wind, great oceans that provide water, and the eternal sun, ever and forever, the endless energy generator that provides light and heat. Ultra modern photo-cellular battery complexes give us enough energy to heat ourselves and use the energy for the rest of the other needs.

“Now, before going any further, I would like to stop here and give you a chance to ask some questions to me, of course, if you like to. Anyone raises hand?

“Honorable Sir; my name is Raul, I am from Pain; what about after becoming New Atlantis citizen, if I miss my home or change my mind, what chances I have to return to my native land?

“This is a good question. At the beginning of citizenship, there is a six-month of trial period. Now, you are only a candidate. As you sign for your candidacy tomorrow, beginning the same morning, you shall receive an extensive physical and psychological evaluation; tests for skills, known and unknown to you. You shall also be given a serie of vaccination, like anti-AIDS, anti-SARS and anti-MARS. Recently, the other three world republics have been drawing the attention to a new very virilant virus that seems to be brought from Mars by new travelers. Obviously it passes through not only sexual contact but inhalation too. Here, we have to put better controls about it. You also shall be given IQ and EQ tests. All these results shall be imprinted, along with cornea color photos and finger prints, a temporary citizenship number, all on an I.D. card that shall allow you to enter in many places. NO LOCKED DOORS ON THIS CONTINENT, NO POLICE OR SECURITY OFFICERS either. But it shall unable you to enter into shops, recreational places, drug stores, utility houses etc.very readily when doors are closed.

“Sir; Thank you for everything. My name is Amici, I am a Talian, and love to travel a lot. In your constitution and govermental structure, is there any place for foreign countries representation, like embassadorship or commercial attaché positions somewhere in the Terranean area? Thank you.

-10-

“My dear Amici; in spite of sixty years of existence, we have not seen and feel the need for representation in abroad. Not because we do not want to, but due to that monetary system, to cover the necessary expenses in those countries. Here we guest everyone free. Let us look at the map (the map that is printed on the cover of the book is projected to the grand screen) and see the spatial interrelations with the other republics.

“(A pointer in form of light, follows the President’s words) Here is the map that is definitely known to us since Neolithic period, presumably at the beginning of settlement and civilization, language and written systems had come into the scene. From temple stores, we began to find the conventionalized pictorial symbols which can be recognized as the prototypes of those signs which in later times stood for the names of the cities. The door of a building, or a tower, represented the temple which, the god is king, is the real heart of the city; capping this with the rising sun and you have Larsa, UD, UNU, KI ‘the abode of the sun’; with the evening star, and you have URUK; with a snake, DER. Then, the recognized symbol of the god made the meaning of the pictogram obvious to everyone, and it was quite easy to draw. This is how the beginnings of our civilization: Symbols and beginning of the writing period it was.

“In short, this is the map, to me the of last 12-thousand years’ human geographical history. Going along with Wegener, (pointing with the spot light pointer the corresponding continental boundaries of South Merica and Rica) one day, these territories aparted from each other, it was another big earth-quake and the Merica continent, not beeing able to carry the entire north and south, plus, the glaciers covered most of the north, remained apart from Rica. That was next to the last. There was another blast at the out-skirts of  Gibraltar, (the Mountain-of-Tarık, Ziyyad’s son, named so after A.C. 711 as he passed through the strait for Spain and invading there with only a fist-full of men, ‘after burning all ships behind’!) just at the beginning of the Oceanus, including Tarsessus from South Pain, Nary Islands, where a great civilization existed, namely, the NOVA ATLANTIS, this land where we are now standing on, plunged into the depth of the Oceanus. Year was A.C. 9,600. As some argue that Nova Atlantis is just the same of The New World or, old Ireland; South and North Merica, later on at the end of A.C. 1492 when the explorers landed in West Dies. If that was true, on those shores there should have seen some white skinned encestors and, the savage explorers did not need to buy Hattan Island for 18 dollars from Red-skins. Smoking and drinking should have floored the healthy owners of those virgine lands long before civilization reached them out and destroyed the nature. If it were true, some archeological remnants should have been out at that side, somehow. So, forget it.

“I am not going to give you long detailed history of mankind, as you may already know most of them anyway. Let me give a little bit more about NOVA ATLANTIS’ historical background. Who told us that there was such a civilization?

“First, Plato (A.C. 428 or 427. –  A.C. 348 or 347.), in his first dialogue Timaios had mentioned that taking famous SOLON (B.C. 630 – 560) as a reliable source of such information, existence of such civilization was present in the nine-thousand years Egyptian documents. The Island-Republic was one of the most civilized ones; established just at the outdoors of Herakles Columns at Gibraltar, reigning however the north of Africa, including Liberia and several Mediterranien Islands, territories, Spain and alike.

-11-

“In his second dialogue, Kritias, Plato gives more elaborate knowledge, the mythical origins of Nova Atlantis. The Island, the paradise of water and cupper, most probably was the extension of famous Minos civilization that domineered the entire Hellenistic World by myths and legends, throughout centuries, supplying heroes and gods throughout. According to myth, an earthly woman, Kleito, Euenor’s daughter, was married a god, Zeus’ brother Poseidon who was the god of entire world seas. However, as time went by, general morals and life standards were so used and abused and gone down that due to increased immorality and lust, Poseidon got mad (He got jealous may be, what do you say?) and with the help of Zeus, within a night the civilization had sunk into enraged waves of the Mediterranean Sea.

“In his first dialogue “TİMAİO(S)”, PLATO narrated somewhat deragatory comments about the Grecian way of life from an Egyptian priest who stated that at the bifurgation point of Niles, at the delta, there was a country named Saitikos that was reigned by King Amasis. The biggest city, named Sais where the king was born, was settled by a woman-god: NEITH, however Grecians called Her: ATHENA (Zeus’ daughter from Metis, the daughter of Oceanus and Tithys; to celebrate the victory over Titans; the goddess of Wisdom, Art, War and Peace; her symbols are shield, spear, olive bough and owl. As she stamped her foot on the ground, the world’s first olive tree sprang up. Trojan Horse, was dedicated to her). SOLON frequently visited this city and during the chats observed that in comparison to those priests deep knowledge of universe, life and death and alike, the Grecians ashamingly did not know almost anything. Solon, to save the face in his account, spoke to them about the first human being who God created: Phoroneus  (Adam), of Flood, saver Deukalion and Pyrrha (Prophet Noah), several myths and the generations of his grand-children and alike. Then, one of the old priests had said to him with a gracious smile on his face: “Aah, Solon, you Greeks are always child-like. In your land, there are no old people!” Solon asked astonishingly, “What do you mean?”; priest replied: “Your souls are too young. You don’t have traditional ideas to become riped as times goes by. You don’t have means to survive, you are easily destroyed. The biggest disasters come thru fire and water but there are other easy ways to destroy yourselves. For instance, in your home, people tell stories about a Phaeton, son of Helios (The god of light, son of Uranus and Mother Earth) who himself had died with the strike of a thunderbolt, when one day wanted to run the chariot of his father at the speed that he wished and couldn’t, burnt everything down to dust. Yet, the truth is, there are thousands of thousands celestial bodies in the sky, and sometimes they fall to the earth and burn some parts of it. Here in Egypt, we don’t have these fables and this kind of disasters, because the river of Niles, our eternal saver, through overflooding saves us from this kind of disasters. Only a few sheperds on the top of mountains may die whereas in your Home, the city populations are swept through by thousands, by the flood that comes from above. Here, the water spills from below, underground. Yes Solon, the city-state Athens, to whom ATHENA’s name was dedicated, once was one of the greatest city-states before those floods; civilized, brave, model existence with the most fair laws and civic life standards.

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“Solon, stunned, held fast to the arms of the old priest, his eyes filled with tears, begged him to tell him old stories about his own people, the whole truth. The priest grinned with grace and began to speak: “Okey, I shall reply your request. I do this for your sake as well as for the same Goddess who had also established our own city, however one thousand years later than yours. NEITH-ATHENA, that woman-god, had set your town from a Greek hero Hephaistos who ran after HER who had laid his seeds to the earth while she was busy with building. According to the Spiritual Books, our city was established eight thousand years ago, yours was nine. To be honest, many of our laws, also the principles of the social structure are borrowed from yours. First comes the priests; then the other classes or categories formed among themselves, according to the jobs and skills that they were accustomed to do:  Sheperds, hunters, farmers and warriers. We had used different war instruments, including the shield and spear, earlier than Asian nations. The laws that were passed, provided the biggest harmony on the earth, including justice, style of life, sanitary precautions and medicine, sagacity and wisdom.

“Woman-God, has established your city-state in one of the most desirable: temperate climate, consequently believing that very intelligent men would be raised there, full of wisdom. She has chosen a land, where the knowledge and war would go hand in hand, as Her personality dictated and demanded. You were so prosperous and just that we also borrowed from you a lot and here we are hiding that knowledge among our sacred and secret documents. In truth, old tablets indicate that, one of your victories was the greater than any of others. Here is the story. There was a big State, beyond the Herakles Columns, in the shape of an Island, named ATLANTIS, filling the big part of the Oceanus, greater than the sum of Libia and Asia. Then, it was possible literally to walk through the big sea, pass through the other separate islands. Where the Columns stood, there seemed to be a small port at the entrance, but as you get out, there was a big sea. Around it, there were big lands. There was a very strong, indeed powerful kingship on that island. Their strong army used to assault to Europian and Asian countries, including Libia and almost part of Egypt, Tyrhenia (West of Italy). One day, the king wanted to attack you Country too, to add one glory to his achievements, may be the greatest. However, your city-state, took the leadership, fighting against his armies bravely and saved the Country heroically, erecting a Column of Victory. Needless to say, from Herakles Columns up to Egypt, whole Mediterranean Sea was saved. Your king had aslo saved a lot of slaves, giving them their freedom.

“However”, the old priest continued, “after this big event, there came a big flood and a tremendously strong earth-quake, and in one single night, all the big Atlantis Island, including your brave fighters, beautiful lands around, all succumbed into the depth of the Oceanus. Muddy swamps covered many fertile fields and a part of Oceanus that even to day you can not pass through there anymore.” The eyes of old priest were welled.

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“Well, what Socrates, in reality, namely beyond the legendary facts that were cited above, either in his own writings and/or PLATO’s ‘dialogues’ said; ‘Every man must be his own ruler… a man should be temperate and master of himself, and ruler of his own pleasures and passions! The right order of the soul equates with temperance. Rhetoric and poetry should edify men, caring for the highest interests of the soul, other than delighting men, with giving pleasures. (One of his contemporaries, Alcimida also had said: ‘All men are equal by nature. God left all men free, Nature has made no man a slave!’)

“Socrates’ mind conscience raise this kind of arguments:

Even though a good and loyal soldier, when time comes for self-defense or to protect lives of his own citizens, may resort to fire-arms. The question is, besides the virtue of being a good soldier, should he never harm another man, versus, justifiying and doing his job when deemed to be necessary? What makes self-defense or hurting ‘enemies’ -mostly fellow citizens anyway!- in wars just? Does any revolution or uprise against a tyrant justify killing or harming him? Would it had been better and just Hitler to have assasinated during the Second World War (Which second?), thus avoiding his killings tens of millions of human beings?

“At about the same times, in A.C. 1943  to be exact with, in Warsaw’s Ghetho’s revolt, was it just to kill the wounded enemie forces? Would those men have been better if they merely suffered injustice without mortaring back? Or, this self-defense was justifiable and how?

“By the same token, we can pose this question too:
Is it just for a law-enforcement officer to find out and capture criminals via illegal means? Any ‘Unjust’ is always absolutely in ‘just’? When we let some particular criminals go unapprehended and/or apprehended but unpanished, through wheeling and dealing or other means, political manoevres, being an informer himself, due to a general pardon or so solely that particular time and paricular types of crimes, how the harm done weighs? Don’t we commit a crime (or performing an unjust) then against the people who had committed the same type of crime or shall be committing one time or another?

“So, this is why, we try to block, rather prevent the occurrence of the precursors of crime: If you control and forbid the elements that most likely to evoke a crime, for instance, money, the envy to possess real-estate, fire arms, to drink too much alcohol, to see the neighbors’ garden is greener than yours and alike, we don’t leave too many chances behind that one could easily motivated and enslaved by his unsatiable envy jealousy or greed.

“As I had mentioned at the beginning of my speech, with the newest tectonic movements of the earth, at A.C. 29 February 2024, this Island again surfaced the Ocean, however clean and untouched. Those years, namely beginnings of the A.C. 21st century, as usual, the civilized world so-to-speak, was just overcoming it’s unbelievable aggression that had spread the Mid-East territories. As you all may have read from the history books,

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some leaders of Merica and Gland republics, with good will in their hearts, tried to bring summum bonum (the best) democrasy and living standarts to those areas, also willing to clean up the hidden, destructive weapons of nuclear origin. Ganistan, Rak and Ran were blood-shed. As we all know from psychology, aggression is contagious and invites for more aggression. Those days the world was crazy about the foot-ball of every sort. The best defense is always offense, you cannot win a ball-game unless you scream, “Goooooal!”. Tanks, rockets, mortars, bombs, suicide killings, promises for heaven, lust for petrol and power, grand, empty speeches for humanity, world-wide gatherings did not diminish the eternal fear and hatred and unsatiable envy of destruction of mankind. Mother Earth began to murmur too, unexpected hurricans, cyclons, earth-quakes, floods, wood-fires, seasonal irregularities, unusually long rainy and hot days became everyday’s story. An estrangement  and not caring of others, feeling strange to even himself, insensitivities, extreme egoism, materialistic life style had become so prominent that, I am sure, one day, this time once more, Zeus, in spite of twenty some century that had brought gods down to only one -sometimes to none- bowed to the right toward the sun, moved the axis of half degree, and there we went: Glaciers moved down from North, 5 thousand some acrees at the National Stone Park collapsed, and the most importantly, Nova Atlantis ascended to the surface. Then, please look up to the old map, (pointing the new site of NEW ATLANTIS), little by little, the thinkers, feelers, the campaigners against war and brutality, clonning, aggression, hurting the animals, aggressive democrasies and two-faced politics, in their own free-will chose to move from all over the world to this very promising land, starting to a white page in human history since A.C. 2024. So, a new Anabasis, or a new pilgramage however the most conscious ever, began and in ten years new constitution had been declared here. This was a real human victory over his weaknesses. I was a ten-year old boy then, and here I am, and I love every single second of living here. (Applauds! But this is too bad, it smells old world!)

“Now, if you look, here we are: NEW ATLANTIS (N.A.), this big territory is humans’ paradise, self-governed, self-sufficient republic. Throughout these years, people from old Merica, Gland, Panya, Teguese, Uba, Nada, Talia, Rance, Dinavia, Lland, Gium, Enmark, Ibia, Nusia and alike, believing in our type of freedom and way of life, got together here. Our population, as of today, namely A.C. May 31st, 2084, is 16 million 188 thousand and 767. We control birth and unnecessary over-growth; we live long and healthy; SMOKING and ILLICIT DRUGS ARE FORBIDDEN.

“If we can look up to the other republics, on the old map you notice three other distinct conglamerations. After unsuccessful  attempts of the Unified Nations and NETO,  people began to make new moves and alliances, some of them to our surprise. (Pointing on the map with light spot) Here, for instance, “MUSLIM-HINDU-BUDDHIST ALLIED REPUBLICS”
(M.H.B.A.R.) that includes Urkey -strange enough until the unity with the prospective organization was declined she was still on the waiting list to set up a beginning of negotiations-, Rak, Ran, Kistan, Ganistan, Udi Bia, Baycan, Menia, Jikistan, Menistan, Bekistan, Gyzistan, Ria, Banon, Rdan, Rabia, Gypt, Geria, Rocco, Yprus (Rael and Listin are still fighting for terroterial and

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settlement boundaries and leadership like Alphonse Daudet’s ‘La Chevre de Monsieur Séguin” (Monsieur Séguin’s Goat)’, not giving a humanly pass to pass through the strait, so far one side twenty million, the other seven and a half million dead declared. Perhaps only a new prophet could save them from that sado-masochism. Those hills are pregnant! Dia, Anka is a strange unity; but obviously they learned to overcome fighting, killing, uprising, praying and believing in God who send them to Heaven if you kill someone.

“FREE SOUTH REPUBLICS” (F.S.R.) (pointing on the screen with spot-light), is a rather quiet union; we call them “Glorious Penguins”, covers very large area, may be the largest, coldest and quietest. It includes Razil, a part of Gentina, Kland Islands, Retinghausen-Scotia-Weddell seas and Tarctica; South Rika countries: South Rica Republics, Mali, Gascar, Central Rika Republics Ambia, Zania. They are peaceful, but still in poverty, they have to struggle with corruption, money and power and lack of water and food. The powerful countries still offer them gun-powder, insted of wheat. In general, they look like inactive volcanos that erupt for every thirty years or so.

“The last but not the least is “NEW OCEANIC REPUBLICS (N.O.R.) that is perhaps the most powerful and resourceful that include (Light points out!) old nations like a part of Ina, Apan, Ivan, Rea (North and south unified in A.C. 2054), Golya, Lippines, Ailand, Os, Nam, Bodia, Mosa, Lasia; Tralia continent, Acronesia, Asmania, Lynesia, Waiian Islands and large seas: South Cific Ocean, Asman Sea, large part of Great Oceanus.

“Of course, between these, there are several small-big monarchees, republics, old and new, try to live peacefully and respectfully, but still in old fashion: Commerce, money, illicit drugs, bribery, drug traffic, every kind of mafia: Woman, land, politics -even the mafia mafia- and power sttrugle is still on the scene. Fortunately, these three big republics don’t fight each other at a large scale, becasue, they know, there will not be a winner and that shall be the end of mankind. As to small ones, they still race the cars, sell and exchange the gold for fire arms, celebrate their victories over their neighbours who are in a bare existence. Of course, crocodiles laugh at them. But, life is a matter of choice, no one is superior to the other, we all are God’s children, Amen.

“So, after this short briefing, to answer the gentleman who asked the original question whether a good-will ambassador or political representative could be initiated in those friendly, brotherly countries, I am afraid NOT, ‘cause, you may know by now, money, expenses, travels, parties, champagnes that are unknowingly exchanged with poor and lonely people’s blood, shall be misleading the human beings again. When we are going to learn from the past? We, however, correspond with them through e-mails, exchange some permissable scientific data and good-will anniversaries and alike but that’s all. Yes, you sir!

“Yes sir; could we bring our relatives, parents once for a while to visit us? My name is Abdallah, I am from Ria.

“Good question. The answer is principally ‘yes’, but just for a week after at least five years. We have an excellent guest house -where now you are residing- for the parents too. I would like to remind you again that we do not have any attractive gifts, goods, furs, cars, even post-cards. Of course they would bring any personal belongings for themselves..

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“Sir, what about sex? Oo, my name is Smith and am from Many. I mean, I am a bachelor and over twenty five years of age. In your State how a single man or woman can satisify that natural need?”

“Very good, indeed very good. Well, youth who is between the ages of 18 and 21, of both sexes, may attend to the parties, dances and go for dates or so under supervision. Over 21, however, if one is not in education and for some reason or other, and, is not married, becomes automatically eligible for membership to BACHELORS WITHOUT PARTNERS Group. Then, if everything goes alright, with the consent of “Sexual Relations Team” that is composed of a nurse, a gynecologist and a psychologist or psychiatrist, taking the necessary precautions, may have intimate relations if they want to. They have to report once for in a while to report how the things go.

“As far as human rights are concerned, as I said before, males and females are equal to each other; nothing like as they say in old countries: “But sometimes some males are more equal than the females”. We do not endorse old Momon practices in old Merica neither some Lamik exercises having more than one wife at the same time. Women need not to be humiliated and deserve more respect than that.”

“What about religous practices sir? My name is Mohammed and I am from Geria. Is there any governmental control over them?”

“For religious needs, incidentally, we are quite generous and at the neutral-positive corner. We, first of all, don’t have any controls over anything, it is just a compulsive meticulousness in our part, just to take care of our citizens properly. Throughout the Country, you may observe beautiful Christian churches standing solemnly side by side that could be either of Catholic, Protestant, Presbyterian, Unitarian, Seven-Day  Adventists, Born-again-Christian denominations as well as Muslim mosques, Jewish temples, Buddhist or Taoist, Lamaian worship centers. After the age of 13, we urge everyone to attend to Meditation classes and receive their mantras accordingly. This is a mandatory practice. As you well know, meditation is one of the best, may be alone the best vehicles to nurture yourself and develop a very reliable and trustable sens of self. It lowers all psychological and physical distresses and makes you a dignified, spotless person.

“As you might have learned so far, “talking screen” is our main communication vehicle. At the beginning it may be bothersome to some of you as if to be seen and/or listened to all the time is somewhat embarrassing. There is noting to be embarrassed about this event, since if you are not doing wrong, and, anything different than a respectful citizen would and should do, why any of us should feel so? There is a kind of protection after every limitation for your own good. When I was a small child, my father used to complain a lot, almost all the time when, in old Country, we were at the bank, each time, bank clerk used to ask for İ. D. He used to react badly, saying “How long I have been your customer? Don’t you know me?

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“Dont’you ever trust me? Why I should assume to be someone else?” The clerk, with a nice smile, responded as usual, “For your own protection my dear, your own good!”. We say the same, “For your own protection!” and, are sure that there is no any kind of maliciousness since everything is at the open that we are at the service of you. So, this is also for your good. You don’t have to be self-conscious about it. Through ‘just’ listening, WE ARE NOT TAKING ANY ACTION against anyone, except if anything is unconstitutional, namely when there is a real danger to NULLIFY THIS UNION. Do the nude poeple feel embarrassed in the nude camps since everyone is nude? No, never. Oh. I almost forgot, even though the religious ceremonises too all are “screened”, namely “projected to the screens” for the benefit of the people who may not be able to attend to the temples, one exception is that MEDITATION classes and/or practices since they belong only to you. There, you are refining yourself, whatever you think is yours. You share your thoughts and feelings with your Sanskrit supervisors anyway. Don’t forget, all screen messages and recordings are automatically erased after ten years.

“I cordially invite you, as I very frequently do, to visit and participate to “JEWISH CABBALA CENTERS”. This a quite treasure, giving you a chance to transit yourself from an earthly life and way of thinking to a deep, mystical, ascending, lighted way of living and thinking. It had started about 135 years ago in Hilie, in South Merica, had passed and spread trough Gland and all other countries. Historian Gershom Scholem had written a book, named, “Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism’ in A.C. 1946 as a first masterpiece in that. Anyways, it helps  you to establish a direct contact with the Creator, other than using some other spiritual leaders, rabbis or others. I shall give more details about this to you some other time. Of course, as many had asked me in the past, you also may ask, “If there is no money business in the Country, what hell the Jewish people are doing here?”. I really don’t know, you have to ask this to them yourselves.

“Sir, my name is Dominic, and I am from Razil. What about if anyone is committing a crime, for example stealing, lying, murdering and alike, how do you handle those should they occur? You have said you do not have policemen and jails, so, I assume you may not have prisons either. How your judiciary system works?

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“This is also a good question. Look Dominic, envy, if abundant and out of controls, is one of the most powerful means of directing human beings to be harmfull to self and others. Where does envy come from?

“According to Melanie Klein, one of the formost believers and practitioners of FREUDIAN concept of human psychology who lived at the beginnings and the midst of A.C. 20th Century, ENVY, is the most potent factor in undermining feelings of love and gratitude. She writes in her Envy and Gratitude, “I consider that envy, is an oral-sadistic and anal-sadistic expression of destructive impulses, operative from the beginning of life, and that it has a constitutional basis. According to Abraham -who was her analyst and mentor- a constitutional element in the strength of oral impulses, is linked with the aetiology of manic-depressive illness. Envy, is an angry feeling that another person possesses and enjoys something desirable. JEALOUSY is based on envy, but involves a relation to at least two people; it is mainly concerned with love that the subject feels (The baby feels for his mother, in fact for her breast!) in his due and has been taken away, or it is in danger of being taken away from him by his rival (Usually, father or another sibling!) GREED, is an impetious and insatiable craving, exceeding what the subject needs and the object is able and willing to give. (Since all babies grow up at the end, whether one day the unfulfilled baby, by any chance or coincidance wants petroleum instead of mother’s milk? Who knows?) Jealousy fears to lose what it has, envy is pained at seeing another have that which it wants for itself. GRATITUDE, therefore, is closely bond up with generosity.”

“See what SHAKESPEARE had said in his ‘OTHELLO’:

‘But jealous souls will not be answer’d so;
They are not were jealous for the cause,
But jealous for they are jealous; ‘tis a monste
Begot upon himself, born on itself.’

            “That indicates that the envious person is insatiable, he can never be satisfied… always finds an object to form on. (?It was Ghanistan, then Rak, and then?) There is also a close connection between jealousy, greed and envy that are closely related each other. Shakespeare, however, does not differentiate that much amongst those:

‘Oh beware my Lord of jealousy;

                         It is the green-eyed monster which doth moc
                         The meat it feeds on…’      

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“However, since we are away from any materialism and money, jewelry, gambling, commerce, illicit drugs and trading women, and most importantly you citizens choose this way of living in your free-will, the chances are, and have been that OUR PEOPLE DO NOT COMMIT CRIMES. You don’t have to steal one loaf of bread to feed your hungry family as Hugo’s Jean Valjean had done more than two hundred years ago. How you can get drunk, under the rules, to lose controls and hurt some neighbours of yours? How you could bribe the people to commit a crime to get a higher job when all personal abilities and achievements, public service records are at the open and available for an easy inspection? You don’t buy and sell for personal benefit and you are at the service of other brothers and sisters, how you can cheat the people?

“As last chapter, even though those are described in detals in your “Magnum Directory” at home, I would like to give the high-lights of our governmental structure and how it works. As I said before, NEW ATLANTIS is a republic, has its own Constitution, accepted and declared in A.C. 2034. She has One PRESIDENT and six MINISTERS who are elected for every other ten years terms. NO POLITICAL PARTIES. What would you the politics about? The President, with no assistant, is the all-over supervisor of the existing six Departments: Dept.of ADMINISTRATION & PERSONNEL;  Dept. of EDUCATION & RESEARCH; Dept.of HEALTH,  Dept.of AGRICULTURE & INDUSTRY,  Dept. of ENERGY, TRANSPORTATION & COMMUNICATION, and, Dept.of ENGINEERING, CONSRUCTION & REPAIR. The ministers and I, are elected through computers, after long a painful search and evaluation; that is to say, the sum of one’s physical, psychological and social skills and public work and achievements throughout years, in a mathematical truth, electronically compiled, calculated and points are presented right in front of you. This way, you know who you are getting. These records are open to everyone and when the right time comes, the whole nation in a genuine curiosity and respect, sit down in front of their big-secreens and happily watch what kind of elite people are coming to executive levels of management who are going to serve them for the next ten years. No bright speeches, debates, empty promises, no false votes or alike. No one could be elected more than twice in a row. For example, next year, is going to be an election again. The ELECTION DAY, is a national holiday, only one day, that’s all we have. We don’t have to have the glorifiying ceremonies for the young people who, in essence for our own envies, wrong calculations and aggressive drives and selfishness killed, or Independence Day and alike celebration for we did not save this Country from no one; God gave it us as a gift, and He ordered: Work, work and work. So we do.

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“Now, permit me to make a brief study about the previous systems that were offered either on fantasy and ideological or reality basis why they did not work completely as they should have been. Needless to say, my comments are just after-facts evaluations, and not a criticism in true sense for human beings would do what they could do. They did their best in those days’ circumstances, otherwise if the old times emperors or conquerors, Hannibal or Attila the Hun, were armed with todays’ advances the map of the world could have been quite different.

“Now, let us take that great man, a statesman, a lawmaker and legislator, one time House Speaker, a good human, Thomas More (A.C. 1478  – A.C. 1535). As you may know as well -if you don’t, you may have the copy of his books from our librairies for free- he was the comtemporary of great ERASMUS, a good friend of him who he even shared a translated book from Latin with him, “Menoppus Goes to Hell”. Due to his hard and honest work, he even was elevated to be the private counsellor to HENRY the VIII, the famous king of England then. Seeing how human beings are treated and how they should be, especially being witness to the political illegalities and inhumanities in his high position, he created such a “Utopia Land” and a city of “Amaurote”, located at the side of “Anhydrus” river (A.C. 1516). Due to his position he had to write it “as if a very well educated Portuguese sailor, a RAPHAEL HYTHLODAEUS who travelled all around the World and narrated to More what he had seen and what he himself lived through for five years as a citizen of such land. He had to do this way, just to protect himself, as if this was just a story. No question he was effected by religion, for instance, RAPHAEL, in Hebrew means ‘God has healed’, and HYTHLODAEUS: NONSENSO, a person who does not mean any sense. Some negative or deragotory appearing names and referenses come from his own early childhood that is known as ‘a joker, making fun of everything’.  By the same token, ‘Anhydrus’ means ‘No water’; ‘Utopia’: ‘Noplace’. He well knew that it was then impossible to create such place for good human beeings for the reality life was quite harsh for decent people like himself. What happened to him in his private life? Well, since he had refused to take an oath impinging the Pop’s authority as upholding the King Henry VIII’s divorce case from his eighth wife CATHERINE of Aragon, he was imprisoned and finally beheaded. It took only four hundred more years for Thomas More to be elevated to the sainthood.

“Thus, regardless what his critics did say about him, whether he wanted to implant a Catholic soul in everyone; or his work was one of the moral allegories, or, what he created was a political manifesto and/or to lay the seeds of communism far ahead of his time (Are you kidding, four hundred years ahead!) he had sensed that human beings could be treated better – by themselves-, more honorably, use more sense of humor and still live in dignified ways.

“More’s hero NONSENSO’s imagery travels that started from a port, called Cape FRIO, had some reality base too as famous traveler Americo Vespucci had also departed from the same port in A.C. 1504 with twenty men. This, could easily be evoking some realistic delusions for some young people that “it could be true!”. Now, let us examine the basic living principals of More’s UTOPIA and compare them with our system.

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“UTOPIANS have their own new alphabet and new tongue. That probably made reading more interesting and exciting, as in our youth, in old Land, there was a current toward creating a new language, called ESPERANTO, meaning “hope”. Secret things could be coded among lovers or friends to make the things private and unspoiled. However, in public life that did not work. To day, if a nation or union is defined as “sharing the mutual history and fate as well as cultural values, using a language to communicate, living on a designated land with boundaries” and alike, it becomes necessary to utilize the already known communication channels regardless how much they might be modulated in different ways due to technical advances. As a scientist, I would also like to add a very important a scientific point to this view. During the human growth, namely in the early years of child development, say between the ages of 9 months and 2 and a half years old, the human brain is constantly stimulated by the child’s effort to converse, to internalize, to express, to symbolize the external stimuli in shape of speech, behavior, later on thoughts and creativities. Thus, adult speech that is utilized in an almost automatic fashion, is the end-result of a long standing psycho-social and neurological growth and development in which the brain cells and communication neurons that are necessary to make connections amongst the various brain centers that register, develop and send different messages to form abstract thinking, thoughts and creativity. Thus, it is a very difficult phenomenon to communicate sensibly, using creative, highly technical pieces of words -that are developed late, without emotional connections at the beginnings- with emotional echos, to develop an insight and create meaningul communication later in life. If such practice should have lasted at least three generations, newborns could be able to make some connections and emotional inner images that are common to everyone, nonetheless to the people in the same culture that could be brought out together as mutual language. Thus, after the individual has completed his growth and development, to create a meaningful communication through some artifical symbols that don’t have any emotional implants within, it becomes just a burden, an artificial and most of the time useless vehicle with no real advance. Plus, it also may  create a sense of split, estrangement to self and others as well.

“That’s why, we rather chose a very advanced scientific system to communicate. Through ear-phones “TRANS-CARE”, one is thinking and feeling in his own native language in which the brain is trained, then those sayings instantly translated into the other person’s his or hers own language and thought-perceptual systems. At the meantime, the languages are five that we are able to maneuvre, but our language specialists are working on five more. Naturally that’s why we promote immigration, and with newcomers in near future we shall be able to help then others too.

“Even though presently Sir Francis BACON’s “Nova Atlantis” (A.C. 1626) is not in the scope of our study and criticism in depth at this minute, since it was the start, we would like to comment that as in his utopic land, The Island of BENSALEM he had advocated “difficult immigration procedures and formalities” that we do not impose. He had imposed upon those wanted to landed there, creating a tremendous amount of anxiety and bevilderment, keeping the people on starvation for a while, not allowing them to land, letting them to be acknowleged step-by-step cautiously; starting from the land up to visiting to listen to the Principle of The Local

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The Local Institute for Scientific Research, and to present his audience with two thousand ducats as a gift for listening and attending which here we all DO NOT SUBSCRIBE. We welcome you here with open arms. You all are our honorable guests and prospective citizens of this very honorable Country. MONEY is seduction and the tool that serves only to feed the flames of envy, greed, power and destruction.

“‘New Atlantis’ was written late, toward the end of Bacon’s life, and published posthumously. It was an unfinished romance, we would say. Principally, it recounted the story of a Solomon House, built in the Island of Bensalem; with the aim, in secret ways, to teach and learn Christian culture, perhaps a kind of recreation and relief from the loads that were occupying his mind those days. According to William Rawley, his literary representative and orator, that “fable was designed to exhibit a college instituted for the interpretation of Nature.” He wanted to compose an excellent machinery of an ideal human congregation. The investigations of Solomon’s House were sought beneath the hills, in deep caverns, pools, lakes and mighty towers that were set at the top of the mountains. It also was a house of healing and was going to give a chance for deep study of the medicine. There, in a secret religious place called “in God’s bosom”, the experts studied the colours, the smells of the perfumes and alike. According to some reliable authors, that was an illusory extention of the work that the College of Emblamatic Freemasonry -that Francis Bacon was an eminent member of –  which was recommending to study the mysteries of Nature and Science.

“Let us continue with More. His people, in that story-land, appeared to be living a slow-pace, colorless motion, with moderate encouragement to work. There, people worked just six hours a day; even though food, clothing, housing, education and health services were provided to every citizen. To us, of course in our times more than ever, more emphasis should have been put over working. WE DO NOT PRESCRIBE A WELFARE STATE. We do not punish the people who don’t work. Here in the NEW ATLANTIS if there are some people who don’t work, not because either they do not wish to work or there is no enough work; but either they are retired or sick. THERE IS ALWAYS JOBS available. There, every one was wearing the same clothes, for equality reasons I presume; we lived through 1984; equality should be existing in your behaviors and social actions when ‘justice’ is the subject. As we said above, you can wear anything you wish, provided that your status is plausible and respectable with the circumstances that you are in.

“As to SEX matters, the prohibitions and punishments in case of breaking the customs and laws, were very severe, however commensurate with TUDOR ENGLISH days’ religious practices and social committments. In this subject, “Pre-marital intercourse” was punished by compulsary celibacy for life; adultery was punished with slavery. Since our life style is founded on the foundations of “logical -however controlled- provisions other than punitive systems, we do not give a chance to commit an adultery. Repeating once more, many of you may not like “wrist-watch” and “screen” listenings, but declaring such wishes do not constitute a proof for a crime

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but only doing it does it. Thoughts and feelings are your personal properties, you may wish to express them anyway you want to provided that you are not disturbing the public peace. You are only RESPONSIBLE FOR YOUR ACTIONS. Needless to say, SLAVERY IS OUT OF MODE. If one cannot control his or her sexuality and brings out fatherless or motherless parents, we do resort to surgical operation for te benefit of the rest of the free people.

“As to WOMEN RIGHTS, as we shall point later on, among other practices, once a month, all WIWES WERE HAD TO KNELL DOWN before their husbands, confess all about their sins and asked to be forgiven. (Women and children were men’s property until A.C. 18th century) Here, we bow before our wives with love and devotion. And, NO CLONNED BABIES, NO RENTAL MOTHERS!

“So the things were for CRIME. Then, in England some ‘selective’ people were earning about 50,000 sterling a year while many starved on the roads and when they stole to fulfill their hunger and caught, were hung. This is a SOCIAL UNJUSTICE. ONLY GOD GIVES AND TAKES.

“Now, let me give you some highlights of More’s two books in this matter.

In Book One, More is introduced to a reputable person, a RAPHAEL NONSENSO, being quoted as “he is not a Polinesian type of sailor” by his close friend Peter Gilles, a priest, as a matter of fact, a cardinal. He is quite acknowledged about Grecian and Latin languages (As More himself!). He has left his property to his brother and went to sea-voyage along with Americo VESPUCCI. His two favorite quotations were, “The unburried deads covered by the sky”, and, “You can get to Heaven from anywhere!” He had travelled til Ceylon (Sri-Lanka), then to Calicut (India) and finally to the “New Utopia World”.

“The reasons why the people had left England for this Utopia were: High prices for food that turned poor prople to thievery and to become beggars; all classes of the society were recklessly extravagant, farms were demolished; rich, had established monopolis in markets, robbing the poor and no one stopped them. The poeple who did nothing increased tremendously in number that needed to be reduced. In brief, by the very same social system the thieves were created, and in turn, were punished for the crime that they had committed. Death sentence should not have been applied due to the fact that “God said, thou shall not kill!” Similarly, human beings were similarly agreeing among themselves to legalize certain types of rape, adultery and perjury.

“Where this ‘Paradis’ was? In Persia, an autonomous, large community
named TALLSTORIA. Taxes were paid to the King for management expenditures. No military service, little contact with outer world with fear of being invaded, living on the mountainous area, away from sea, living in comfort if not luxury, happily. If there is a thievery, the thief has to restore the damage with the owner of the house or business. No prison service, therefore if re-pay deemed to be done, one has to serve publically for his

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crime (We whole-heartily subscribe to that.) When for the public use money is necessary, the volunteers do it. Convicts could also be hired for  private enterprises and be whipped if they don’t work hard enough. They all wear the SAME CLOTHES that are easily distinguishable from others. He also carries a badge, indicating the district in which he lives. Food is provided at public expense, convicts serve as servants. MORE had thought to apply the same system to England for it looked to be quite humane and working very well.

“RAPHAEL, addressing to the writer in a very sincere tone, commencing with, ‘My Dear More’, and continuing with the particular stresses upon the ABOLISHING ALL PRIVATE PROPERTIES and everything under the sun that “is judged with money”, thus maintaining a “fair distributions of goods among all!” If you push and create some turmoil in one part of the politics, you also can cause a disequilibrium in the other parts of the system. “What is medicine for some people is poison for others – because , with biblical saying, you can never pay Paul without robbing Peter!

“Well, needless to say, I can applaud many parts of this system, particularly that of MONEY and PUBLIC PROPERTY disowning. However, we still observe discriminations among the people with a special reference to the convicts. They are labeled with their dresses, carrying a badge, being whipped and alike inhuman practices are still observed. There is also a discrepency that if you don’t circulate money, not to own any property, how and why you can pay the taxes to the king? As long as there is money circulating, you are asking for trouble. Where there is rich, that means that there is also poor. This is the social reality.

“In his book two, like Sindbad the Sailor, RAPHAEL talks to More, about a UTOPIA ISLAND -in reality a crescent-like peninsula- about two hundred miles accross, in the middle, an harbor of which its mouth forms a circle of five hundred miles, full of rocks and shoals. Without a utopian pilot, it is impossible to enter the harbor.

“There are 54 “splendid” big towns, called AIRCASTLE, on the Island, 24 miles apart. Each of them is built on a gently sloppy hill-side, square shaped, leaning upon a RIVER NOWATER. There is stone-made, marvelous, arched bridge that connects two banks of the river to each other. There also huge cysterns that depo extra water. Aircastles, are surrounded -like the Medieval times- by a thick, high walls, fortified with observing towers and black houses, with frequent intervals. They are allocated to people for every other ten years. Attached to them, there are beautiful gardens in which one can cultivate fruit, grapes, flowers, wheat, vegetables and alike. Windows are glazed with protective linen fabrics. The fields here and there, are ploughed by oxen, at public expense.

“An AIRCASTLE consists of 30 houses, each containing forty adults who live under the supervision of the District CONTROLLER who is also called STYWARD. Ecah year twenty of these forty adults go out to the countries and new ones come. 10 of these houses form a secondary unit that is under the supervision of the SENIOR DISTRICT  CONTROLLER, or BENCHEATER. Each town may have the most 200 stywards and chooses its own MAJOR.  There is a PARLIMENT too that is made up by majors who are elected by public. Each town sends three representatives to annual                 LIETALK.

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“As to other details of everyday, public life are as follows:

CHILDREN are taken from the school and go into fields, first watch then work with the farmers for the benefit of the public. Other works include stonemason, blacksmith nd carpenter-kind. No tailors or dress-makers for these things are done at home. They usually are of loose-fitting leather. Work day is six hours; three hours in the morning, then, a short lunch break and the other three hours in the afternoon. Since mothers also go to work, children are taken care of by foster-mothers. Everyone goes to bed at 8 P.M. There is a mandatory school for children but for the grown-ups, there are public lectures in the mornings to attend.

“GAMBLING is regarded as a stupid, idiotic and undesirable activity, therefore is prohibited.

“PLEASURES, could be divided as “Mental” that comprises a philosophy of a well-spent life, full of spirits and good-will. One has to have a clear conscious and good behavior.; and, “Physical” that consists of eating and drinking, satisfying the natural heat of the body, excretion, including sexual intercourse and rubbing and scratching to ease up the irritation and tension. Good readings, essentially from Old Greek Literature as Raphael himself thought them about the Old Greats, studying them from the original books especially about PLATO, HIPPOCRATES’ Notebooks and GALEN’s Handbook.

“So far social life is concerned, the smallest unit is accepted as “household” that consists of father-mother-children triangle. Each town consists of 6,000 households. Boys stay at home, and as time goes by, whether he marries or not, the oldest boy is the boss at home. Girls, after getting married, move to their husbands’ homes. The boys cannot marry under 21 and the girls under 18 years of age. “An important MARRIAGE CUSTOM is this: The prospective bride, whether she is an unmarried woman or a widow, is exhibited stark naked to the prospective bridegroom by a recognized and respectable married woman and a suitable male chaperon who show the bridegroom naked to the bride. (Needless to say, to us, in our times, this is an out-of-mode unacceptable primitive exhibition, as in past centuries in some religious gatherings “virginity control” was a big issue.) Most married couples are parted by death, except continously exhibiting bad behavior and adultery. ADULTERERS are sentenced to the most unpleasant penal servitude. ATTEMPTED SEDUCTION is punished equally severe as actual seduction. DIVORCE is allowable by mutual consent, on the grounds of incompability, provided that both partners found new, suitable partners.

“Towns are divided in to four SHOPPING  centers where markets supply meat, bread, fruit and vegetables. There are special WASHING FACILITIES that are run by the slaves. For HEALTH Services there are four hospitals located in the suburbs. Travel is permitted as groups, composed of six people. The permission is granted by the Major. SEX, is quite restricted. No ale-houses, brothels in the towns. “Everyone has his eye on you!” Aircastles, after spending the entire products necessay for living for twelve months, that is to say corn, honey, wool, flax, timber, scarlet and purple roth, rawhide, wax, tallow, leather and livestock; after one seventh of these are given to the poor, the rest is exported.

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“As to MONEY affairs, silver and gold are rare materials here and IRON is the most valuable. To prevent people of having ‘funny’ ideas, the plates and drinking vessels are made beautifully designed and simply made of glass and earthenware. On the island, there are pearls, diamonds, garnets etc. plentyfully but people even don’t look upon them; they, however have the children wear them as ornament.

“Each child receives a PRIMARY EDUCATION. No one is allowed for full-time education. Everyone is taught in his own language. ETHICS has a tremendous meaning and worth in everyday life.

“RELIGION is highly respected, “Every soul that is created by God, is immortal.”

There are several different religions on the Island; also, sun-worshippers, moon-worshippers and of various planets. Most people accept the existence of a single divine power. That power is usually called “The Parent!”. Many Utopians, however, refuse to accept Christianity, but no one tries to discourage the spread of such belief either. When a person dies, people cherish this in a very cheerful and optimistic mood because the soul is commended to God where it belongs to. After the funeral, the body is cremated. (Bravo! We do prescribe this here too you know.) People are usually well-educated and pay no attention to omens, fortune-tellers or any of the common superstitious practices. (We, however, here, in NEW ATLANTIS, do not interfere with TAROT practices, SHAMANISTIC STUDIES and FORTUNE-TELLING. Human beings had never been this much disillusioned, heart-broken and hopeless as far as future is concerned. The “Century of Anxiety and Hopelessness” had started righht after the Atomic Bomb was thrown over old Japan territories that resulted in the cease of hope for a decent, brotherly living, for good, A.C. 1945 on. That’s why we offer “LAISSEZ-FAIRE, LAISSEZ PASSER” policy in this respect, of course, under supervision. People have to believe in something in their own choice!)

“Foreign TOURISTS are accepted by open arms. They love to buy silver and other valuable stones but we only import iron.

“SLAVERY, still does exist. More says, ‘However we do not have any slaves by birth or buying them tru slave markets,or non-combat prisoners of life. They are Utopian convicts and condemned criminals who are acquired from foreign lands in large amounts.’ (Well, as we mentioned above on many occasions, we don’t suscribe to that. A CONVICT OR THIEF, IS ALWAYS CONVICT OR THIEF. Regardless how much here in our State, we don’t create an atmosphere where any type of crime would develop, we do not need ‘bad seeds’ that may potentially exist and spoil our soil.)

“HORSES and OXEN are our most valuable and usable animals. More states that there is a custom there. When one buys a horse with small amount of money, the HORSE IS EXAMINED NAKED FIRST, but one may firmly refuse to buy it until he is firmly whipped and checked after the saddle and all the rest of harness is after taken off, to make sure that there are not any soars or wounds underneath.

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“There is no FORMAL MILITARY SERVICE. War is regarded as an absolute loathe. It is a quite sub-human form of activity, although human beings are more addicted to that than any of the lower animals. (We also confirm this whole-heartily and add that ‘any combination of all addictive substances.’) Even though both sexes are given military training at regular intervals, the UTOPIANS are practically the only people on earth (By then, YES!) appeared to fail to see ‘anything glorious in War’. They do not initiate wars, but do indulge in self-defense. They also feel ashamed of bloody victories. (WE FEEL JUST THE SAME HERE, IN NEW ATLANTIS. Killing justifies killing, and, aggression invites more aggression!)

“Well, our last study is that of Orwell’s ‘1984’. What about it?

“Those years were indeed very turmoiled episodes of mankind. But the exact problem had started long ago. At the turn of the 20th century there began a kind of ‘covert anxiety’, as being demonstrated among the businessmen of New York who compulsively chose to work, work and work. Long before those times, Blaise PASCAL (A.C. 1623 – A.C. 1662) had described this search for diversion and steadily something to do and declared that the real reason for this social anxiety was not economical crisis and forthcoming A.C. 1929 depression, but the insecurity that humans began to feel toward the world and existence, in general. That building anxiety, was turning to “overt anxiety” from “covert”, as AUDEN and  CAMUS had called it. “What has been lost is the capacity to experience and faith in one’s self as a worthy and unique being.”

“LYNDS who had performed two studies in A.C. 1920’ies in Manhattan, N.Y. (Famous Manhattan Studies of which described the New York’s executives changing lives, as outlined briefly above) states, “Those people were afraid of something… probably of the insecurity in the face of a complicated world…” His observations were toward a retrenchment into more rigid and conservative economic and social ideologies.

“His contemporary, sociologist Robert Jay LIFTON, who wrote a book about “Thought Reform and The Psychology of the Totalism” (A.C. 1961, N.Y.) had said, “The contemporary personality is continually changing his identity. A process of numbing and an emotional withdrawal, stemming from the fear of an atomic-nuclear warfare is growing big.”

“One of the great psychiatrists of the 20th century, Rollo MAY, in his “The Meaning of Anxiety” book, historically, sociologically and analytically describes this phenomenon in excellency (Copyrighted in A.C. 1950 & 1975). A novel that was written by WOLFE and published in A.C. 1929 ”You Can’t Go Home Again!” clearly illustrates this. Humans felt anxious and insecure towards the political totelianirism and consequently began to slide and adhere to the conservative idealogies. Long before Benedictus SPINOSA (A.C. 1632 – A.C. 1677) had touched this escape into

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power. According to him, the State “should protect its own citizens from any kind of harm.” As time went by, the nations became crystallized as separate entities, first monarchic later on more democratic forms that at the surface gave more liberty but deep, inside, humans began to feel unprotected and anxious. Thus, at the first half of the 20th century, as Paul TILLISH had pointed out, the cultural and religious beliefs and values began to loosened up if not lost completely. Therefore, instead of living in fear and anxiety, it was much better to be a part of great power. Herbert MATHEW had written, “Fascism guarantees you a loaf of bread and somewhere to sleep in. Even though it is a prison, but nonetheless a safe prison. So, join in!” Is this a choice or a need? May be both. Just the saöe, as Martin EBON had phrased, “Communism is a product of ‘desperate wish to find a purpose in what seems to be confusion and emptiness”.  How temporary could be, yet totalitarian regimes provided such ‘sense of belonging’ and a ‘might’. Franklin D. ROOSEVELT, when was chosen President, in his acceptance speech had mentioned this in a classic, “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself!”

“Atomic bomb precipitated this anxiety as an unreturnable, hopless state of eternal anxiety that there is no hope for human beings. Hopelessness is far more effective than simple fear. Any moment something terrible can happen and you can’t do anything about it. The problem then was “how to use this fear in the development of new powers, alliances, cold wars” and alike. Thus, as Margaret MEAD had indicated, man who continually exhibits agressive behavior and ritualistic fighting, has constructed the cage in which he lives, through the meshes of which he views the world, has to have greater security than creatures in the wild because he is far more equipped to destroy others than those wild animals, as a matter of fact the only animal who feels this helplessness and loss and the irreversible outcome of existence: Death. So, humans, have been creating at least two kinds of warfare that put the emphasis upon destruction -killing- for its own sake: Head hunting, cannibalism, blood feud, and war games for the attainment of honors. In contrast, there is the kind of warfare which is primarily protective of the life of the group. Men killing in behalf of their women and children may be caught up in the lust of battle. The end result is that, modern leaders of states mobilize hatred as well as protection. So, we continually confuse these two essentially different types and in doing so, assume that the same set of motivations are involved in a world war.

“Sigmund FREUD (A.C. 1856 – A.C. 1939) was perhaps correct in saying, “… that the solution to the riddle of anxiety must cast a flood of light upon our whole mental existence … since anxiety is the fundemental phenomenon and the central problem of neurosis.”

“Thus, when the world reached the year A.C. 1984, there were two giant blocks, one -so to speak- advocating a democratic way of existence, playing the role of world leadership, and the other, symbolized as a big bear, threatening a third world war, presenting more secret ways of BROTHERHOOD and utilizing more rigid methods to provide safety and sense of belonging, as ORWELL had beautifully dramatized with the slogans that were lighted thoroughout: “WAR IS PEACE”, “FREEDOM IS SLAVERY” and “IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH. As and if you know more, you learn more but pay price for that: How insecure human beings are and one’s existence might be against the others’. One is listened and followed everywhere and all the time. Was it foolish? No, by no means. That was a natural evolution of mankind and a deliberate attempt to control and overcome the existence anxiety that had come close to an annihilating point. Not to suffer from that existentialistic anxiety, one has to justify his aggressive drives in the way of expressing it, within and without society. Since the essential need was “a security and protection”, there, there were established a serie of institutions and ministries and forces, as “The MINISTRY OF TRUTH” -‘which concerned itself with the news entertainment, education, and the fine arts, “The Ministry of PEACE”, “which concerned itself with war; “The MINISTRY OF LOVE” – which maintained law and order’. That ‘was the really frightening one. There were no windows in it at all. It was impossible to enter except on official business, and then only by penetrating through a maze of barbed-wire entanglements, steel doors, and hidden machine-gun nestes’-; “MINISTRY OF PLENTY”, ‘which was responsible for economic affairs’ thou quite often sinical ways, demonstrated that dilemma, namely the complaining-suffering side in one hand, and, the need side on the other. In Winston’s personality and adventures, the wish and fear of freedom, in expense of going through quite a serie of sado-masochistic relations ends with a compromise: To become and adjusted (?) citizen, who believes in “two and two make five”, may act as a total stranger to his most inner feelings that domineered and as a matter of fact, endangered, but also gave a meaning to his own existence. So, all values, wishes have to be justified, modulated in order just to live fearlessly. The past is considered ‘dead’, the future is ‘unimaginable’ The sacred principles of everyday life is ‘Newspeak, doubletalk and the mutability of the past.’

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“Needless to say, the living standards were under any imaginable acceptable levels: Stone buildings, no social interaction and plentiful of mass insanity and aggression. The name of dwellings was “Victory Mansions”, to Winston’s description, “…old flats.built in 1930 or whereabouts, and were falling to pieces. The plaster flaked constantly from ceilings and walls, the pipes burst in every hard frost, the roof leaked whenever there was snow, the heating system was usually running at half steam when it was not closed down altogether from motives of economy…” Hear this casual excitement: “In the far-distance a helicopter skimmed down between the roofs, howered for an instant like a blue-bottle, and darted away again with a curving flight. It was that Police Patrol, snooping into people’s windows.” Some war goes on that no one knows exatly where and why, and some prisoners are hung. Usually there was a rationing on many food, chocolate was an extravagant piece of such celebrities. Winston has heard that ‘the chocolate ration was to be reduced from thirty grams to twenty at the present week.’ Right at that moment, “telescreen was giving forth an ear-splitting whistle which continued on the same note for thirty seconds. It was tought seven fifteen, getting-up time for office workers. Winston wrenched his body out of bed – naked, for a member of the Outer Party (Working class, in contrast to Inner Party, ruling class) -like him- received only three thousand clothing coupons annually, and a suit of pajamas was six hundred – and seized a dingy singlet and a pair of shorts that were lying across a chair.”

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“Winston, Orwell’s hero, thought just for a while and wrote down:

‘DOWN WITH BIG BROTHER

‘DOWN WITH BIG BROTHER, filling half a page.

“He could not help feeling a twinge of panic. It was absurd, since the writing of those particular words was not more dangerous than the initial act of opening the diary; but for a moment he was tempted to tear it out the spoiled pages and abandon the entire enterprise altogether. But he did not do so, however, because he knew that it was useless. Whether he wrote DOWN WITH BIG BROTHER, or whether he refrained from writing it, made no difference. Whether he went on with the diary, or whether he did not go on with it, made no difference. The Thought Police would get him just the same.”

“Thus, by that date, there were three distincts states: “OCEANIA”, “EAST ASIA” and “EURASIA” whose boundaries were not too clear, and many small nations, tried to survive in their own. Very little could be said about ‘East Asia’, beyond run with oriental mystissism, beliefs and attitudes, tremendously cheap-man power-economy orientation a quite theratening man-power competitive resource yet to come but systematically to become unified within itself.”

*  *

“Well, ladies and gentlemen, my dear prospective citizens; I did not mean to give you a long lecture about human history of the past two centuries, neither to sell or talk highly about our virtues, government style, living practices, human rights, restrictions and rules versus protection and human happiness. If it turned to be that way, please forgive me. I wanted to lay all cards on the table before you’ll be enduring long and painful evaluations right monday morning on. Now, it is almost mid-night, go to your guest-rooms for a good night sleep. Attached to your beds, you’ll find small coolers that contain some vegeterian sandwiches and milk, fruit juices and alike for your midnight snacks. I wish you a very plesant and prosperous future. See you again in six months, in finals. So long.”

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                                                                               2

Sunday morning. I am opening my eyes with the yearning purr of our younger cat,  Rocky who is accustomed to visit our bedroom at exactly eight A.M., of course at my wife Juda’s side before the bells of churches strike. Since he was operated on quite early, say when he was about ten months old, even though he is six-and a half years old now, his voice is too thin and barely audible in spite of the fact that he is indeed a runner, jumper and chaser of his younger (she is not, but we say so anyways) twin: Cotton. He curves around my wife’s covers and sidelines with her breasts that always evokes my Oedipal anxiety in spite of the fact that King is long death.

Nonetheless, it seems to be a sunny morning and a fresh breeze, like Rocky, snoops in from the window’s wasistas, gently touching upon our cheeks.

“How are you my love, did you sleep well?
“Fine”, answered Jada, “I indeed feel well. How do you feel after a long and trying evening?
“Good, indeed good.”
“What is our program to day?”
“Well, I guess after shower and breakfast and Unitarian Church service as usual at Mega Town, I wonder you would also think visiting with the Animal World. I think it will be quite relaxing. What do you say?”
“I think it is an excellent idea. If you wish we could visit the Domestic Animals part, leaving the Wild Animals to another time.
“I feel just the same. I don’t feel wild enough to go there today and hustle, bussle with them. Let us start to our morning meditation. Here I jump.”

I did jump to the rug at the middle of the room while my wife remained in the bed, however sitting. As a routine we used to do some Yoga exercises, arm, leg, body movements, including Lotus sitting. Then, we both sat in the bed, giving our backs to the head-panel of the bed. We closed our eyes and began our daily trans-ascending meditation seance. It was a little bit hard for me since my mind was slipping easily to what kind address I have given last night. How the newcomers did take it? Any repercussions? If there would be, what could it be? After severeal repetitions on my mind, I had to call my Mantra at least three times to sweep them out. Then, the details of today’s program, then an empty but pleasant, undefinable aloneness. After about 18 minutes we re-opened our eyes, feeling freshened and joyous. After exchanging kisses we rushed for washing, then my wife went to the kitchinette to prepare breakfast, and I, to the door to pick up the daily news: New Atlantis Times.

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The New Atlantis Times, State’s unique newspaper and a computer print-out, consists of four pages, coming out colorless and virtually with no picture on it. Page one summarizes social and political -whatever it means- news, happenings and priorities, second and third on economic affairs and news on educational opportunities, research findings and fourth, daily Big Screen programs. Even though one may see all of these either on your watches if you properly use it and/or on your home screens. However an old habit, genetically determined I guess, as a repetition of historical morning habit that is coming from previous centuries still goes on. Naturally no smoking or eating accompanies it, ‘cause reading is done in your armchair and while eating your breakfast, you just eat your breakfast without burrying your face into it, and, chat with your wife’.

Of course the first page was full of me. How I summarized the human psycho-social development throughout history, how compared with  previous models of living conditions and standards so on so forth. Well, obviously I have done a good job. But, I was still wondering, even though we have been doing these “good jobs” throughout years, as a matter of fact twice a year, why our population had remained this small? Practically no one had left New Atlantis on the grounds of dissatisfaction or crime, with added fact that life expectations were above the world levels. Were we missing the ball and where? I should definitely discuss this matter with my ministers in near future.

“Honey, breakfast is ready!” shouted Jada.
We eat our meals at the kitchenette with the presence of the entire family. So far you knew me, my wife Jada and two out of three cats: Rocky and Cotton twins. The real head of the family is a semi-Angora cat, Sweety, an eight-and-half years old white cat with classical black spots on the top of his head and almost the entirety of his tail, weighing also eight-and-a-half kilos, might have been in search of “between-meals” snacks long before he would stood up in front of my wife and wait to be fed. He is all the time eternally hungry, and gives the impression that as if he just comes out a famine. He would never drink from a still-cup, would come near-by a faucet and stand-by in dignity until it is opened by you, then he licks it voraciously. That’s why I said he is the real boss of the house. His greenish eyes are as deep as Oceanus and is so meaningful without words that when you gaze each other, it is impossible not to plunge into the depth of those labyrinths, reading a lot of myths, hearing a lot of music that is accompanied with old mythical lyres, never seen or heard before, perhaps the closest Mendelssohn’s “Song without words”. The Rocky, is the “most gentleman” of the three, guardian of the ‘righteous cat behavior’ at home. That is to say, if any of the two, particularly Sweety would do or about to do something out of line, he would protest with a gentle jump and stern look. As if, in his previous life, he was commissioned as an officer in one of the old French palaces, may be Versailles? Cotton, as I call “Gypsy Princess”, eats whatever she finds with no objection whatsoever, for instance soya beans, cheese, olive, cake and a crust of bread that she always plays football with. When she is not paid enough attention, would scratch and scrub the rug, like an angry goat. Rocky is also pointed with blacks on his top and toward the tail while Cotton is of spotless white. So, here are they.

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Well, it did not take too long to sit comfortably in the Atlantis Express that glided on the rail very smoothly, running along with the oak trees that are at least fifty years old, aligned the both sides of the road, saluting us. I pushed the botton on the side panel of the wagon: “Music-Mozart- and then Oboenkonzert KV 314  and placed my ear-phones, hand in hands with Jada. She also selected Mendellssohn’s Rondo Capriccioso, op.14 in E and here we go. Nearly at the finish of the music, we stopped at the Mega Station, at the mid-town and walked to the Second Unitarian Church, at the Unitarian Street. Poeple were taking their places silently, after picking their hymn books. Here is the very reverend Langdon. We all rose and began to sing the opening Hymn:

Praise to the Lord,
the Almighty, the King of creation;
O my soul, praise him,
For he is thy health and salvation;
                                       Come, ye who hear,
Praise him in good adoration.

Then, there came, “Praise, My Soul, The King of Heaven”:

Praise, my soul, the King of heaven;
To his feet thy tribute bring
Ransomed, healed, restored,
                                                  Forgiven,
Who like thee his praise should
Sing?
Praise him! Praise Him!
Praise the everlasting King.

And, finally, with everlasting melodies, “Amazing Grace”:

Amazing grace! How sweet the sound
that saved a wretch like me.
I once was lost but now I am found;
Was blind but now I see.

The Lord has promised good to me,
His word my hope secures;
He will my shield and portion be
As long as life endures.

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The offering speech that reverend had chosen was a very illuminating one: What is the human happiness, where we are coming from and where we are going to. What was the meaning of human existence and to whom we were serving to: God? Ourselves? What indeed Jesus Christ told about human happiness? We listened to this sagacious and very learned man in an almost ecstasy. Right after the service, at the Parish hall, while serving some light drinks and sweets, people as usual began to group to plan how to spend the afternoon and evening meaningfully; some wanted to go to the shore and watch the dolphins, some, like us wanted to go to the Animal World, some planning to gather in the evening for a mutual outing at the designated places of Mega Forest.

I am, indeed, very fond of Reverend Langdom and this Unitarian Church for personal reasons. I had mentioned about my father above, just once, that we had arrived here right at the 10th anniversary of the settlement here, on the Island, and the exact year that the Constitution had been signed. I was only ten years old then. As I had also mentioned somewhere, I am a physician, psychiatrist, child analyst, as my grand-father was. My father used to say I was “exactly like him”: I am a very hard working person, honest, talkative and somewhat creative, a good administrator; constantly reading and sometimes writing. My grand-father was a real wizard however; besides medicine, he had finished two conservatories, was Pofessor of Psychology at three universities, written several books about almost in every subject, including poetry, religion and anthropology, shamanism and alike, and had converted into Unitarianism while being in Rica. He had married and divorced many times, obviously seeking the eternal peace and tranquility through constant search. I dearly love him and adore immensely; my late father, besides leaving his own ashes to me in his will, had also left to me his ash-box, personal notes and memoirs but, for some reason or other, in spite of the fact that they are just under my hands, in a safe, I still am in a kind of anxiety that I cannot detect why, I just cannot open it. May be one day, yes, may be one day.

As to my father, he was a graduate of Business Administration in which he had a Master degree in Rica and was very much involved with computers that I am very limited in those skills and utilization of it. He was rather quiet type of person however emanating a sense of security and easiness wherever he was present. When he was the head of the Department of Administration and Personnel, starting from A.C. 2034 until his death in A.C. 2053, he had helped Rev. Langdom who himself was a very young man, having been just come from Gland, to built this church up. He was also on the Board of Directors of it, as long as he lived. So, he had given one of my grand-father’s poems to the reverend who was kind enough to hang it in a gilded wooden frame that is still hung at the Parish Hall where we are having our snacks and drinks now. It goes like this:

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GOD IS IN ME !

God is in me,
I am Unitarian.

Sometimes I wonder,
                                          How God looks like?
                                          I would like to touch Him,
sit on His lap, hold His hands,
play with His beard, and
listen to Creation stories
of the World;
the wisdom that He gave to coyote
to create me, you and all.

When I feel Him in me,
I am warm and free,
As free as
a Rainbow Gypsy:
Reading palms, telling fortunes,
singing and dancing.
                                           My heart then
is full of cobalt blue.

                                           When I don’t feel Him in me,
I am cold and distant
                                            as many as millions of eon years
Then I am scared of Evil
                                            who may take oveI, humble human
hence offer a reconciliation
to God and to the Evil
for an eternal peace
for me, for you, for everyone

God is in me,
God is Unitarian.

Ismailov

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Since my dad had also worked for a European Unity for many years, however with not that much success, being a founding member of an international society, based in Gland, observing his constant worries and eye-welling for so long, my grand-dad who was also, quite obviously, a men loving man, and an utopian human happiness that could overlast, had written a poem and handed over to my dad. My father, due respect to him, always carried that poem in his brief-case, hoping that one day that dream shall come true. Here how it goes:

UNITED STATES OF EUROPE

I had a dream the other night,
 in which
I was sailing “dans la mouche”
with my French cousin
all along Seine, in Paris.

                                                 Then, in Hamburg
eating at McDonald’s
with my German breother-in-law.
                                                  I visited my grandparents’ graveyards,
in Tessaloniki, Greece
also Gevgili, Yugoslavia
at my step-mother’s beloved homeland.My blue-eyed nieces, distant cousins,
of Swedish, Norvegian beauties;
Polish paysants, Hungarian barons and gypsys
                                                  red-cheeked Irish girls who still rhyme
                                                                     McCormack songs;
Blue-jeaned Russian comrads,
strolling along Blue Danube or Volga,
all “Hello!” to you;

                                                “Hasta Manana” to the widows,
                     of the bull-fighters of Seville, and,
“Amore” to “Tutti ragazze della Roma”.
Thus, time seems to arrive
to sing along, hand-in hand
                                            “Allons, enfants de L’Europe
Le jour de l’union est arrivé!”

Ismailov.

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We left the church with the inner feelings closer to the sky and to ourselves at the same time.

The train took another 23 minutes to reach the Animal World. There were carriages for retired-elderly people readily available to take them inside of the Animal World rides while we chose to walk along in the shadows and mildly bitter odors of pines. There were signs on the screens, throughout: WELCOME TO PATS’ WORLD, WELCOME TO OURSELVES / IF YOU LOVE PATS, YOU LOVE YOURSELVES AND GOD LOVES YOU TOO/ DID YOU KISS YOUR PAT TO DAY? Even some poetry:

Come my beautiful cat,
onto my loving heart!”
-Guy de Maupassant-    and alike.

About ten acres of territory is devoted to the cats, dogs, horses, little pets like gerbils, rats and turtles, there is also a very special bird-house.

Just before entering dog houses, here is the world masterpeace,

“EPITAPH TO A DOG”, by Lord Byron:

Near this spot
Are deposited the Remains
Of one

Who possessed Beauty
Without Vanity,
Strength without Insolence,
Courage without Ferocity,
And all the Virtues of Man
Without his Vices.

This praise, which would be unmeaning flattery
If inscribed over Human Ashes,
Is but a just tribute to the Memory of
“Boatswain, a Dog
Who was born at Newfoundland,
May, 1803,
And died at Newstead Abbey
Nov. 18, 1808.

While waking around, we met a family, obviously one of the newcomer, a young mother and father holding a five-to-six year old girl by hand, who has no ear-phones, was looking around astonishingly. When she

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told her family, “zot gan!” (this: The zoo), I jumped:

Brukhim ha-baim.!” (You are welcome!). She opened her eyes more, was surprised.

Ma shimka?” (What is your name?). A little bit embarrassed, she murmured:

Sarah!”. I got encouraged, presenting my wife to her and her family, I said:

Shimi Ismailov, zohi ishti Juda. Toda, shalom!” (My name is Ismailov, here is my wife Juda, thank you, good day!”). We left them behind, smiling. What good feeling it was to surprise and welcome that little innocent Jewish girl.

Even though we appreciate the others too, our love is with cats primarily, as you already may have guessed it. Here the cats, live in groups in wooden made two-story houses, a large garden at front, side-by-side. On each house, right at the entrance there is a sign, indicating the race and origin of that group of cats, like “Longhair Breeds” and “Shorthair Breeds”, as two big sorts. Then, a particular floor or the entire house may be allocated to Himalayan, Birman, Turkish Angora or Van, Norvegian Forest, Javanese, Persian, Tiffany cats for lonhaired ones, and, British Short Hair, American Short Hair, Maine Coon, Egyptian Mau, Siamese, Scottish Fold, for short haired ones. The State’s Pat is the Abyssinian-Utopia Cat. Rooms’ corners are decorated with thin matresses, crossed with colorful blue, yellow, white and red ribbons; meal plates and water cups being placed aside their beds. Each of them has his or her own sand-box. In their sleeping time, there is always light music. Strange enough, according to pet-care-givers, the most liked melodies amongs cats had been found that of Edward Grieg’s  “Lyric Pieces, Op.43”, and, “Heart Wounds, Op.14 – The Last Fall”. Many love Vivaldi’s concertoes and go right into sleep, regardless how upset they might have been previously.

There are three full-time veterinarians who live on the grounds and enough care-givers. Each of them, is vaccinated regularly, yearly of “Feline Rhinotracheitis Calici”, “Feline Panleukopenia” and “Rabies” vaccines regardless. This is State Law. When you come to visit here, the care-takers tell you which one have to be “just watched, observed”, which ones to play with. No feeding is allowed since this is already well taken care of.

When I used to teach at the Mega University, in the Geriatric Psychiatry Department, I used to take some volunteers the cats (and sometimes dogs and caged birds too) to the sick elderly people to calm them down and sometimes reminder of old good days, at least twice a week, one and a half hours each, as PET THERAPY hours… That was good for both the children who brought them too the aged, and, for the aged, who, through loving them, appreciated their own happy childhoods.

FREUD was the first one to indicate about the relation of the child to animals that had had the roots at the earliest existances of manhood: The primitive man. He admires him as a free-willed creature, free to his bones to do whatever he wants to do -as he himself wishes to-, and through taking care of a pat, child is repeating his own personal developmental stages, (ontogenesis), repeating of his own being taken care of. Pet gives to the child

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an intensive, sometimes an unrealistic delusion: One day he shall teach the pet how to talk and they shall share the secrets. Several research studies also indicated that if the small children hurt animals, cannot establish a positive relations with human beings too. This early sign, along with bed-wetting and fire-setting (those are passive and active types of aggressions) may strongly suggest a forthcoming anti-social personality.

Many healthy children dream of aggression, towarded the animal figures in their dreams, indicating the fear that they naturally experience in their developmental years that the growing aggression inside may break through, indicating the animal side of human beings. Consequently, if he can tame a dog, he can control his own ‘barking’ aggression too.

Anthropologists too had written about how the primitive people have been ‘boddies’ with wild animals, like alligators who they swimmed with. They were “brothers in souls”. In the Jungian psychology, that means that the animals, are symbols of the embodiment of the shadow: semi-demon part of our persona (the mask that we have to carry  through over life time socially) that only after that integration we can control animal-wild parts of self.

Well, let us walk about two hundred yards to the east, and see how beautiful dog-houses are made here. Whether one likes it or not, the dogs’ place is a smelly one, quite different than that of cats, however a masterpiece that is said by Coleridge long time ago, is hung right at the entrance of Dog Country (Don’t mention the Bird House yet!) to prepare you for inside.

In Köln, a town of monks and bones,

             And pavements fanged with murderous stones

             And rags, and hags, and hideous wenches
 I counted two and seventy stenches.
 All well defined, and several stinks.”

Of course, these are said to illuminate how smells, odors or scents do offer a paradise to a dog for not only it smells but also tastes them through saliva where they dissolve. A dog, different than a horse, when given an extra gifts of food – titbits, can appreciate these as a reward for either coming event or one it has already achieved. A horse, when given some sugar cubes and head is caressed, can also perceive this as an appreciation but cannot connect with a performance. A horse does not mind of being approached when is fed while a dog, even a good-tempered one, does get bothered when approached during the feeding.. By the same token a dog is quite nervous and difficult when he is hungry or in starvation. As to sleep patterns, dogs are “intermediate polyphasic”, meaning that they sleep all day along and night, if he has any chance, with intervals. Cats (and also the night birds) are polyphasic: Namely sleep about 16 hours a day with some intervals of activity, mainly prefering to sleep. Men and birds are alike. Dogs, like birds, hear very well even from far distances also being able to

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determine the direction of the sounds. That’s why, as you knw well, the dogs are best companies for the blind and the hunter. Here, in NEW ATLANTIS we have a few kinds of dogs, not so many for HUNTING IS FORBIDDEN and since we do not need to protect the sheep and cattle, we preserve a few kinds just for friendship and beauty of them. We cultivate Huskies, Pyrennean Mountain-Dogs, Elkhounds and Toy Spaniels.

We breed the animals here but just to keep their races to go on, therefore, either for the cats or dogs, we just maintain a certain balance as far as total number is concerned. Our surgical procedures that are of course performed by the qualified vetenerians are quite in order and also are at the service of our citizens, at different places as PET CARE CENTERS, throughout the Island. Even though we are one of the least traveling Republics on the earth, just in case, if a family is wiling to visit their parents in old countries and they possess some animals at home, their animals are well taken care of  -as guests- in those pet shalters. Needless to say, as far as home animals are concerned, besides free medical check-ups, all food and nurrishment materials are supplied free by the government. NO PRIVATE ENTERPRISE. No pet selling and buying, like slaves!

At the return, we were a little bit tired, but what pleassant tiredness it was. Obviously, the sun was also tired of shining and greeting all of us. After another peaceful meditating period we were in our beds, sleeping comfortably. So did the cats.

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                                                                         3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                          Today is monday. As we have been saying from the very beginning, to day the beginning of the evaluation of the newcomers. They are going first to gather at the Personnel Department, then, as groups, shall be forwarded to the hsopitals for physical check-ups, lab studies, blood and urinalysis and alike; then, personality and performance tests to determine what their aptitudes could be. Needless to say our Social Workers shall lead them wherever they are supposed to go and doSo, I myself too am going to be with Mr. Keith Gleem for a while. Mr.Gleem is the Minister of  Administration and Personnel. With the shiny morning sun, I got up and after known routines, my portable MEGA-JASPER under my arm, here we go. After a few minutes’ of walk here I am at the 18th floor of Pyramid A, the first of Atlantis Mega Pyramids.

“Good morning Keith!
“Good morning Mr. President!”
“I am sure you have all statistics of these 248 newcomers. I would like to study them with you and make some temp
“Naturally. Please open your Mega-Jasper, and connect to our Knowledge Bank. Please push the buttons KN-BK-IMMIG-com. Good. Now, let us follow them together.

First, as usual, we organized them according to the sexes: 148 males, 120 females of whom have 84 children: 44 males and 40 females, ages ranging from 8 to 15. All young families. That lives behind 32 bachelors of whom 25 are males and 7, females. In general this trend seems to be good, because more families are arriving with children other than single adventurers, fortune hunters. This is a 43 o/o higher ratio than  the last occasion. However, this situation obliges us more with child care. The oldest couple is 63 and 61 years of age respectively. The medium age is 31,5 that is also very very good.

“As to original countries where they came from, the statistics are as follows:

Gland: 44, Rica: 34, Nada: 25, Veden: 20, Way: 20, Taly: 20, Pain: 18, Guese: 17, Rance: 14, Gium: 11, Razil: 10, Rael: 8 and Key: 7. That is a good-mix group. Quite international.

“According to religions: Christian:202, Muslim: 7, Jewish: 27, Mormon: 12. No Atheists, no Buddhists this time.”

“Special needs and requests: Nothing very special beyond the usual questions about child rearing, living standards, working conditions etc. That in your speech you already outlined almost all of them perfectly clear. They shall find the answers on their screens. Oh, I almost forgot. A small group of five, would like to establish a Masonic Lodge. As far  as I know, this the first
time in our history.

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“A Masonic Lodge request? Indeed, interesting. We could speak about it in our Mega Cabinet meeting maybe tomorrow, may be later on.. Well, how the housing goes?”

“Very well. We, as usual, are routinely placing them according to the family size. Singles, in one-bedroom units; family with no children and with one child: Two-bedroom units; family with two-children with three-bedroom units and so on so forth. This afternoon on, they shall be moving to the Mega-Pyramids 3 and 4, and card-keys will be given. At the week-end, all rooms are cleaned, hot running water and electricity all are set, Mega Waste-lines all controlled. Needless to say, starting from tomorrow morning on, all the statistics cited above, plus the full names and prospective citizenship numbers of the people, that is to say starting from 16,188,768, and, ending with 16,189,015 shall be printed in our New Atlantis Times Journal.  So, you see, everything is under control, Sir.”

“What are the chances for prospective job assignments?
“Well, Mr. President, we have some openings, of course as flexible as possible, at certain numbers of general stores, two or three in animal houses, two at crematory, twenty five for supervisorship, one at the engineering department, eight at the secretarial-filing department, sixty in farms and one hundred and twenty in agricultural areas and so on. According to test results and physical examinations, we shall make a good distribution according to the needs. Well, as you know this may take a few weeks. Naturally I shall report to you as soon as the results are finalized.”

“Well, Keith, you are doing a superb job, as usual. You are a good person, a good man, and a good samaritan. Naturally we shall also publish the finals, classifications, assignments everything in Atlantis Times too.  Incidentally, your points are piling up and I am proud of you.”
“Thank you sir. Your wonderful leadership is highly appreciated deep in our heart.”

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                                                                            4

Now, monday evening. As I worked all day and having a supper with my wife it is time “to review” some meetings that go regularly monday evenings, as had been scheduled throughout years. What meetings are those? Well, those are usually secular and non-secular, social organizations like community meetings to reply to any complaint or wish, Mormons, Yogists gatherings, both for practice and administrative meetings.

Before, even I had mentioned that “screens (meaning, also recordings of sights and sounds) are not done during those private sessions, for the sake of national security, we do record those at the Presidential level. I, as a President, am residing at the 32nd floor of the Pyramid I. 33rd floor is designated as “Information Gathering Lab”, our famous, secretive “I.G.L.”, like old “S.I.A.”, that whatever goes on in the State boundaries, all of them are recorded constantly and filed continually. Some evenings, while my wife watches “BBS Special’s Home Repair Teams” in old Land, I review these recordings. In fact they do reveal too much because everything seems to be going alright. Private talks, appearances do not even touch me. In brief, in spite of the fact that the sights are not recorded  but the sounds, yes, through Mega-micro-chips placed at the machines of their wrist-watches. Everyone has to wear those watches.

Mormons’ meetings had always interested me. My grand-father who also was a professor of psychiatry, had been in old Rica for more than thirty three years. Amongst many marriages that he was indulged in, once he also was married to a Mormon girl, however lasted very brief. My late father mentioned very little about it, and, as a matter of fact, my grand-father’s ashes, along with some “very personal material”, kept in a steel case, looking like a brief-case and even travelling across the ocean, passing through generations, had come to my custody  that I had mentioned before. I never bothered to open and look what they are. My impression had been as if my grand-father’s faith, in a very strange way, had followed certain strange lines, decisions that he had made, moves, a lot of unhappinesses besides tremendous successes and alike, in  very vagues ways, connected with the divorce from one Mormon girl. Anyways, may be just some curiosity but nothing else, my interest in Mormons remained at a mediocre level, though always live.

Here on the Island, Mormon community had impressed me as hard-working, serious and responsible people, strictly following rules and regulations, but in some strange ways, giving the psychologist part of me a vibre as if “waiting the day to come!” though their churche’s name is, as you may know, “The Church of Jesus Christ of The Latter-day Saints.” They are very obediant to their elders in a quite patriarchic style, they never miss sunday masses.

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Anyways, after entering in their temple, Screen shuts off. Now let us listen to the sounds.
“Hi George, how are you?”
“Thank you, your parents, children?”
“They are fine too. Thank you.”
“Well, as  I hear, there are twelve newcomers from our ‘old land’ (They sounded as being very secretive!) Could we meet them immediately and give our love and support? We badly need them” (Need badly, what does it mean?)
“Sure, Excellency, you bet!”. (Excellency? What he meant by that?)

(Some mixed-up, indistinguishable sounds, walks, steps, laughters, and then) “Well, you are welcome to our land of opportunity, togetherness, love and respect.”
“Thank you honorable Sir. I bring you all the warmth, greetings and good wishes of our Celestial Prophet. They eagerly and proudly follow your endeavors here to stay in a unity and lightful leadership of Church of The Latter-day Saints. (Some words are not heard well.) … sure day is coming close…. tinuing the search and chance to recover ….. whatever hand we can give you.”

“There seems to be six or seven people from Meditation Group who also would like to come our meetings, they say, is it permissible Your Majesty? because…(nothing more is heard!) Meditation group in Mormons? What is cooking there, or, am I getting paranoid as I am getting older, but of course wiser too. And, the most importantly, what is this “Excellency” business?
“Thank you, and, Jesus Christ bless all of you! See all of you monday evenings at 8.P.M.”
I got goose pimples if not a little bit starttled. What those words meant: “We badly need them.”, “The day is coming close! Is this the resurrection of Christ or something else? What to continue (I guess!) the search and recover? What is missing and what shall be recovered? Are they after anybody particular? Again, Excellency? Strange but somewhat thrilling. In spite of the fact that we don’t see faces, the voices recorded, can later on  easily be compared with live recordings and the identities of the personalities could be elicited instanty. That is not the problem, the problem is, in our very prosperous and peaceful Country, why there should be a problem? What is the secret or code that they are talking about?

I turned the Screen on. Newcomers, after a long and tiring examination day, appeared to be cheerfully gathering at the Mega Citizenship Hall and chatting what went on during the day. All smiling, shaking hands with some and getting acquainted with. Obviously, the procedures go as scheduled; they ate their supper in some place or other, and with some light music behind: Chopin’s Polonaises and Brahms’ Hungarian Dances 1 tru 5, people drink some fruit juices accompanied with some freshly made cookies. Life there appears to be just in order, perhaps the best for some.

                                                                                -45-

                                                                                   5

This morning I wanted to visit our Education Department, headed by Prof. Dr. Edith Plump. I gave her a ring, after the breakfast, at an appropriate time.

“Hi Edith!, I am Ismailov, how are you my dear professor?”
“Oo, good morning Mr. President. I am doing very well. You know, we just finished the educational year and we are just compiling the year-end test results in regard to pupils achievement tests. What can I do for you?
“Well, if you are not that much busy, I would like to visit you within an hour or so, and would like to take your views about children’s performance and generally about the education in our Republic. Your wishes and plans for the next year or so, you know.”
“You are more than welcome. See you in an hour!”
“See you!”

Since we are on a relatively small Island and a low populated State, the management of educational matters, besides the others, appears to be well under control. Also the State boundaries are so firm and limited, like a human ego, it becomes ‘visible and viable’ to manage.

As I had mentioned earlier too, since our education system works through basically through Supreme Externet and Big Screen systems, we don’t need elaborate school buildings, extra managing personnel, heating, lighting, repairing of those building and equally important quite burdensome transportation problems are nil. Still for occasional gatherings, competitions, family-child relations, library, children’s final evaluation scores and school, health reports etc., some buildings are designed that also are used as museum where children’s pictures and their art works are hung on the walls. For visual arts and stage work, auditoriums with 500 seats are available.

Therefore, for the Primary and Secondary Educations,  we have three main buildings, located exactly where they stand: North, Central and South Primary (and Secondary) School Centers. They are maintained with minimum up-keep personnel. Primary education is mandatory, starting at the age of 6 and ending at the age of 18. Human history, geography, physics, mathematics, languages, music, citizenship, health, gymnastic, arts and crafts and electronics constitute the curriculum. Then there are two-year Craft Schools and above them, University Education. The dress is informal and free at the children’s and families’ choice.

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When I visited her, Edith was on her two feet, running from one electronic machine to another. Quite contrary to her surname, she is as tiny as a little herb, of short stature, a smart brunette with large eye-glasses, always on the run. A workaholic and a chronic bachelor. We shook hands friendly and sat onto comfortable leather arm-chairs and sipping our coffees.

“Edith, shoot!”
“Well, Mr. President, really nothing new. My general complaint, rather wishful thinking, as you know well, had always been to give our students more international experience which they badly lack. I know the circumstances, of course, if we would like to send some students of ours, we have to pay some money which we can’t. Sometimes ago you have touched too, what about seriously thinking about some “Exchange Programs”, hosting and educating some, say 10 foreign students, and exchanging the same? That shall be a perfect free propaganda for our Country too, what about that?
“Edith, very well, I am whole-heartily behind that. Who was the chief for International Affairs?”
“Brian. Brian Ahern, young, smart and a very ambitious man. He had already gotten in touch with some places in Gland and Way, but no definite results yet!”
“Let us make this project as number one priority for the coming year. I think Merica, Rance, Many, still should be under the consideration, plus S.F.R. or M.I. B.A.R., whichever could be possible. Make him prepare a colorful brochure of our land, natural and scientific works that we had accomplished, our unmatched hospitality, say ten to twenty students in Sociology, International Communication and alike. What else you’ve got on your mind?
“Well, Sir, even though our basic principle in education is home study, except applied sciences like Medicine, Electronics and Engineering and alike, children, particularly in their growing years, may still be in need of larger contacts with their classmates since, as you know better, they are spending too much time at home, too much mechanized. Yes we do have gymnasiums, field trips, children’s sport-camps and alike, they still are in need of more continuous inter-relatedness, exchange and sharing.”
“Yes Edith, we have discussed this before too; I know very well, but if you increase togetherness too much, this sometimes fires back and anti-social activities, ganging start right then. We have to keep a fine line between too intimate, versus, close but not that intimate states. To my mind, to do that, which we already do anyway, bring then together in limited times as groups of certain activities. Just the same concern goes for the “student exchange programs” too. Imagine, our clever, however innocent children go abroad, racing cars, yachts, private helicopters, night clubs and night adventures, drugs, earning money and having chateaus in Zerland, gambling gazinos, that kind of envie, we shall be as just the rest of the world. That scares me. But, we can not live in extreme isolation either, since one can supress basic human ambitions, like fighting, supremacy, being at the top other than comfortably living at the same level, up to certain degree, we have to open some safety windows to breath. The skill, of course, is how to do that!”
“You are quite right, Mr. President, we should carefully prepare more challanges and keep our statistics alive as to achivement scores one hand, and some anti-social activities, divorce rate or a fall in the work performace and alike, on the other. Sportif activities go well, as intellectual-

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mind expanding activities. Almost everyone is in more than two or three social-intellectual-moral-mind expanding groups, besides religious obligations and meditation, Yoga, Kabbalah Centers and alike. May be they should be more with the Nature, and some activities like mountain climbing, scuba diving, miniature golf, horse races…”
“And, … horse betting. Don’t get that serious Edith, I am just kidding. May be my over-protectiveness again. I don’t know, I appreciate those kind of expansions, but we should be quite careful and go step-by-step. What about our Summer Literary Festival?”
“Next week I shall meet with Michael Deem, our coordinator and supervisor for Summer Festival. On what branches we should set that up?”
“My dear Edith, you know, we did not develop yet our own national style of architecture and design, a sculptry school, a well-established culture that has its own opera and music style. As you know well, these things may take up to a few hundred years to develop and mold into some kind of international recognition.. I suggest we again should concentrate upon Poetry and Short Stories and advertising for Stage – Theatrical manuscripts for the next year. After your initial meeting with Michael, please have him call me. I have particular thoughts and ideas how we can enrich this year’s program to make one of the best. Oo, if we can have any positive reply to our student exchange program, we can invite them too to this Festival just to give an air who we are, what we are. O.k.?”
“Okay dear Ismailov. You are number one: A good leader, a good fellow and a good scholar. Oo, the new eighty four children’s evaluation studies are underway. I am sure we shall find the right place for them. God bless you. Say Hello to your lovely wife Juda.”
“Thanks Edith. Continue to your good work. God bless you too.”

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                                                                                6

This afternoon, I would like to look up my notes and in the evening  would  give the “Introductory Classes” to the newcomers in reference to meditation. Although I needed to spend some time with a research paper upon the copper minerals on the Island. We need the most the iron, since all over buildings are built of earthquake-proof, however copper, both as an element and as an amalgamation with others has tremendous value for our economy.

So, I went to the Conference Room at Guest House, this time live however, to make opening speech in that subject. Here there are almost two hundred newcomers, after having our crackers and refreshments in the attached small service-room, applaud me even before I start, perhaps after my welcoming speech of Saturday night the way that they feel, after having this chance, they floored their appreciations.

Meditation courses are headed in our Republic, by a Dr. Akhbar, formerly an internist from Akistan who had indeed devoted his life into that. He has written several books about this very fine art of human soul, scientifically prooving a close interrelatedness between meditation and of a good health, life longevity, a blissful life with no sick spots. He is also associate professor in the Faculty of Internal Medicine, so we are close friends too. With his warm welcoming and a brief introduction, he gave me the floor. So, I started to talk.

“Meditation, in a way, had been a way of living to me, perhaps like that of a Zens. It had been running among the family members for the last three generations and I am a quite advocate of it, also not top forget the fact that while learning Social Psychiatry, Shamanism and Carl Gustave Jung, also following the books and tapes of Mircea Eliade and Joseph Campbell, great anthropologists of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty first centuries. I also had studied Sanksrit to go deeper in these personal pilgramages. So, every other six months, when new-comers like you are in, I start to give the “Opening Lessons” about it, and some other teachers and practitioners follow it through. Even in the mornings, when we start to school classes, of course on Big Screen, we start with a meditation that is a kind of silent pray. I never get tired of speaking about it. If you have, or you shall have children registered in classes, if it fits into your time, you can meditate with your kids. Believe me, it is a thrilling experience.

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“Well, some schools declare that, “Meditation, is a science of creative intelligence of mankind.” Even though we do not know whether the animals, at least the mammalians, do meditate or not, it might be so for human beings. On the other hand, since “science” means “an objective system of things that if applied according to certain methodology  and principals, its results could be proven everywhere just the same” in the simpliest sense, such “internal bliss”, could not be put on the same measuring scale, similar to of any other abstract things, like happiness, sorrow or any quality of feeling, therefore it is a little bit unfair to absolute concrete sciences like mathematics, physics and chemistry, to call ‘meditation’ just the same as ‘science’ as they are. Nonetheles, if applied properly, the positive results of such indulgence effect human beings so delightfully and ascend them to the skies up to the eternity so-to-speak, we can be sure about its nearly scientific outcomes in the service of mankind.

“Generally asked question is: ‘What meditation provides?’
“If we can look up to the nature and dynamics of life, we see one of the most essential elements of it being fulfillment. So, first, it does “fulfill”.

“Secondly, as human beings, during life struggle, due to our weaknessess, under some circumstances, we may suffer. Meditation, through using the creative intelligence lessen the burden of suffering to a bearable degree. From another angle, meditation, eases up problem solving, forcing you to locate your thoughts right in the heart of the problems.

“Through twice daily practicing it, one can enrich the reservoir of thinking, hope and problem solving abilities, thus our creativity is constantly functioning, rewarding and ascending. Our sensory organs, also being motivated with our “will-to learn”, “will-to experience”, following the pathways of natural evolution of life, sharpen our motor-perceptual abilities, bringing us close to superior degree of performances. You can “re-call” better too. Through elevated self-confidence, feeling more happy, one learns how to hinder the number one enemy of modern times: Stress. You manipulate the environment in the service of bettering your interpersonal relationships, comradships and sharing. You are more acknowledged of yourself and the universe around you.

“Through practicing meditation, we also are entering in dialectic teaching, as PLATO had first described it as a technic that indicates mind reaches the idea of “good”. It also reaches the point of studying of human consciousness and having him take more  and more responsibility in its management, consequently of being a better human being and a better citizen.

“Of course, we are practicing “trans-ascending meditation”, coming right from the Brahmins, as described in “Upanishads”. It refers to an “absolute” part of BEING that is unmanifested part of the EXISTENCE and the basis for thought energy, also the ultimate reality of creation, the eternal truth, and what there was, what it is and what shall be. Being does manifest itself, primarily in the form of “prana” (breathing) -which is the absolute of power and nature of Being-, and later on in the form of “mind” (thinking): this is the duality of existence. Being, is the basis for “thinking”, and thinking is the basis for “doing”.

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“No question that during meditation seances, the whole body rests up and a tremendous amount of energy is being compiled. That’s why, in old countries where this type is meditation is exercized, the teachers used to advise “not to drive cars on the street right after the meditation.” Again, during the seances, the pulse, breathing, blood pressure, lactate level in the blood all fall below the normal values; contrary to these, the skin’s resistence is raised which is good also.

“According to some Indian and Chinese yogies, to inhale and exhile, involve the negative and positive energy levels in the universe at any given time; thus, “taking in” (Yang) and “taking out” (Yin) are the most two essential movements that help to regulate your body electricity and have you relaxed. By the same token, according to some Indian yogis, in the universe there is a cosmic energy (prana) that when this very consantrated energy is taken in and out regularly, added with meditation, can heal soul and body from many illnesses, at least those energies are transferred to the personal psychic energy.

“Of course, there are various types of meditations since it is known from old Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius ANTONINUS (A.C. 121 – A.C. 180) also a poet who is very famous for his book “The Meditations”-the first on the subject-, emphasizing principally on the Stoistic philosophy of Epictetus, and many others, including some religious currents which encourage “to think deeper in thought and praying” and alike are also considered as “meditation”. What we mean here, “just meditation in the form of meditation”; no prior ideas or anything to focuse on, to clarify, to enlighten nothing at all. Your qualified teachers here, all trained and educated in Sanskrit philosophy and Eastern religions, shall meet you in small groups, giving you some instructions and knowledge of “what to do”, in fact, “what not to do”, and at the end, your “mantras” will be given you after small personal ceremonies held before fireplaces in old Sanskrit style.

“In addition to these, I think it will be proper to acknowledge you about a little bit about “YOGA exercises” and “ZEN-Buddhism” in spite of the fact that I am neither a Yogist nor a Zen-Buddhist!

“I know very little about Zen and Zen Budhism. What I know, had been through my interest in Meditation, consequently reading some related books, like “How Zen Thinks?”. It is already a very quiet, personal, rather passive and self-contained occupation that does not offer too much challenge it seems to me, at least to my personality patterns which are more externalized, shared and used collectively with the people who I belive I am under the obligation and be service of. On the other hand, I confess, it could be one of the most graceful methods of improving oneself if one needs it and wants to find out. I, wherever I am, trying not to change anymore perhaps, but to refine more whatever I have in my hands, if I can. Nonetheless, since I am the President of New Atlantis Republic, I have an obligation to my people what we offer here and what is our thinking process and philosophy about the phylosophical, social, psychological existences and activities we offer in this land.

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“ZEN, crystallizes all of the philosophy of East. However, it is not an ordinary, phylosophical systems, founded upon logic and analysis.

“Zen, in the sense of intellectual analysis, has nothing to teach us. One would say it is quite chaotic. They do not have any secret books or dramatic tenets. In a way, while practicing Zen, we teach ourselves and Zen merely points the way.

“Zen, claims to be Buddhism. Having no philosophy and all doctrinal authority is denied; however, it is not a nihilistic, self-destructive discipline; contrariwise, it is eternally affirmative, however of what?

“Zen does not deny the existence of God but “No God in Zen” that is neither denied nor insisted upon, as it is in either Jewish, Christian and Muslim faiths. Thus, in a strict sense, Zen, is neither a religion nor a philosophy. The principles of it are rather a kind of bundles of flowers, some precious metallic or wooden pieces here and there, in a garden (of Eden?).

Zen, is the spirit of a man, Zen proponents say. He believes in the inner beauty, goodness and purity (So, all the other believe systems and religions) The legend says, when SAKYAMUNI was born, he lifted one hand toward the heavens and pointed out the earth with the other, exclaimed: “Above the heavens and below the heavens, I alone the Honored One!” Don’t you think he had referred to the uniqueness and God-like values of human existence and spirit in spite of the fact that he is mortal? To me, it carries an existentialistic value: Be aware of your existence, don’t question, cherish it, honor it, do whaetever you can while existing!

“Zen is not confounded with a form of meditation either. Zen purposes to discipline the mind itself while he may pursuit in a form of meditative style. In classical “meditation”,  a man has to “fix” his mind on something: God, infinite love; or, concentrating on any subjest at all to study deeper, to analyse, to solve whatever it might be that precisely a Zen avoids to do. This way, to me, he is coming pretty close to Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation, however, to my knowledge, Zen does not posses a “mantra”. Zen defies any kind of concept formation, or having any concrete feelings experienced.

“As we know, BUDDHISM means “enlightenment”, as its root word “Budh” means “to wake”; Buddha was a personalist and urged his folllowers to “value their personal experience, above of everything, of emancipating self from the bondage of birth and death”, as human beings long for immortality, eternal life, liberation and absolute freedom.

“As to ZEN, he seeks “reality” and this can not be found in “conformity”, he goes beyond formality to reality and says: “Be the living truth itself”, or, simply “Be!”.

“Now, just a little bit Yoga.

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“In Yoga too, as Zen seems to be a little bit farther than my body’s physical capacity for it is as conservative as my soul, not staging it like my thoughts and feelings, unless absolutely necessary. No doubt, it is a mastery over your own ‘physical’ weaknesses, therefore how one would like to ascend his (or her) psychic abilities and turn to different methods of doing it, like meditation, psychotherapy, analysis and alike, one could do the same for the physical aspect of his beingness. Nonetheless I feel strongly that, Yoga and like mastery works, besides their being a little bit overly used if not abused commercially, beyond medical logic, care and ‘repair beyond maintenance’ is a little bit luxury for me. However, while having “Meditation” classes our teachers had taught us some basic poses of our bodies, no doubt were quite useful, but that’s all.

“So, again, being a responsible President about my people’s health and occupations, deeds to become a true master of self, both psychologically and physically, at the end to become a better person and a better citizen, I endorse every legitimate human art could be performed. Natural human aggression that springs from our inner sources, have to be controlled in artistic and esthetic ways, particularly here in the New Atlantis State since we do not precribe the other ways to outlet the aggression first, then feeling sorry and try to remedy it -that is a vicious cycle anyway-, the importance of Sports -that cannot bring any commercial benefit to anyone under our circumstances in our State- and, humanly controlling devices, like Yoga, deserve a lot of respect.

“Thus, let me tell you a few words about Yogi’s world views and Yoga itself.
Yogi’s look at the daily living is “a crisis”, and his reflections of the characteristic of collective unconscious. In order to bring our Planet back into ‘balance’, it is necessary to re-gain our personal balances through a nearly perfect control of the body and the mind with proper self-discipline.

“The yogi sees life as a triangle; “birth” is the first corner- starting point of this triangle, then a “growth-anabolic”phase going upward, reaching the second point of the triangle, then “decline-catabolic” phase, down to death which would not be the final point, indicating the “life after” which deals with birth again.

“The ancient wisdom of  Y o g a, incorporates five basic principles: Proper movements-“exercises”, Proper “breathing”, Proper rest-“relaxation”, Proper diet-“nutrition” and, Deep thinking-“meditation”. The most modern classification of  M e d i t a t i o n   P o s e s, comprise eight basic elements, including above mentioned ones:

1)      Y a m a :  The ethics,
2)      N i y a m a :  Religious observances,
3)      A s a n a :  Body postures,
4)      P r a n a y a m a :  Breathing exercises,
5)      P r a t h a y a r a : Withdrawal of senses from objects,
6)      D a r a n a :  Concentration,
7)      D h y a n a :  Meditation, an
8)      S a m a d r i :  Superconsciousness.

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“Old Chinese had a saying: “Truly a flexible back, makes a long life!”. As a medical man, I suscribe to that and also add, “…brings a lot of children too!”

“Therefore, as an extension of the brain, to keep the spine well-maintained, meaning “strong and flexible”, is the most single important goal and expectation of Yoga exercises.

External massages and Prana-acupuncture that is given to body to keep the flow of nerve energy also can keep one going quite smoothly.

“Considering the body-soul twinship, the spiritual aspect of Yoga exercises is also of prime importance since, the yogis believe the Science of Yoga also gives a practical and scientifically well-prepared method of finding truth in religion (or life!).

“Thus, the Yoga exercises, step-by-step carry through, besides their physical implications of them, the spiritual principals too, paralyzing -so to speak- in and outsides; via practicing Bandhas (application methods of muscular locks) and Mudras (application of  HATHA Yogic Postures, to maintain the nervous systems’ electric currency to provide a “Serpent Power”- Kundalini Shakti); doing right breathing, modulating the sense perceptions if and when necessary, concentrating and meditating intensely; thus, reaching a better mental balance, and, at the final analysis, realizing the “Supreme-Super consciousness”, having the “Personal I, Ego”, to merge with “God”, who is undeniably a Supreme Ego.

“There are three kind of  b a n d h a s :

1)      Chin: Jalandhara bandha,
2)      Anal : Moola bandha, and
3)      Abdominal :  Uddiyana bandha.

“Only through Yogic breathing, concentrating and  m u d r a s  (that latter comprises the stimulation of chakra centers located in the astral body) one can achive “bliss” (ananda). There are the six most important centers to cite:

1)    m u l a d h a r a, (four petals), located at the lower end of the spine,
2)    s w a d h i s t h a n a, (six petals), located at the genital organs,
3)    m a n i p u r a, (ten petals), located at the navel,
4)    a n a h a t a, (twelve petals), located at the heart,
5)    v i ş h u d h a, (sixteen petals), located at the throat, and,
6)    a j n a, (two petals), between the two eye-brows.

“A seventh one, with one thousand petals, s a h a s r a r a, is at the center of the brain. Needless to say, ecah one of these centers, from a scientific point of view is a nerve plexus.

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“Lastly, as a technical information, I would like to cite “body poses”. We were taught first, PADMASAN – “Lotus pose”. You seat legs crossed, soles touching the opposite sides of the abdomen, knees also touching the ground, hands are on the chest, as if praying.

“The others, are of different combinations of the extremities. In SIDDHASAN, legs crossed, one is buckled under the body, right foot above and touching the body. In MUKTHASAN, the heels close to pubic bone, body erect. In VAJRASAN, one keeps practically the kneeling situation. In SWASTIKASAN, is the ankle-lock pose; one leg is forward, the other touches the inguinal.

“There are twelve Soorya Namaskar exercises which include erecting straight-up, bending to various poses, extending your limps, being on one or both of them, completely buckling down to the earth while putting your palms adhered to it. Of course these movements include inhalation and exhalation exercises and indeed stage a nearly perfect human gymnastic show: Healthy and mighty.

“So, I tell all of you:  Pratinandati Nirvanam (Welcome Bliss!)

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                                                                         7

As I have been elected -electronically- “President” to the New Atlantis Republic, naturally I have taken leave of absence from the Mega University of New Atlantis, consequently, except a few occasion that I could give some guest lectures in my specialty of Child and Adult Psychiatry, I usually satisfy my professional needs through Health Department of the Republic that is headed by Prof. Dr. Debra Thin. So, to day, wednesday morning, I am going to make a visit with her that had always been a pleasure. Even though I am expected, I gave a ring to this delightful lady, one of the easiest going person on the earth. Full of joy, a voice replied:

“Hello? Oo, your picture just appeared on my watch. Yes my dear President, how are you? I am waiting for you with coffee and mille-feuille pastry. Exactly at 10.oo A.M. Au-revoir!”

Debra, who for some reason or other does not like to be called Debbie, is tall, robust, quite contrary what her surname may suggest, a talkative, creative, joyous person. One weakness she has: Sweets. Wherever she goes or whoever she invites, one should be on a sugar restricted regime two days prior to that visit, otherwise may go into diabetic coma. She herself makes cookies, decorates them, and enjoyfuly shares with you. She is so warm and insistant that no one can refuse her. Her husband who was a microbiology professor had died about ten years ago due to an unknown infection while working at the research lab that had been a national mourning had been declared for him. Having no child, she seems to give herself completely to work, day and night, however without losing her rich sociability. Here we are. Debra also is at the Pyramid A Apartments, 18th floor, however at the east side, opposite of the Personnel Department that occupies the west side. So, in two minutes I was in her office. This is the advanced civilization: You do not need a car, being driven by a private chauffeur who is talking behind you anyway and at nights takes the car for bar adventures, gasoline expense, parking place, air pollution, you name it. You walk if you can, if the place is far, then take electrical street-car. No tickets, no turniquets, no sleepy workers complaining and expecting wage increase for every other three months. Anyway, there I am.

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Before going into future plans about our Republic’s health program, let me give you a brief sketch about how our health system works. First of all, there is no private enterprise, rich middle men who only care about money, drug firms, and intriguing pharmaceutical biddings. There are two systems that provide health care: University and the State. On the Island we have only one university: “New Atlantis University” that was founded about twenty five years ago, with major divisions: Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Law, Faculty of Economy, Faculty of Engineering and Electronics, Faculty of Literature and Languages, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Agriculture and Mining.

Faculty of Medicine gives a six-year education, both in theory and practice, and then three-to-four years specialty training. The only difference from other places on the earth, our difference is that, if anyone is choosing to go further to become a specialist, the first year has to be spent in “Research” Department of the Faculty, with special training in electronics (that naturally covers the computer) and communication, statistics, languages, music and pilosophy. We have one teaching hospital where we accept the patients too. Each Faculty has one professor and chairman, one associate professor, two specialist head-assistants, and enough assistants. They are assigned to the “Medical Apartments”, close-by the Hospital building, in the same block, within the walking distance. Needless to say, Hospital gives twenty-four hour service, around the clock. “The waiting list” is unheard of. There are constantly two doctors on duty in each branch, with proper supervisors being on “second call”. There are Out-Patient departments that are on the run, six days a week.

State has one seventeen-storey high, again Pyramis-like General Hospital, covering the entire specialties. There are four fully designed operating rooms with well-trained staff. Service is continually provided. At the first floor, there is one State Pharmacy that gives necessary drugs for free to the patients who may come from either private doctors, University or State hospitals or Health Centers. First floor is occupied by administration, education, conference room, doctors offices, laboratories etc. Second floor is entirely devoted to Geriatry that we will mention about it a while later. Third floor is for children. Pediatric Unit contains anything imaginable in it. Fourth floor is the Psychiatric Unit. Child Psychiatry occupies a part down at the third floor with the other children. So it goes up, covering all specialty fields.

Private physicians give free services, eight hours a day, six days a week, in their assigned parts of the State.

There are two full-staffed Health Centers at the two corners of the Island. They take care of emergencies as well as hospitalizations of short-duration. Seriously ill patients and the ones who require more sophisticated care, are transferred immediately to the Center.

“Well, Debra, what’s up?

“Mr. President, you know we have been working seriously about the Aging process and doing quite exploratory research on it. In Fall, I would like to make a two-day Symposium on Aging, and reveal all our findings on it. But if I can summarize now in a few sentences. The primary stage of the

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research is almost completed. As you know, we were applying the internationally known approaches and see where we are standing. Clasically, in any gerentologic research, as far as the metodology is concerned, the first approach is the “Biological” one. So, we did what everyone had done before: Namely, we also used non-vertebrals, like Cephaloids, examining their eyes, and comparing with mammalian and noting the differences through aging. Senescence increases death rate, we alredy know that, but with what intervals and with what differences and sequences?

“The second one is “The Physiologic” approach. In that we continue to work on rats and guinea-pigs. Between, sometimes you find interesting things like snakes in whom the fertility increases as age advances, contrary to the birds, Fowles as an example, in whom it decreases, as expected. Third method is, as well-known, and perhaps the most important, to “study of the aging of the cells” themselves. For Protozoas’ lives we theoretically may say they  are eternal, because when a cell is divided and as a result it is rejuvenated, it never dies, keeps multiplying, bringing out new and young generations. (She laughed) I don’t know whether one can do this in human beings, because we are not only the composition of cell systems, also of the ability to synthesize the enzymes and hormones, connective tissue fibers; plus, as life circumstances and psycholoical factors that through intelligence and motivation levels that all do effect the length of life. Incidentally, our ‘Basic-cell proliferation methods’ too are in advance. That relies upon the replacement embryogenic but healthy cells, to replace the death carcinogenous cells that are already destroyed by chemotherapy.

“In the arena of  p r e v e n t i o n, we do measure the vibration of capillary networks in the body through our MEGA-MAGNETIC VIBRATORS that reflect the results instantly on the screen. Any vibration that is higher than 200 vibrations/per second, draws the attention to those capillaries for further electronic tomographic studies to detect infections, extreme congestions, beginning of hyperplasic movements, who knows.

“In LEUKEMIA and alike blood cancers, the “implantation of  bone-marrow” is amongst the routines. Intra-venous “Basal-Cell Transformation” within the last eight years or so is replaced by the direct “intra-thecal injections” that if don’t produce some shocks, result in considerable advances and recoveries.

“POLY-FLU VACCINATIONS within the last twenty years or so, virtually annihilated deaths from grippe in old age population.
“Debra my dear, what about the “sensory studies” that you were making on elderly?
“Well, one of my chief-assistants still works on that. According to the length of life in old times, they used to say, “All sensory abilities diminish as senescence starts at the age of 65.” Since our lives go now til 100, 110 or even 120, our initial findings indicate that, the first sign of senescence that is the decrease of eye sight, is above international levels here, say about at the ages of 79 even 83. The Electroencephalic changes that also occur even by

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the age of 55, do not become obvious by the age of 79, 80. Strange enough, the hearing impairment is in increase in spite of the fact that here we are living in less noisy and less stressful situation. The reason might be a relative social isolation and less (negative) stimuli in elderlies’ social life, near isolation. If and when we shall be coming close to be affirmative, then perhaps, in Elderly or Retirement Homes we could create more stimulation and consequently more invitation to life, that could be the music, choral work, nature studies and trips etc. We do quite a bit Audubon travelling and bird-watching, however may not be enough.”
“Excellent Debra, excellent!”
“Well, you are our leader. You all taught these to us.”
“What about old Raymond PEARLS’s “TIAL = Total Immediate Ancestral Longevity” Index? Since it is obtained through addition of the ages of the person’s parents, added four grand-parents ages and so on, and obviously we did not live that long in this Land, do you make some changes in this sytem, do you use some other scale?”
“Well Professor Ismailov, we are just compiling the basic information about the individuals and their parents who are coming close to grand-parents to be. We measure bone length, the developmental scales as to when the child starts to teeth, to walk, to talk, to function superior physically if it is the case in what areas and alike, then comparing and evaluating those with psycho-social abilities and performances, plus life style. We are far from the final results, but we are working on it.”
“What about Cancer research and new advances?”
“Working hand in hand with the Research Department of the University, Prof. Dr. Timurov, we found that we are having nearly excellent results with “Freezing” technique in soft tissue cancer operations since it does minimize the bleeding and spread of the cancer tissue particles; and, “Modified Robot Lazer technique” in more solid cancers, like those of prostate and lung. With “Modified-AIDS TIII” virus extracts that we had injected into prostate cancers we had 99 o/o success so far. Very good results are also obtained in colon cancers. That relies upon “Self-destruction” theory, you know.”

“Since we do not smoke on this Land, we are at the top, rather bottom of Lung cancers distributions and rates in the world due to smoking and toxic substances. But, as you always say, we do not forget that ‘the older person is the product of the culture’, so, we are focusing heavily upon the dynamics and ingridiencies of those psycho-social factors. One day we expect to win an Obel prize for our Gerentologic studies, I believe.”

“Excellent Debra. I am sure we shall have gigantic distances upon the preventive part of the serious illnesses, but death, at least now, is inescapable. Future studies should be focused upon “mutations in chromosomes and major genes” and “cellular aging” in which discovering some chemical mysteries, our prevention may come to a maximum. Well, thank’s a lot for this scientific feast.”

“But you know, a feast can not be completed without some fresh pastry and juice, n’est-pas?
Oui madame, avec plaisure.”

You see, how sweet it is to work with Prof. Debra Thin.

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              This evening -that is wednesday evening-, after spending all my afternoon in Mega Sports Center where I made some gymnastics, a short walk of one and a half kilometers, then a ping-pong match with one of the youngesters that was a delightful experience, I had my sauna, vegetable sandwich and super de-caffeinated coffee, sweetened with herbal chocolate, layed on a chaise-long, under a chestnut tree at the backyard and  longed into thoughts. How life was beautiful if one knows how to manage properly and not misuse it. The order in the Nature is so high and perfect, consequently how difficult it is to displace, disarrange, to molest it? How you can dis-arrange these beautiful trees, acacias, linden trees, myrtles and chestnuts; their serenity, green shadows and chirping birds? Who can match their melodies? Just watch and enjoy this harmony and bliss. You don’t need to analyse and make some idiotic comments, pseudo-philosophies about life and all the other matters; don’t be a fool, just lay down, look up to the skies, then close your eyes and just meditate. Don’t talk and disturbe the Nature’s Eternal Symphony!

This evening, I am going to the SHAMANISTIC STUDY CENTER in downtown, headed by Ibn-ul Kadeem, who had been a real devotee on this very sublime subject. He is about fifty years old, always dressed in his Indian shawls and special cap, wrapped with a turban’s sash, lined up with turquoise blue bids around it, a round, well-kept black beard with greyish touch gives him rightly a sage-virtuous man appearance, always smiling and sincere. His one of the grand-parents had come from Raq, the other from Ran, then immigrating to Akistan, then studying Shamanism in Mongolia, Kırghyzistan and Tajikistan, then finalizing with us. He knows my ancestral education and interest, as well as mine in this field, and as it happens in some other fields, leaves the opening lectures to me. He always salutes me with a polite bow and addresses to as “Your Honorable Excellency!” So, there I go.

As I arrived at the Center a few minutes before 20.00 P.M. and I received a very warm welcome. About one hundred and fifty new-comers, and another two hundred, two hundred fifty participants had filled the auditorium ahead of the scheduled time, that is to say 20.00 P.M. After a brief introduction of mine, as I expected as “My Honorable Excellency, Prof. Dr. Ismailov!” and again some applauds -for ego problems, I cannot say ‘Please don’t applaud!’, I, instead of standing behing the table, sat down at the edge of the stage, wagging my legs freely from the border, I started.

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“I personally had very little interest in Shamanism other than some anthropological courses I had taken when I was studying the symbolism, secrecy and belief systems in primitive societies, and of course under the influence of Freudian and Jungian write-up about the origins and development of religions and alike. But in my family, again my celebrated grandfather Prof. Dr. Ismailov while being trained abroad had had some years studying Shamanism in Ale University, and later on upon returning to his native Land, had given some courses and demonstrations at the Municipal Theatre and even had published a book about it. Since on this land I am the only experienced and knowledgeable psychiatric professor and no one else had shown any real interest in this subject since I am sure the others who are living on other continents and islands are too busy with money making, so, I would like to initiate some classes here and on due time, I am sure we shall find more chance to have some exchange students to be trained more in old continents and train us here. Meantime, I utilize  my grandfarther’s notes and experiences and and our Mega-internet library.

“At any rate, for all practical purposes we could say, Shamanism is the original religion of Siberian people, primarily of Yakuts, Mongols, Tatars, Buryats and alike mostly Turkish clans, before Mohammedinism. Shaman, the person who represented this religion, was a kind of medicine man, a magician, a curer, a priest and an adviser to the chief of the tribe, however one of the most important ones. Thus, the Central and North Asia, before turning to monoistic gods, even after, had dominated human lives throughout centuries. However I would like to underline from the very beginnings that one could look at the Shamanistic stage, as a kind of social development of the society that could be found in the world almost everywhere, in North and South Merica continents, Indonesia, Oceania and elsewhere in spite of the fact that there were no direct communication and acknowledgement of these existences. Many authorities do not look up to Shamanism as a religion, but “a method to get track in spirits”. She shall see more about that.

“Shaman may also have an epileptic crisis, an ecstatic state that he believes then his soul leaves his body and ascends to the sky or descend to the underworld. As we know, these experiences are not restricted to the shamans, some prophets and persons, as reported, had also had similar experiences. He also has “helping spirits”. He is in touch with dead souls and spirits, but he never becomes instrumentated by them. He can mediate the indiividual’s private gods, celestial or infernal, brings the person soul back which was angry or put out by him. Shaman, as tools, uses his drum and his mask for those trips that we eventually see those activities, trips in more details. Shaman can line in wilderness all by himself, learns how to talk to rocks and plants.

“Let us elaborate just a little bit about talking to rocks. Usually a rock has four faces: The top that you are facing, the bottom that you face if you turn it around, the side that looks inwardly, and, the side that looks at outwardly.

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“You receive the rock, “as it is”, and you do not twirl it around. You should not encourage the change. Now, as a shamanic experiment, I make you take such a rock, and put it in front of you. Now, look at it carefully.

Q- What do you see?
A- Profile of a face, listening.
Q- Good. Now, you, -To someone else- “turn the rock!” (She comes and turns the rock around.) “Look and say: What do you see?”
A- A bird in flight… wing-like.
Q- Now, you! -To someone else- “Turn the rock! Come and look and say: What do you see?”
A-. Looks like seal… Seal in the bowl
Q- -To someone else- “You come and tell me, what do you see?”
A- (He comes slowly!) A fish with a tail.
Q- How did you arrive at those imaegs?
A- Looks peaceful.
Q- Do you want to listen, or let it go?
A- This is a bird of flight. Let the wing span. (He lets her go!)

“(If you are running the shaw, repeat all original question, then repeat all answers; when one helper does not remember, shaman helps to remind. “Images” seem to be giving some symbol messages, like:

Face: Quiet down and listen!
Bird : Freedom – let go!
Seal : Be playful. Communicate this to the original question.
Fish : To move with insurance. Flow!

“In shamanistic studies, one has to be able to read “the signs” too: Circles; openings and holes on the rocks and trees -i.e.: Getting old, repetitions; mythical, secret caverns, underworld dead souls, sorrow and alike. Do always remember what ARIOLI had said: “The difference between the History and Myth: The Myth is always right!)

“S h a m a n i c   p o w e r, is said to have been inheredited from ancestors, so they run in the families and considered as a “family profession”. Before being recognized and selected, however, a Shaman candidate, has to have two kinds of teaching, one, ecstasic experiences, like dream interpretation, trance, clair’voyance; and, two, traditional shamanistic techniques, the functions, nature and names of the spirits, secret language, speaking tongues, good enough knowledge about the mythology and genealogy of the clan which he lives in. A candidate, therefore, has to pass through some “initiation” that is generally is public and a kind of challenge, full of rituals. These ecstasic and didactic performances make the tribe choose or not its own shaman.

“As many aetnologists and anthropologists have studied “Personality of the Shaman”, besides possible hereditary maintenance of the post, it is clear that many tribes, clans and islanders, choose their own shaman, according to their wish and preference First of all, many scientists looked at the “Siberian and Arctic Shamanism”, as a neurotic phenomenon,

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very specifically as “Arctic Hysteria”. There, there is a cosmic milieu, polar irritation, long dark nights, lack of sun, restrictions in vitamins and green vegetables, and the expectation of the people from someone to show an extraordinary performance and/or miracles. Cataleptic (Frozen-like, motionless) states, are very convenient to justify for souls to quit the bodies, go for a long voyage, journeying into sky or underworld. “Indonesian Shamanism” was discovered to be a real mental sickness. The “Niue” shaman is epileptic, or extremely nervous person.

Samoa shamans” are diviners. The Batak of Sumatra and other Indonesian people choose sickly and weak individuals. In the Andaman Islands, epileptics are considered great magicians. Candidates for shamanship among the “Araucanians of Chile”, are always sickly, morbidly sensitive people, having also some physical diseases like cardiac and digestive system disorders and especiallly suffering of vertigo. Yamana of Tierra del Fuego shamans were of hysteroid, epileptoid and ascetic people, having almost the same psychic structure those of priests and sorcerers who rather choose to study the supernatural. Many of them sang, jumped in the air for hours even days, travelled tremendous distances without feeling any tiredness that is quite specific to the maniacs.

“As history recorded, Arctic and Mid-Asia shamans, had risen to the clouds with their horses and created wonders. They call this tremendous power as ‘Utcha’; this springs from “Celestial Spirits” and given to some shamans as “The Divine Rights”.

“Naturally we do not mean that the shaman a solely sick man, but he is all above the sicknesses who had been able to survive a hostile environmenti full of danger and inconveniences, at the midst of natural and human-made problems, has succeeded in curing himself. In general, Siberian shamans are considered of having good memory, good nervous controls, showing no mental disintegration and absolutely superior to average clan people. The Talupang (of Venezuela) and Amozonian shamans too are considered of being highly intelligent and in good controls.

“I n i t i a t i o n   e c s t a s i e s, vision and alike experiences are vey important for a shaman’s acceptance. These ceremonies could be of appearance of an illness, or changes in the candidate’s behavior and a serie of rituals and deeds to come. In Yakuts’ shamanic system, the evil spirits may carry the future shaman’s soul to the underworld where it is supposed to stay somewhere one-to-three years. The shaman himself has to observe that the evil spirits cut his head off, torture him, dismember him and alike. He waits there for the maturation process. Sometimes a mythical bird makes the transportation back and forth, twice life-time of it. The same bird may sit one of the gigantic trees’ branches where there are some nests, and the shaman’s soul stays in an incubation state for again one-to-three years until maturation. Visions and dreams also are abundantly exercised: While playing his drum, shaman candidate can see himself beeing divided into bits and pieces, laying unconscious for seven days and nights.

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“Many candidates visit some mysterious islands, cornered with seas  where the Life Tree (Tree of the Lord) is erected. Next to it there are nine herbs, representatives of all plants on the earth. He also may go for a long travel, going over high mountains, challenging with wild beasts and big wild birds, representing the evil spirits from who they are digged, the head is chopped off, hands and legs are mutulated. When they bleed, they feel better, his face and hands remaining blue. Sometimes, while traveling through underworld, the shaman’s his own ancestors eat his flesh, drinks his blood from his bellies. Again, an anthropological marvel, in spite of the existence of a big ocean between, Siberian and Australian shamans show a lot of likeness in these experiences and rituals.

“One of the requirements to become a shaman is that of entering into a secret society. This entrance also presupposes some rites to be performed. The mutual happening at the end is that of “death and resurrection of the candidate.” However, before this end, the candidate has to go through a series of symbolic happenings such as, a seclusion period somewhere, like the wood, bush and alike, imitating the embryo period of mankind; then masking, powdering the face with the ashes, imitating the pallic appearance of ghosts; symbolic burial ceremonies either in the temples or fetish houses; symbolic descent to the underworld – deadland while he has to be put in hypnotic sleep, fortified by some calming drinks and a series of challenges like being beaten, eaten, exposed to the fire, air suspension, amputation of the extremities and alike. If the shamanic candidate is considered to be a solely a medicine man, then he is exposed to another initiation in which the candidate is given much more higher powers since this is going to be his vocation that may be lasting throughout the generations. So, those ceremonies are performed by unusual ecstatic experiences. Needless to say, these shamanic powers were inherited from “the first shamans” who really did fly through the clouds while being on their horses and performed miracles with their drums while their present-day parents and grand-parents could not perform.

“In a way, shaman, is a mythological hero: He rises every morning from the ‘ordinary world’ of the others, using -if necessary- the helping spirits too, starts a kind of travellings and returns back. During this affair his most important tool is his drum. Next time, I shall tell you quite interesting stories about Shaman’s drum and I shall play it for you while performing a very private healing affair.

“Thus, we observe that, shaman and shamanism are not simply a religious tread, an occupation or a primitive kind of religious practices but also a nation’s representatives of cultural patterns. Namely, a shaman, is also a cultural ambassador. What is a nation? Ernest Renan had asked this question in A.C. 1882: “Que’est-ce qu’une nation?” and given the answer as,

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“A nation is a psychic principle; there are two basic stones to build up this; one, to have traditional rich cultural values that the people experienced and lived through together, two, the people who had made these values as ways of daily living as natural inheritance and agreed upon to carry them along and protect them, live with them in their own free will.” This a holistic approach and is functional. Thus, a nation is qualified and identified with its cultural values and inheritance. The principals that design living patterns and value judgments, also provide the stability, the continuity and protection of that nation.

“Well, this is the end of our lesson Part: I. Next Wednesday, the same time, I shall continue with the subject, giving more group practice samples with shamanism at the second and last part of Shamanism Classes of mine. Be good and so long!”

Even though I repeat these lectures for every other six months, commensurate with newcomers’ arrival, each time I feel a very special pleasure that thrills me to my bones.

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9

 

Good morning. Now, thursday morning. And, it is time to visit our Agriculture, Industry and Mining Department. I seem to be having you follow me wherever I go, as if we are reading an open sea captain’s daily dairy. Let me tell you a secrete, if in this short life you rellay do want to be happy: Keep working, preferably for the other people; since they shall do the same for you, this shall really be a truely giving, sharing life that thirty three prophets in old and new testaments said just the same: “Work as if you shall never die, pray as if you shall die tomorrow; and, the work is the best prayer!”

The head of this department is Mr. Timothy (who enjoys of being called ‘Tim’) Allstar, an ex-baseball player, by profession a mechanical engineer. His office is at the 17th floor of Pyramid A. You shall be really surprised as you enter into his department that covers almost the entire 400 meter square of the flat. Here is exactly the duplicate of our lovely State. In the largest room, the entire Island is re-constructed by live trees, forests, mines, beeches, factories, wind-mills, energy accumulation centers from wind, sun and waters and water-falls, all are represented as live as possible, of course in miniature forms. Tim always repeats, “I belive what I see!” Therefore, all present and future projects, with drawings and actual numbers all are marked and placed in proper forms, in proper places. That is why, the other department heads, namely, Atilla Weakball, another chief engineer and the Minister of Energy, Transportation and Communication Department, and, Mr. Jack Depare, chief engineer and the head of the Department of Engineering, Construction and Repair, frequently meet here, exchange the information and plan together. Needless to say, from their offices too, through large screen this information that is not a secret knowledge, could be shared too. But these guys, who were nearly card-a-holics before coming to this country, namely ex-poker players, enjoy of being, talking and working together. Their new (pre)occupations had been of golf. That’s why, winter or summer, dry or wet, you can see these three hard working, serious men trying to beat each other on the green in very child-like competition, bringing out sounds like “Ah, oh, oo, God, I just missed it.. Ooo, a birdy!”, jumping in the air to the other two’s dismay… That is what our lives are all about in this Island. Their families, wives and children too are quite close and visiting each other, frequently picnicking, hula-hooping and alike. That is why they are also called  “Three Old Musketeers of New Atlantis.

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So, when I called Tim, I requested the other two chiefs too, if they are not there anyway, particularly for the reason that this week for me was extremely busy, due to the newcomers, and as it is well known, I had to make several “opening” speeches and appearances so on so forth. In five minutes, Tim, Atilla, Jack and I were in this amazing little scale model of New Atlantis, in comfortable cain chairs -that was Tim’s choice and we had to respect that- sipping our fresh pineapple juices.

“Yes, Tim, you shoot first. Anything new in your Department, especially, as we were talking about, your last endeavours to generalize the entire agriculture upon organic farming?”

“Yes, Sir, our endeavours in using the seed and vegetative propagating material in organic farming is indeed in a pick. Internationally, as you know, as they say UAA, “utilized agricultutal area”, is still in the 60-70 percentage of all agricultural area in our Island State, is a great achievement. Natural difficulties are, one, since we do not import these seeds, we just cultivate here, therefore it takes some time to develop chemical work-up, set up machinery and educate the farmers, who some of them are newcomers in general, that is the problem number two. They love the business, but are used to do the farming in old style. We keep them habitated in rather small farm-house projects, close-by to large agricultural areas (Getting up, and showing on the maquette the designated places) as designed by Atilla and his co-workers, imitating their old lives, namely living with farm animals near-by, not in multi-storey sky-scrapers, still having the fringe benefits of living in this very modern world and utilizing the other facilities of New Atlantis. I understand in this group, at least there are 30 to 35 people who are eligible for my department; if I can place them in before Fall after initial training, working with computers, we can select a few people who can work at higher level of teaching and planning. So, I am sure, potatoes, tomatoes, cauliflowers, salads, egg-plants, more than our yearly supply of wheat and corn, in a year or so, shall be entirely under this system.
“What about re-cycling, returning the remainings of the nutrients, waste products to the soil“That goes very well too. This is also a matter of education. You know, working closely with Atilla and Jack, in central town and secondary towns, we developed new collector systems, all mounted to sky-scrapers in separate lines than the other paper, glass and metallic productss now on, the return of the unused organic materials or remnants shall be collected and used in much higher percentages.”

“How goes the program of abolition and destruction of the synthetic chemicals, fertilisers, herbicides, growth hormones, antibiotics or so?”
“We have succeded in that nearly by 95o/o, Sir. People still may use it, but not deliberately, without knowing and/or needing them. Since we do not import them either but used to manifacture ourselves, sometimes people just do it, seeing no harm in it. We constantly search and educate, I am sure in a couple years’ time, everything shall be under control.”
“Tim, anything else?”
“Sir, not really, but as you know last summer and early this spring we suffered nearly a drought. We have to create some artificial rain I guess. Jack, Atilla and I were talking about it the other day. We may resort to that in due time.”
“If you need any help from my yogis, meditators or shamans, just let me know
Three gentelmen’s gracious smiles were my reply

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“Okey, Atilla, how is your gigantic energy resources? Is nature-mother still good to you? Needless to say, our needs are steadily getting bigger and bigger every day. Any energy shortage in the horizon, old, new projects, what do you say?”
“Sir, it is true that as (with a nice smile on his face!), even the simpliest, wrist-watches’ number is increasing and new educational activities, new means of compiling the waste products as we just talked, giving more opportunities to people to have recreation, naturally requires more energy. But this is the challenge to us; in this scientific age, without resorting to very dangerous Nuclear devices, we have to utilize what we can. We all are happy with our train-street car system that works nearly excellent, three of us were thinking to develop an aerial – teleferic – telesiege system all around our Island. We began to make some local inspections, measuring up the distances and necessary stations between (He too, getting up and pointing the possible entourage on the maquette!); how we can utilize our principal metal resources of iron and copper, the manpower etc. Naturally besides this projesct what will bring to us, equally shall require tremendous amount of energy. That is why we were also working on a new “re-collecting energy” project, namely, for instance if we climb up to the hill whatever energy we re using, how we can reverse and re-use it while coming down at the next instance? A sort of a dicharging-recharging complex”
“Amazing, really amazing. Now I understand better why you are playing that much golf! Any chance to recover your energies when you hit the ball? (And I smiled.)”
“Well,” Jack entered in, “the way that we miss the ball, indeed is a great waste , but seriously speaking, we are thinking about it upon every single moving object.”
“A few chemists suggested,” continued Atilla, “we perhaps could use some old chemical reactions and formulations, like the Methan gas that comes out from our mines inevitably, instead of being neutralized and being made harmless, should be burnt with the waste products, the results could be quite satisfactory as far as the electricity is concerned as final product, but I do not know how we can prevent any explosure? Besides my due respect about the chemists, I do not feel safe with playing potentially dangerous materials. Just the same, the ordinary coal, when burnt, brings out carbon dioxide and some calories. On the Island, there are some unused coal mines that are out of mode. Could they be rejuvenated just to get some energy? I don’t know.”
“Some people ask me, ‘Mr.President, when we are going to use some robots in our house?’ These are families with children, partly for the sake of fun, but partly due to modernization, so-to-speak. Yes, in our modern houses, heating, dust clearing, cooling are authomatic, transportation is just in front of your door, it is hard for me to justify to bring some machines visibly in human beings to do some jobs, like cooking that we used to enjoy, or some other ordinary things. I don’t know, what do you think gentelmen?”
“Well,”said Atilla, “I guess there is no harm, but in my life style I like what we are, how we are. In due time, if the people want, we can make a general inquiry and study seriously. But I doubt I shall say yes, long time to come.”
“So do I,” okeyed Jack and Tim.
“What about our wind-centrals? How much power we have now?”
“As of this year, they are able to produce 20205 Megawatt, Mr. President,” replied Atilla. “We do expect this year 7 to 8 o/o increase.”

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“Okey gentlemen, thank you very much. Soon you may hear from me about an emergency administrative meeting in reference to establishment of a Masonic Lodge?”
“What, a Masonic lodge?” three of them sighed together.
“Yes, Masonic Lodge. Brotherhood is brotherhood. I will let you know soon, So long. Give my regards to your graceful wives.”

On their way out I heard their murmurs: “Hıımm. What we needed a masonic lodge! Good! Good! Good!”

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10

To day is friday, it is a holy day for Muslim community. As many ofyou may know, Friday noon, going to mosque and to perform a namaz, is a mandatory ‘must’ for all Muslims.
As I mentioned before, we also have several small “djamis” (small ones called mesdgits) around the Island, but the biggest mosque is at the Mega Central Square, downtown, a few hundred yards away from the Christian churches. As you may already know, Islamic religion demands praying for five times a day, however each time not necessarily going to the mosque; but among all sacred, as the Prophet and His Kahlifs used to do is that going to mosque, on Friday noon. (Quite paradox I believe, among four follower Kahlifs (Halifa, Khalife) of Mohammed after his ascense to heaven, Ebubekir, Ali, Omar, Osman, three of them were assasinated on Fridays while praying. Still is the most sacred praying time!) At first step, a “muezzin”, the religious person who gives a call for prayers to come in, climbs from inside onto “minaret’s balcony”, a round structure at the middle of the minaret, and sings in a very private way. (In modern times, however, many used to utilize the microphones instead). Here in the Island, I of course permitted all whatever rituals demand for, except the usage of microphone. I asked the muezzins to utilize their godly, normal, beautiful voices as natural as possible. (I doubt, in His time, Mohammed could also have not given His permission to utilize metalic devices!). Any rate, these are a few clues for the people to know about Muslim principals, paying love and respect for the Creator.

Being both a President as I do almost at all openings, and, in the past coming from the same faith, to day I am going to go to the mosque, to welcome newcoming muslims there. “Imam-Hodja”, is the religious leader of the faith. He usually wears a black robe, as many other priests, and there is a very special turban on their heads. He is all along and at the formost line. Women and men clasically cannot pray side by side as Christians do; they are segragated. Clasically, if there is a balcony, women go up there, if there isn’t, they line up at the back side of the mosque. Before entering, either at the hall or at home, you have to have some “special cleaning of the appearing parts of the body, namely hands, feet, face, top of your head and alike with water: abdest”, otherwise your ‘namaz’ (total praying session at that time) is not acceptable. You have to take your shooes off at the door and leave them there and walk on beautiful rugs bare-footed or may prefer to wear some sandals, rather slippers that are available for the public at aside if you choose to. There, you read some prayers silently murmuring while following the leader Imam-Hodja, however doing exactly the same up and kneeling down movements with the other participants (djemaat-community), syncronically. Namaz, according to the time of the day, that is to say, before sunrise, noon, afternoon, right after sunset and mid-evening, has different lengths that each part is called “rekat!” If you forget, don’t worry, keep praying silently and follow the leader or “mumin-religious person” next to you..

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At any rate, I took my “abdest”, just in case, and went to downtown, to the unique mosque here, at the center of the city. Head Imam, Abdullah Hodja greeted me and shook hands with a great affection, keep them vigorously for a while between his two hands and said how happy he was of seeing me there. I mentioned to him that, with his permission, I would like to attend to some classes as he usually give to the beginners when they come to the State, “Recognizing Islam”, or “Principles of Islam”. I said, as usual, I would give some additional speeches about historical and ethnological aspects of this great religion too. He thanked to me again whole-heartily for my close interest and help and support I was trying to give when and if necessary.

Imam Abdullah very gracefully introduced me to the community, citing that, I, as the President, would like to give some historical, ethnic and philosophical aspects of this great religion, each Friday, after the “namaz” for perhaps a few weeks in a raw, then leaving up to him. The name of this short course was going to be “Recognizing Islam, Koran and Mohammed,Historical facts”.

We, “djamaat”, altogether, under the leadership of Imam Abdullah, executed the Friday noon ‘namaz’ in almost an ecstasy, then I started to address to the people in the above mentioned subjects. My fear was that I am an academic person and almost always too documentative, I feared that some people may have been annoyed. On the other hand, my performing namaz with them, might have given them some confidence and closeness. We will see.

Part 1

(Of the Arabs before Mohammed; In the time of Ignorance;
Geography, History, Religion, Learning and Customs)

“The Arabs, and the country they inhabit, which themselves call Jezirat al Arab, or ‘the Peninsula of the Arabians’, but Arabia were so named from Arabs, a small territory in the province of Tebama to which Yarab the son of Kahtan, the father of ancient Arabs, gave the name and where, some ages after dwelt Ismael, the son of Abraham by Hagar. The name of Arabia used in a more extensive sense sometimes comprehends all that large tract of land bounded by the river Eufrates, the Persian gulf, The Sindian, Indian and Red Seas, and part of the Mediterranean: above two-thirds of which country, that is, Arabia properly so called. Arabs have possessed almost from the flood; and they have made themselves masters of the rest, either by settlements, or continual incursions; for which reason the Turks and Persians at this day call the whole A r a b i s t a n, or the country of Arabs.

                “But the limits of Arabia, in its more usual and proper sense, are much narrower, as reaching no farther northward than the Isthmus, which runs from Ailaa to the head of Persian gulf, and the borders of the territory of Cufa; which track of land the Greeks nearly comprehended under the name of ‘Arabia the Happy’.

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“Proper Arabia by the oriental writers generally divided into five province: Yaman, Hejaz, Tehama, Najd and Yamama; to which some add Bahrein, as a sixth; some authors reduce them all to two: Yaman and Hejaz. Most modern atlases demonstrate it as: Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yaman (Yemen) Arab Republic, People’s Democratic Republic of Yaman (Yemen) and Kuwait.

“This country has been famous from all antiquity for the happinesss of the climate, the fertility and the riches, which induced Alexander the Great, after his return from his Indian expedition to form a desing of conquering it, and fixing there his royal seat; but his death which happened soon after, prevented the execution of this project. Aegyptians’ shutting their ports off to the external world one side and the deserts that are unpassable to the strangers on the other, were the reason why Arabia was so little known to the Greeks and Rome. Yemen, lies along the Red Sea is a dry, barren desert, bounded by the mountains, well watered, yield great plenty and variety of fruits and in particular excellent corn, gripes and spices.

“The Province of Hejaz, is bounded on the south by Yemen, on the west by the Red Sea, on the north by the deserts of Syria and on the east by the province of Najd. This province is famous for its two chief cities, Mecca and Medina, one of which is celebrated for its temple, and having giving birth to Mohammed; and the other for being the place of his residence, for the past ten years of his life, and of his interment.

Mecca, sometimes is called Becca, which words are synonymous, and signify a place of great concourse, is certainly one of the most ancient cities in the world. It is by some thought to be the ‘Mesa of the Scripture’, a name not unknown to the Arabians, and supposed to be taken from one of Ismael’s sons. It is seated in a stony and barren valley, surrounded on all sides with mountains. An old Koran, printid in A.C. 1850 describes: “The length of Mecca, from south to north, is about two miles, and its breadth, from the foot of the mountains Ajyad to the top of another, called Konikaan, about a mile. In the midst of this space stands the city, built in stone cut from the neighboring mountains. There being no springs in Mecca, some unfit and bitter to drink except the well  Zemzem of which offers the water for eternity. The pilgrims who return from the Hadj – pilgramage visits -that call themselves as Hadji-, bring zemzem to their countrymen in small pets, allegedly good for all kind of illnesses and who wish an eternal life. The Sharif (or Prince) of the province has a garden well planted at his castle of Marbaa, about three miles westward from the city. The temple of Mecca, is reputed holiness of this territory.” Now, Mecca, after the national capital of Riyadh, is the most populus city of Saudi Arabia. Passing easily 300,000 population spread over 10 square miles (26 square kilometres). During the pilgramage however, the city outgrows with more than a million of worshippers who come from four corners of the world. Then, the central courtyard of al-Haram mosque, is honored by the crowd as the holiest shrine of Islam.

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“Mecca, throughout the history had almost remained independent, although it accepted for a while the power of Damascus-Syria, and later of the ABBASID caliphate of Baghdad-Iraq. In A.C. 1269 it began to be controlled by Egyptian Mamluk sultans. In A.C. 1517, outgrowing Ottoman Empire that was headed by Sultan Selim II, conquered the city and took over the duties of ther caliph. After the World War I in A.C. 1918, the control of Mecca was divided between the Mohammedan descendant Sharifs and the Wahhakis of Central Arabia. The latest, the Wahhabi King Ibn Sa’üd entered the city in A.C. 1925 and then it became an inseparable part of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

“Since the World War II, A.C. 1945, Mecca had expanded the roads through the mountain gaps, constructed beautiful modern new streets in old city and transformed itself into a modern city. The Square Mosque is magnificient in its size and architecture, enlarged from 313,520 to 1,724,032 square feet now (that corresponds from 29,127 to 160,168 square metres) to accomodate more than 300,000 worshippers at one time. To meet the demands, more and more comfortable hotels and guest houses are constructed.

Medina, Arabic Al-Madinah, formally AL MADINAH AL-MUDAWWARAN (The most Glorious City) -one of the two most sacred cities of Islam- which til Mohammed’s retreat (A.C. 622) was called Yathreb, is a walled city about half as big as Mecca built in a plain, salt in many places, yet tolerably fruitful, particularly in dates, but more especially near the mountains, two of which, Ohod on the north, and Air on the south. Here lies Mohammed interred in a magnificent building, covered with a cupola, and adjoining to the east side of the great temple, which is built in the midst of the city.

“The Oasis was settled by Jews expelled from Palestine. After the hijrah-hegira, the control passed to Arabs. That maintained until A.C. 661 when Damascus took control. The city was sacked in A.C. 683 by caliphs and native amirs that the friction had lasted for a long time. After Ottoman Empire’s rigid ruling that started in A.C. 1517, the control eventually enter Wahhabis domination. Even though Turks built up the Hejaz railroad between A.C. 1904 – A.C. 1908, the control by them was diminished. During the World War I, A.C. 1914-18, through the mutual work of Husayn Ibn’Ali, the sharif of Mecca and the British officer T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) brought almost an independence. Then, Ibn Sa’ud, starting by A.C. 1925, established his own dinasty.

“In Medina, among the historic monuments, one could cite, besides the tomb of Mohammed in the Prophet’s Mosque, The Mosque of Quba, the Mosque of Two Qiblahs, the tomb of Hamza, and the Islamic University that was founded in A.C. 1961.”

 

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“Turning back to the developmental stages of Islamic Empire, still at the tribes’ period, the most famous  t r i b e s  amongst those ancient Arabians were Ad, Thamud, Tasm, Jadis, the former Jorham and Amalek.

“The tribe of Ad, were ascended from Ad, son of Aws, the son of Aram, the son of Sem, the son of Noah. His posterity was greatly multiplied in the province of Hadramut, the Winding Sands. Their first king was Shedad, the son of Ad, who had built a magnificient city, a fine palace adorned with delicious gardens, purposing to create in his subjects a superstitious veneration of himself as a God. This garden or paradise was called: “Garden of Irem” and is mentioned in Koran. It is said, it is standing in the desert of Aden, but invisible, unless very rarely, when permitted by the God.

“The descendents of Ad in process of time, fell from the worship of true God into idolatry, God sent the Prophet Hud to preach to and reclaim them. But they refused to acknowledge his mission, or obey to him, God sent a hot and suffocating wind, which blew seven nights and eight days together, and entering at their nostrils passed through their bodies, and destroyed them all; a very few only excepted, who had believed in Hud, and retired with him to another place. That prophet afterwards returned into Hadramut, and was buried near Hasec, where there is a small town now standing, called Kabr Hud. Before the Adites were so severely punished, God, to humble them, and incline them to hearken to the preaching of his prophet, afflicted them with drought for years. So, upon it, they sent Lokman, different name from one who lived in David’s time, with sixty others to Mecca to beg rain; but since they did not obtain it, Lokman with some of his company stayed in Mecca, therefore escaped destruction. According to Koran, Lokman gave rise to another tribe called “the latter Ad”, they however, since his descendants continued on idolatry, as Koran witnesses to it, they were returned to monkeys.

“The tribe of Thamud, were the posterity of Thamud, the son of Gather, the son of Aram, who fas falling into idolatry, the prophet Saleh was sent to bring them back to the worship of the true God. This prophet lived between the time of Hud and of Abraham. A small number of the people of Thamud hearkened to the remonstrances of Saleh, but the rest requiring, as a proof of his mission, that he should cause a she-camel big and young to come out of a rock in their presence, he accordingly obtained it of God, and the camel was immediately delivered of a young one ready weaned; but they, instead of believing, cut the hamstrings of the camel and killed her; at which act of impiety of God being highly displeased, three days after struck them dead in their houses by an earthquake and a terrible noise from heaven, which some say, was the voice of Gabriel the archangel crying aloud, “Die all of you!” Saleh, with those who were reformed by him, were saved from his destruction. The prophet going into Palestine, and from thence to Mecca, where he ended his days.

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“The tragical destructions of these two potent tribes are often insisted on in the Koran, as instances of God’s judgment on obstinate unbelievers.

“The tribe of Tasm were the posterity of Lud, the son of Sem, and Jadis of the descendants of Jether. These two tribes dwelt promiscuously together under the government of Tasm, till a certain tyrant made a law, that no maid of the tribe of  Jadis should marry, unless they defloured by him. Which Jadisians not enduring, formed a conspiracy, and inviting the king and chiefs of Tasm to an entertainment, privately hid their swords in the sand, and in the midst of their mirth fell on them and slew them all, and extirpated the greatest part of the tribe; however, the few who escaped obtaining aid of the king of Yaman, then, as it is said, Dhu Habshan Ebn Akran, assaulted the Jadis and utterly destroyed them, there being scarce any mention made that time either of those tribes.

“The former tribe of Jorham (whose ancestor some pretend was one of the eighty persons saved in the ark with Noah, according to Mohammedan tradition) was contemporary with Ad, and utterly perished.

“The tribe of Amelek were descended from Amelek, the son of Eliphaz the son of Esau, though some of the oriental authors say Amelek was the son of Ham, the son of Noah, and others the son of Azd the son of Sem. The posterity of this person rendered themselves very powerful, and before the time of Joseph, conquered the lower Egypt under their king Walid, the first who took the name of Pharaoh, as the eastern writers tell us seeming by these Amelejites to mean the same people which the Egyptian histories call Phoenician shepherds. But after they had possessed the throne of Egypt for some descents, they were expelled by the natives, and at length totally destroyed by the Israelites.

“T h e   p r e s e n t   A r a b i a n s, according to their own historians, are sprung from two stocks, Kahtan, the same with Joctan the son of Eber, and, Adnan, descended in a direct line from Ismael the son of Abraham and Hagar; the posterity of the former they call al Arab al Ariba, meaning the ‘genuine’ or ‘pure Arabs’ or ‘institious Arabs’, though some reckon the ancient lost tribes to have been the only  pure Arabians, therefore the posterity of Kahran also Motareba, which word likewise signifies ‘institious Arabs’, though in a nearer degree than Mostareba: The descendants of Ismael being the more distant graff.

“Besides these tribes of Arabs, who were all descended from the race of Sem, others of them were the posterity of Ham by his son Cuch which name is in the scripture constantly given to the Arabs and their country; though according to reliable resources they are rendered in Utopia; but strickly speaking, the Cushites did not inhabit Arabia properly so called, but the banks of the Euphrates and the Persian Gulf, whether they came from Chuzestan or Sussiana, the original settlement of their father. They might probably mix themselves in process of time with Arabs of the other race.

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“The Arabians were for some centuries under the government of the descendants of Kahtan; Yarab, one of his sons, founding the kingdom of Yaman, and Jorham, another of them, that oj Hejaz.

“The province of YAMAN, or the better part of it, particularly the provinces of Saba and Hadramaut, was governed by the princes of the tribe of Hamyar. Though at length the kingdom was translated to the descendants of Cahlan his brother, who yet retained the title of king of Hamyar, and had all of them the general title off TOBBSA which signifies successor, and was affected to this race of princess, as that of Caesar was to the Roman emperors, and Khalif to the successor of Mohammed. There were several lesser princes who reigned in other parts of Yaman, and were mostly, if not altogether, subject to the king of Hamyar, whom they called the “great king”, but of these history has recorded nothing remarkable or that may be depended upon.

“The first great calamity that befell the tribes in Yaman was the inundation of Aram, which happened soon after the time of Alexander the Great, and is famous in the Arabian history. No less than eight tribes were forced to abandon their dwellings upon this occasion, some of which gave rise to the two kingdoms of Ghassan and Hira. And this was probably the time of the migration of those tribes or colonies which were which were led into Mesopotamia by three chiefs: Becr, Modar and Rabla, from whom the three provinces of that country are still named after Diyar Becr, Diyar Modar, and Diyar Rabla. ABDSHEMS, surnamed Saba, having built the city from called SABA, and afterwards Mareb, made a vast mound of dam to serve as a basin or reservoir to receive the water which came down from the mountains, not only for the use of the inhabitants, and watering their lands, but also to keep their country they had subjected in greater awe by being masters of the water. This building stood like a mountain above their city, and was by them esteemed so strong, that they were in no apprehension of its over failing. The water rose to the height of almost twenty fathoms (1 fathom=1.83 m.), and was kept in on every side by the work so solid, that many of the inhabitants had their houses built upon it. Every family had a certain portion of this water were distributed by aqueducts. But at length God being highly displeased at their great pride and insolence, and resolving to humble and disperse them, sent a mighty flood, which broke down the mound at night while the inhabitants were asleep, and carried away the whole city with the neighbouring towns and people.

“The tribes which remained in Yaman after this terrible devastation still continued under the obedience of the former princes, till about 70 years before Mohammed, when the king of Ethiopia sent over forces to assist the Christians of Taman against the cruel persecution of their king Dhu Novas, a bigoted jew, whom they drove to that extremity, that he forced his horse into the sea, and so lost his life and crown, after which the country was governed by four Ethiopian princes successively, till Seif the son of Dhu Yazan of the tribe Hamyar, obtaining succours from Khosru Anushirwan, king of Persia, which had been denied him by the emperor Heraclius, recovered the throne and drove out the Ethiopians, but himself was slain by some of them who were left behind. The Persians appointed the succeding princes till Yaman fell into the hands of Mohammed, to whom Bazan, or rather Badhan, the last of them, submitted and embraced his new religion.

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“This kingdom of the Hamyarites is said to have lasted 2020 years, or as others say above 3000, the length of the reign of each prince being very uncertain.

“It has been already observed that two kingdoms were founded by those who had left their country on occasion of the  i n u n d a t i o n   o f   A r a m; they were both out of the proper limits of Arabia. One of them was the “Kingdom of Ghassan”. The founders of this kingdom were of the tribe of Azd, who settling in Syria Damascena near a water called Ghassan, thence took their name, and drove out the Dejaamian Arabs of the tribe of Salih, who before possed the country, where they maintained the kingdom for 400 years, as others say 600, or as Abulfeda more exactly computes 616. Five of these princes were named Hareth, which the Greeks write Aretas; and one of them it was whose governor orders the gates of Damascus to be watched to take St. Paul. This tribe were Christians, their last king being Jabalas the son of al Ayham, who on the Arabs’ successes in Syria professed  Mohammedism under Kahlif Omar; but recieving a disgust from him, returned to his former faith, and retired to Constantinople.

“The other kingdom was that of Hira, which was founded by Malec of the descendants of Cahlan in Chaldea or Irak; but after three descents the throne came by marriage to the Lakhmians, called also the Mondars (the general name of those princes), who preserved their dominion, not-withstanding some small irruption by the Persians, till the Khalifat of Abubeer, when the Mondar al Maghrur, the last of them, lost his life and crown by the arms of Khaled Ebu al Walid. This kingdom lasted 622 years eight months. Its princes were under the protection of the kings of Persia, whose lieutenants they were over the Arabs of Iraq, as the kings of Ghassan were for the Roman emperors over those of Syria.

Jorham the son of Kahtan reigned in Hejaz, where his posterity kept the throne till the time of Ismael, but on his marrying the daughter of Modad, by whom he had twelve sons, Kidar, one of them, had the crown resigned to him by his uncles the Jorhamites, though others may be descendants of Ismael expelled that tribe, who retiring to Johainah, were various fortune, at last all destroyed by an inundation.

“After the expulsion of the Jorhamites, the government of Hejaz seems not to have continued for many centuries in the hands of one prince, but to have been divided among the heads of tribes; almost in the same manner as the Arabs of the desert are governed at this day. At Mecca an aristocracy prevailed, where the chief management of affairs till the time of Mohammed was in the tribe of Koreish; especially after they had gotten the custody of the Caaba from the tribe of Khozaah.

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“After the time of Mohammed, Arabia was about three centuries under the Khalifs his successors. But in the year A.C. 325 of the Hejra, great part of that country was in the hands of the Karmatians, a new sect who has committed great outrages and disorders even in Mecca, and to whom the Khalifs were obliged to pay tribute, that the pilgrimage thither might be performed. Afterwards Yaman was governed by the house of Thabateba, descended from Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed, whose sovereignty in Arabia some place so high as the time of Charlemagne. However, it was the posterity of Ali, or pretenders to be such, who reigned in Yaman and Egypt so early as the tenth century. The crown of Yaman descends not regularly from father to son, but the prince of the blood royal who is the most in favour with the great ones, or has the strongest interest, generally succeeds.

“The governors of Mecca and Medina, who have always been of the race of Mohammed, also threw off their subjection to the Khalife, since which time four principal families, all descended from Hasan the son of Ali, have reigned there under the title of Sharif which signifies noble, as they reckon themselves to be on account of their descent. These are Banu Kader, Banu Musa Thani, Banu Hashem, and Banu Kitada all were in the throne of Mecca where they have reigned above 500 years.

“The kings of Yaman, as well as the princes of Mecca and Medina, had always been absolutely independent, and not at all subject even in Ottoman Empire times. These princes often making cruel wars among themselves that had given Ottoman emperor Selim I and son (Magnificent) Soliman an opportunity to make themselves masters of the coasts of Arabia and the Red Sea, and a part of Yaman, by means of a fleet built at Sues; but their successors have not been able to maintain their conquests; for, except the port of Jadda, where they have a Basha (Pasha-General) whose authority was very small.

“In summary, Arabians preserved their liberty and had very little interruption from outside forces. The Assyrian or Median empires never got footing among them. The Persian monarchs, though they were their friends, never make them tributary and were so far from being their masters; that Cambyses, on his expedition against Egypt, was obliged to ask their leave to pass through their territories; and, when Alexander (the Great) had subdued that mighty empire, yet the Arabians had so little apprehension of him, that they alone, of all neighbouring nations, sent no ambassadors to him, either first or last. The Romans never conquered any part of Arabia properly so called; the most they did was to make some tribes in Syria tributary to them. The best was done by Augustus Caesar as far as invasion, or penetration is concerned; yet he too was so far from subduing it that he soon was obliged to return without effecting anything considerable, having lost the best part of army by sickness and other accidents.”

“Well gentelmen and very holy Imam Abdullah, thank you very much for your listening to me. We will continue at next week’s Friday ‘namaz’. God bless all of you.”

And I left there in a hurry.

         

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                                                                           11

Yes, I left there in a hurry, because I was going to serve (I hope He will be satisfied too!) another Prophet’s establishment of another great religion, as a matter of fact, number one to start with at the Monotheistic episode of mankind, the Jewish Faith. I was rushing to the Jewish sinagogue, to meet (Chief) Rabbi David and Rabbi Braun, the head of the Kabbalah Center, this Friday afternoon at the opening ceremonies there, for “Week Day Afternoon Ceremonies” that I was just a little bit late.

Thou I was tired, I was contended what I was doing. Here at the Jewish Center, thank God, I was not going to talk for now, just being a listener and participant. All religions of course are respectable and dignified, but Jewish celebrations appear to be having much more “live ethical” components to me: Stories are alive, colorful and meaningful rituals are executed cheerfully with a lot of show, so to speak. Children run around -in others not that free- with their caps, attires what they have and are the source of cheer. You feel the family sincerity more. So, there seems to be just a little bit fun in Jewish celebrations.

Both rabbis who also are my sincere friends for many years, greeted me respectfully. Besides newcomers, there were plenty of old ‘customers’, the people from other denominations like me. Soon after I arrived and I took my place, Head Rabbi David started to his opening speech with his deep, strong voice.

“This Friday afternoon, I do welcome all of you to our services. To day, I would like to give outlines also exercise weekday afternoon services in Judaism, also preparing for tomorrow’s great Sabbath services. From time to time, I shall remind you for ceremonial attitudes here in the Synagogue, for the newcomers of course.

“Every day in the year, there exist three services of prayer: Shahrit –  Morning Service; Minhah - Afternoon Service, and Arvith –  Evening Service. On “Sabbaths” and “Festivals” a Musaf – Additional Service is added to the Morning Service.

“As one enters the synagogue, one bows reverently toward the Torah in the Ark, joining the Psalmist (5:8) in worshipful obeisance to where the Temple of old stood in the Holy City.

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“In the Minhah – Afternoon Service, as in the Shahrith – Morning Service, prayers are brought as an offering to God every day as was done in the Temple in Jerusalem of old. The name Minhah, which means ‘gift’ or ‘tribute’, was given especially to the grain offering that was brought both morning and afternoon Services in the Temple. It is also associated with “menubath hashemesh”, the sun set, which begins at half hour after midday when the reading of the afternoon service may start. Traditional Jewish thought ascribes the origin of the Minhah prayer to Isaac, of whom we are told (Genesis 24:63) that “he went out to meditate in the field toward eventide.”

* ASHREI :

“The afternoon Service is opened with Biblical verses, Psalms 84:5 and 144:15, proclaiming the happiness of those who dwell in God’s sanctuary. The ecstatic universal vision and sublime praise of Psalm 145 are climaxed by the verse Psalm 115:18 expressing our wish to bless the God to whom we would sing praise – Halelujah. Now we start and let us sing and perform together.

(On entering the synagogue say):

“Lo, though Thyne abundant love I enter Thy house;
In reverence for Thee I bow toward Thy holy temple.”

* Ashrei :

“Happy are they who dwell in Thy house,
Forever shall they praise Thee, Selah.
Happy the people whose whose lot is thus,
Happy the people whose God is the Lord.”

A Psalm of Praise. Of David.                Psalm 145

I extol Thee, my God, the King,
And evermore would bless Thy name.
Every day I shall bless Thee,
And I would praise Thy name forever and ever.

Lord, Thou are great and highly extolled,
Yet inscrutable is Thy greatness.
One generation to another shall praise Thy works,
And recount Thy mighty acts.

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Let me speak of brillant glory of Thy majesty.
And of Thy wondrous works,
And I will declare Thy greatness.
Men shall speak of the night of Thine awesome acts,
They shall recount Thy goodness abundant,
And joyously sing of Thy righteousness.

The Lord is gracious and compassionate,
Long forbearing and of great mercy.
The Lord is good to all,
And His tenderness is over all His works.

All Thy works shall praise Thee, O Lord,
And Thy devoted servants shall bless Thee.
They shall speak of the glory of Thy kingdom,
And talk of Thy power.

To make known to the sons of men Thy mighty acts,
And the glorious splendor of Thy kingdom.
The kingdom is an everlasting kingdom,
And Thy dominion is through all generations.

Lord, Thou upholdest all the falling,
And raisest up all who are bowed down.
The eyes of all wait on Thee,
And Thou givest them their food in its season.

Thou openest Thy hand
And satisfiest all living with favour.
The Lord is righteous in all His ways,
And merciful in all His works.
The Lord is near to all who call on Him,
The all who call on Him in truth.
He fulfills the desire of those who revere Him,
He hears their cry and saves them.
The Lord preserves all who love Him,
But all the wicked He will destroy.
My mouth shall speak the praise of the Lord,
Yes, all flesh bless His holy name forever and ever.

“And we, we will bless the Lord
Henceforth and forever, Hallelujah – Praise the Lord.”

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* READER’S KADDISH :

“For the recitation of the devout prayer of glorification of God’s name there is required the presence of at least a minyan, the religious quorum of ten men of the Jewish people. This short Kaddish marks the end of the preceding Biblical readings.

(Recited by the Reader in public worship.)

Exalted and hallowed be God’s great nam
in this world of His creation.
May His will be fulfilled
And His sovereignty revealed
In the days of your lifetime
And the life of the whole house of Israel
Speedily and soon,
And say, Amen.

(Congregation and Reader respond) :

Be His great name blessed forever,
Yea, to all eternity.

Be the name of the most Holy One blessed,
Praised and honored, extolled and glorified,
Adored and exalted Supremely,

(Congregation and Reader respond) :

Blessed (*) be He,

“Beyond all blessings and hymns, praises and consolations
That may be uttered in this world,
And say, Amen.(**)”

________

(*) Between Rash Hashana and Yom Kippur say instead: Far beyond (**) for the order of the afternoon service on the Fast of the tenth, Reader continue with the reading of Shemoneh Esreh. (See following!)

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* THE SHEMONEH ESREH (Eighteen Blessings) :

“The central prayer around which the daily morning service, afternoon and evening services which are built is the Shemoneh Esreh, ‘Eighteen Blessings’. This prayer had been offered more than two thousand years by the worshiper while standing feet together and facing together the Holy Land. It is prayed individually and silently, and in a congragation it is repeated aloud by the Hazzan (*) in the morning and afternoon sessions. Originally twelve and thirteen prayers of petition are offered between the three opening blessings praising God and three final blessings of thanksgiving.

(The congregation rises to read the Shemoneh Esreh in silent devotion. The Reader repeats the Shemoneh Esreh at the conclusion of silent prayer).

“As I proclaim the name of the Lord, ascribe greatness to our God. Lord, open my lips, that my mouth may declare Thy praise.”

“Blessed (**) art Thou, Lord our God and God of our fathers, God of Abraham, God of Isaac and God of Jacob, the God who is great, mighty and awesome, God sublime who lavishes tender goodness. Master of all, Thou art mindful of the loving piety of our fathers, and for Thine own sake Thou wilt lovingly bring a Redeemer to their children’s children.

(Between Rosh Hashanah (***) and Yom Kippur (****) add):

“Remember us for life, divine King who delights in life. Inscribe us in the book of life to fulfill Thy purpose, God of life.

“King who dost succor, save, and shield, blessed (**) art Thou, Lord, shield of Abraham.

—————- (*) HAZZAN : Hebrew name for the ‘Cantor’, the official in the synagogue who is the leading person to lead worshippers in prayer, (**) BLESSED :  Before invoking the name of God one bows here. (***) ROSH HASHANAH : Meaning “the head of the year”, terming the Jewish New Year observance. It is celebrated on the first and second days of the month of Tishre, namely September-October, and indicates of the Ten Days of Penitence. (****) YOM KIPPUR :  Hebrew for the Day of Atonement, and the most solemn day in the Jewish religion. It is observed on the tenth day of Tishre. In the Bible it is described as a “Sabbath of Solemn Rest”. Work, as well as taking of food and drink are strictly forbidden but to pray constantly in the synagogue.”

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“Lord who art mighty for all eternity, Thou revivest the dead. Thou art is great in saving the living.”

(From Shemini Hag Atsereth (*) until Pesah (**) add):

By making the wind to blow and the rain to fall.

“Sustaining them in love. Thou upholdest the falling. Thou healest the sick, Thou freest the bound. In Thy great love Thou revivest the dead, keeping faith with those who sleep in the dust. Who is like Thee, Lord of power! Who can be compared with Thee, King who sends death, and who in the flowering of Thy saving power gives life!”

(Between Rash Hashanah and Yom Kippur add):

Who is like Thee, merciful Father, in Thy compassion remembering for first

Thou hast created!

“Thou wilt keep faith in reviving the dead. Blessed art  Thou,
Lord  who revives the dead.

* KEDUSHAH  (Holiness):

“In the HAZZAN’s repetition of the theirs blessing in the Shemoneh Esreh, the Kedushah - ‘Holiness’ is included. Then all stand and join in the sanctification of God’s name by echoing from prophetic visions the words of the angels proclaiming that the divine holiness fills all the earth (Isiah 6:3) as other angels respond that His glory fills all (Ezekiel 3:12), and the Jewish people affirm with the Psalms (146:10) that Zion’s God will be supreme forever.”

(In the repetition, The Kedushah is recited while standing)           
(Congregation and Reader respond) :

“Let us hallow Thy name in this world below, own as in the prophet’s vision
“The Seraphim hallowing it in the heavenly heights calls to one another:

_____________

(*) SHEMINI HAG ATSERETH (Sukkot) : Hebrew name of the “Feast of Tabernacles”, the fall festival that begins on the 15th day of Tishre. According to the Bible, the eighth day shall be observed as a “Feast of Conclusion” (Shemini Atzeret).  (**) PESAH (Passover) : The Jewish festival, commemorating the deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt. The first day of the festival falls upon the 15th of April (March-April) and lasts for eight days.”

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(Congregation and Reader respond ):

“Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts,
The fullness of all the earth is His glory.”

(Congregation with the Reader responding ):

Responding in blessing, they say :

(Congregation and Reader respond) :

“Blessed and glorified is the Lord from His abode.”

(Congregation with the Reader responding) :

And in His Holy Words is written :

(Congregation and Reader respond):

“The Lord shall reign forever,
Your God, O Zion, through all generations.
Hallelujah – Praise the Lord.”

(Reader)

“To all generations we would proclaim Thy greatness, and to all eternity declare Thy holiness, and may the praise of Thee, our God, never leave our mouth, for Thou art God and King, great and holy; * blessed art Thou, Lord,  the holy God.”

________

(*) Between Rash Hashanah and Yom Kippur, conclude this blessing thus: “blessed art Thou, Lord, the holy King.”

________

* AL HANNISSM :

During the eight days of Hanukkah, there is added to the Shemoneh Esreh in every service a special thanksgiving introduced by cumulative words of praise. I It recalls the divine deliverance from the terrible Syrian tranny in the days of the Maccabees. On PURIM (*) there is added a similar paragraph that is also introduced by Al Hannissim. This recalls the deliverance which came to the Jews in Persia in the days of Mordecai, as recorded in the Biblical Book of Esther. “For all this, divine King, be Thou blessed and exalted overmore.”

________

(*) PURIM :  Jewish festival observed  annually on the 14th day of Hebrew month of Adare (February-March), commemorating the miracle of survival from Haman’s plot to kill all the Jews in Persia.)

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* AL HANNISSIM :

(On Hanukkah add the following Al Honnissism) :

“We thank Thee also for the wonders, the deliverance, and the triumphant victory and liberation which Thou hast wrought for our fathers in days of old at this season. It happened in the days of Mattathias son of Johanan, and his sons the Hasmonean high priests. Then the cruel Hellenist power rose up to force Thy people Israel to forget Thy Torah and transgress the commands of Thy will. In that hour of their trial, Thou in Thy great mercy didst rise to take up their cause and defend their rights. Meting out retribution Thou hast delivered the strong into the hand of the weak, many into the hand of the few, the impure into the hand of the righteouss, and tyrants into the hands of devotess of Thy teaching. By Thy great and saving deliverance of Thy people Israel Thou hast made for Thyself unto this very day a great and holy name in Thy world. Then Thy children came to the profaned shrine of Thy house, cleared Thy Temple, cleansed Thy sanctuary, kindled lights in its holy courts, and instituted these eight days of dedication to sing thanksgiving praise to Thy great name.”

(On Purim add the following Al Honnissim) :

“We thank Thee also for the wonders, the deliverance, and the triumphant victory and liberation which Thou hast wrought for our fathers in days of old at this season. It happened in Shushan, the Persian capital, in the time of Mordecai and Esther. Then the wicked Haman rose up and sought to slay and utterly annihilate all the Jews, young and old, women and babes, in one day, the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, Adar. In Thy great mercy Thou hast frustrated his counsel and subverted his designs, causing them to recoil on his own head until he and his sons were hanged on the gallows.”

After the last “Amen”, I left the Synagogue, while mythical sounds and prayers still vibrating in the air. Naturally I am planning to attend Kabala classes, next week. Tomorrow is the greatest day of Jewish Faith: Sabbath. We shall observe it together.

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12

To day is saturday. This is first saturday after our newcomers honored us, last week-end. Since to day is famous Jewish holiday Sabbath.

So, I had my breakfast with my lovely wife and three cats, at least two of them laying on the dinner-table, having been first fed by my wife. What beautiful scenery is that! What  say those beautiful ocean deep, ocean blue eyes? Then, I had just a look in the New Atlantis News where there was nothing other than usual daily happenings, week-end screening programs and alike. Then, I gave a ring to Rabbi David:                       -Hello Rabbi David.”                       -Oo, hello honorable President.”                       -Well, it was very nice of you that you illuminated us yesterday, as usual. I assume, to day, you shall continue particularly about Sabbath, aren’t you?”                       -Yes, prinicipally yes; but I would like to give some knowledge about our people’s  origins, connected with it.”-Superb. You don’t have any objection then my being there too?”
-You just give us honor. See you at 10.00 A.M.
-See you. God Bless you!
-God Bless you too.”

And, there I was again at the beautiful synagogue, at downtown, after about 12-minute train ride. Rabbi David in front, in his official Rabbi’s robe, his helpers behind, greeted me respectfully and I too, also respectfully bowing toward the Torah in the Arc, took my seat, in the first row in this magnificent Solomon’s Hall. Whole synagogue was full and there was an obvious joy and sincerity easily inspired in the air for this first holly togetherness among newcomers. Soon after my arrival, Rabbi David took his place and began to discourse:
“I am Rabbi David and the Head Rabbi and the President of this New Atlantis Synagogue. I assume I have met many of you yesterday. I whole-heartily welcome all of you, for a joint togetherness: Child and aged, old and new, children of Abraham, in this beautiful temple, in this beautiful land of New Atlantis.

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“I assume almost all of you are of Jewish Faith, and see that twenty seven newcomers all are here, plus, I see some new faces too. Our doors are open to all God-lovers and believers, regardless of your religious background. Consequently, first I would like to make an introductory speech, about the Jewish Faith and values, later on we shall enter in our regular Sabbath ceremonies. You shall find your “Siddur” on your desks that are written both in Hebrew and English. During the week, I would like to get together with the heads of the families and structure some programs for both grown-ups and children in reference to our regular ceremonies and Kabbalah Readings. For your acknowledgement, I would like to say, our practice and teachings all are under the auspecies of The Rabbinical Council.

“Well, as you may very well know that SIDDUR is the Jewish Prayer Book that carries the depths of not all the Jewish faith, but the history of all humanity. It constantly and continually radiates optimism. It greets every single new-born day with the cascading assertion that God had endowed men with a pure soul. In human soul, there is undeniable basic goodness.

“The exiled, wandering Jew has tiredlessly passed forward leaden-winged centuries joyously ever, to regenerate his own people again and re-built Zion. In his divine destiny, the Prayer Book has been a must instrument to survive. It had been confirmed repetitiously that IT SHALL REMAIN FOREVER to comfort the Jewish People for its sorrows. The ideals of Golden Age are set mot in the past, but in and for the future; blessings and prayers in this book, are addressed not to God only, not only as ours and our fathers’ God, but also to Him, as Avinu shebashamayim, our Father who art in heaven, Meleh haolam, the King of the whole universe, and, Ribbono shel glam, the Universal Lord. The Daily worship echoes the Biblical ideals of daily living and the brotherhood that all men should live together, under the sovereignty and dignity of one Father, the Father of all mankind.

“The Prayer Book also reflects the Jewish social idealism. It aims to reach out a noble, spiritual society. Communal praying and worship, brings a lot of strength and  through devotion, the congregation, reads in the Psalmist’s word, ‘Let my prayer come to Three, O Lord, in an acceptable time,’ is destined for the God’s kingdom on the earth.                        “The SIDDUR also contains ecstatic praises of Good as man’s infinite ideal. The springing Biblical Psalms, praise God’s love and compassion and His mercy that tempers justice for all. Meah Berahoth (hundred blessings) link everyone to His blessings by a spiritualizing transformation right into the souls.

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“Judaism demands that every single Jew should study TORAH, “The Book of Proverbs”, in order to be the victor of his quest of conquering the knowledge and truth that leads to “right”. As you may know, the meaning of the word of Torah is “teaching”. It responds to the demands and questions of the soul, particularly those of mystical longings. Judaism insists upon the celestial marriage of faith and reason.

“Now, I would like to talk about ISRAEL, our Homeland’s historical background a little bit..                   “As Bible says, the Patriarch Joseph, by the angel of God, was named “Israel” with whom he had wrestled with. Therafter, the descendants of Israel afterwards were called “Bene Israel = The Children of Israel.” “After the death of King SOLOMON, ten Israelite tribes that were living on Northern Palestine revolted against the ‘House of David’, and under the leadership of Jeroboam, son of Nebat, the Kingdom of Israel was established in B.C. 933. That kingdom lasted for 211 years, ending at the year of B.C. 722. The capital was Shechem, then King Omri moved it to Samaria. There was no outside invaders for a while, however constant inside struggle and changings continued on. The tribes, under Kings used Idol worship when Prophet Elijah open a war against IDOLTRY. Last King was Hoseha (reigned between B.C. 734 – B.C.722) that the kingdom was destroyed by Assyrians that year. Naturally some exile had begun. Some 150 years later the people of the Southern Kingdom of Judah also suffered exile that had been almost a fate for the Jewish People,until they finally established a State, after World War II, on A.C. May 14’1948 when Palestine was divided into a Jewish and an Arab state.

“As far as origins are concerned; according to the Bible, first semitic tribes of Hebrews emigrated from Mesopotamia at about B.C. 2,000 and settled in Canaan. Jacob and his family later on moved to Egypt to search a better life and established themselves in the Goshen area. There, all along the several centuries, the descendants of the Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, multiplying greatly they developed into twelve Israelite Tribes – Children of Israel. However, the Pharaohs of Egypt took them under slavery, and the Israelites were freed by Prophet Moses and returned again to Canaan under the leadership of Joshua.

“After a long sttrugle they finally united under the kingship of Saul, followed by Samuel, David and Solomon, were able to establish the “Kingdom of Israel”. After Solomon’s death, the Israeli country was divided into Northern -Israel- Kingdom that comprised ten tribes, and, Judah – the Southern Kingdom. After 200 years of existence, the Northern Israel was destroyed by Assyrians, thus, the Southern Israel, Judah, did survive and represented the Jewish alone, as a nation. However, in B.C. 586 Judah too was destroyed and taken over by Babylonians that most of the people had to move into Babylon. After this event, for hundreds of years,

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Judians lived under Persian, Egyptian and Syrian submissions. Then, in the year B.C. 168, as a result of Maccabean uprise, Judea again had become re-established until Roman rule that occured in the year B.C. 63. Then, until A.C. 1948, spreading around the world, they had remained “wondering Jews”. As history notices, in A.C. 16th Century, the King of Spain called them out of the country, then, the Emperor Great Soleman of Ottoman Empire, invited them to settle in the territories of the said empire. The faithful Jewish people had never forgotten that Turkish hospitality.

*

“No doubt, the Prayer Book is an outgrowth of the Scriptures. Even though its language is that of the Biblical Hebrew, it is also mixed with that of Aramaic which also is seen here and there in Bible. In it, there are very valuable phrases, thoughts and inspirations, also important information about the Synagogue services, more than fifty of psalms from the Scripture’s Rupt Hymn Book, reflecting the Jewish spiritual vision, two thousand years ago when Biblical prophets had sopken.

“The services today are reminiscents of the organized Israeli Children’s worship, in the Tabernacle of Moses and Aaron, in the wilds and shrine at Shiloh, as well as in King Solomon’s Temple and later on, in the Temple that was erected in Zion. The Psalms that we are chanting today, were all chanted gloriously in the Temple of Old, those days.

“Now, let us ubserve the Sabbath.
“It had been said that “more the  Jews preserved the Sabbath, Sabbath had preserved the Jews!” How true is that. From old times on, the faithful Jewish People, before the sunset that was going to give birth to Sabbath, had prepared themselves for that glorious event. As we read from Talmud, Rabbi Hanina used to put his best clothing on, saying: ‘Come, let us go forth and greet the Sabbath queen.’ In this spirit, now we are reading “The Biblical Song of Songs”, in praise of the Israel’s bride that had already come. Please be aware of the fact that, beginning of next week, we shall read parts 2 and 3 on next friday afternoon and there on.

“Chapter One – The Song of Songs, which is Solomon’s

“He would kiss me with the kisses on his lips; thy wooing is sweeter than wine. Sweet art thou as fragrant perfume, as scent poured forth art thou; maidens needs must love thee. O take me with thee, that we may run away; for the king has brought me to his chambers, saying, “We shall be glad and rejoice in thee, and chant the praises.” But thy coming is sweeter than wine. Maidens needs must love thee.

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“Dark am I, but comely, ye daughters of Jerusalem, dark as the tents of Kedar, comely as the curtains of Solomon. Stare not at me because I am swarthy, for it s the sun has scorched me. My own mother’s sons dealt harshly with me; They made me keeper of the wineyards. My own wineyard -(my fairness)- I have not kept.

“Tell me, O thou whom my soul loves, where art thou pasturing they flocks? Where now dost thou let them rest at noon? Lest I wander astray by the flocks of thy companions.
“As if thou knows not, thou loveliest of women! Roam forth in the tracks of the flock and pasture thy kids beside the tents of the shepherds.

“I liken thee, my dear one, to my steeds in Pharaoh’s chariots. How comely would be thy cheeks bedight with jeweled wreaths! How comely thy neck arrayed with chains of jewels! We will make thee wreaths of gold for thy cheeks and for thy neck pendants of silver.

“So long as thou, O king, wast in thy divan, (and in my wineyard,) my spikenard gave forth its scent. My belowed is to me a cluster of myrrh which rests all night on my heart. My belowed is to me a spray of henna in the wineyards of Engedi.

“Lo, thou, my dear, lo, thou art fair. Thine eyes are dovelike.
Lo, thou, my belowed, art fair and very sweet, and our couch is a simple green bower. Our house beams are of cedar, our rafters of cypress.”

“Now, we are proceeding with LEHU NERANNENAH
Come, let us sing praises to the Lord” is the opening call of Psalms 95 to 00 and Psalm 29; six Psalms symbolize the six working days of the week. In the sixth, seven times repetition of the phrase “the voice of the Lord” is also reminiscent of the seventh day Sabbath and is associated with the seven benedictions od the Sabbath Amidah. “The Lord will bless His people with peace” is a very suitable introduction to Sabbath that brings the blessing of peace.

(Psalm 85)

“Come, let us sing praises to the Lord,
Let us chant in joy to the Rock (*) of our salvation.
Let us come before His presence with thanksgiving.
With joyous songs  we shall chant to Him.

______________________

(*) Rock of Ages = Maos Tzur :  Opening words of the Hebrew hymn for Hanukkah (One of the biggest feasts of the Jewish religion; it starts on the 25th day of the month Kislev, -third month of Jewish calender, corresponding to November-December, of 30 or 31-day duration- and lasts for eight days. It means “Lights of Dedication”, or, “Feast of Dedication”, sung after the lighting of the Hannukah candles. In English literature it is known as “The Rock of the Ages” and signifies the Maccabean victory (A dynasty that started by Judah Maccabeus in the second century B.C., fighting against the despotic ruler of Syria, Antiochus. It lasted for 120 years and at the end bowed to Persian rule.) and compares is to the deliverence of Israel from Egypt.”

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For above all gods.
The Lord is a great God and a great King.
In whose hands are the depths of the earth,
And the heights of the mountains are His.

His is the sea, it is He who made it,
And His hands formed the dry land.
Come, let us know bow down and kneel,
Let us bend the knee before the Lord our Maker.

For He is our God,
And we are the people of His pasture,
The flock guided by His hand.
O that you would this day hearken to My voice!
Harden not your heart as at Meribah,
As on the day at Massah in the wilderness.

When your fathers tried Me;
They tested Me, though they had seen My work.

Forty years was I wearied with that generation
And I said they are a people who err in their heart;
So that I swore in My anger
That they should not come to the resting place I had appointed.”

(Psalm 96)

“Sing to the Lord a new song,
Sing to the Lord, all the earth.
Sing to the Lord, bless His name;
Day by day proclaim His saving power.

Declare His glory among the nations,
His wonders among all the peoples,
For great is the Lord and exalted in praise;
Awesome is He Above all gods.

For all the gods of the heathens are idols,
But the Lord made the heavens.
Grandeur and majesty are in His presence,
Strength and beauty are in His Temple.

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Ascribe to the Lord, you families of nations,
Ascribe to the Lord glory and might.
Ascribe to the Lord in the beauty of holiness;
Bring an offering and come to His courts.

Worship the Lord in the beauty of holiness;
Tremble before Him, all the earth,
Though the world is fixed that it he not moved……
Declare among the nations, “The Lord reigns;

He will judge the peoples with equity.”

Let the heavens be glad and the earth rejoice.
Let the ocean roar and the fullness thereof,
Let the field rejoice and all that is therein,
Let all trees of the forest then sing for joy before the Lord.

For He comes, yes, He comes to judge the earth;
He will judge the world with righteousness,
And peoples with His undeviating law.”

“A Sabbath cannot be a Sabbath without “The Sabbath’s Psalm” This is the 92nd Psalm. This was chanted by the Levites (The members of the tribe Levi; third son of Jacob, and the father of the tribe Levi.) on the Sabbath day in the temple of Jerusalem. Then comes the 93rd Psalm that acclaims the God of the creation which was completed in the sixth day, before the Sabbath.”

A PSALM.     A SONG.      FOR THE SABBATH DAY

(Psalm 92)

“It is good to give thanks to the Lord,
And sing praise to Thy name, O Most High,
To declare Thy loving kindness in the morning.
And Thy faithfulness at night,

With a ten-stringed harp and with psaltery,
With solemn song upon the lyre.
For Thou, O Lord, hast made me rejoice through Thy work,
I sing praise of the works of Thy hands.

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Lord, how great are Thy works,                                          How exceeding deep Thy thoughts!                                                   The dullard observes not,                                          Nor does a knave understand this,

That when evil men spring up as grass,                                          And those who do only iniquity flourish,                                                    It is for their utter destruction.                                           But Thou art supreme forever, O Lord,                                                    For lo, Thine enemies, O Lord,                                                    For lo, Thine enemies shall perish;                                                 They who do only iniquity shall be dispersed.

But my horn of strength Thou hast raised up                                                     Like that of the wild ox;                                                     I am anointed with fresh oil.                                           My eye has looked on those who lie in wait for me,                                           My ears hear when the wicked rise against me.

The righteous shall flourish as the palm tree,                                                     Growing strong as a cedar in Lebanon.                                           Planted in the House of the Lord,                                                     They flourish in the courts of our God.                                            They shall bear fruit still in old age,                                                      Vigorous with the sap of life shall they be.                                            To proclaim that the Lord is just,                                                       My Rock, in whom is no unrighteousness.”

(Psalm 93)

“The Lord reigns, robed in majesty,                                              The Lord is robed and girt with power                                                                 So that the worls is set firm                                                                 That it cannot be moved.

“Thy throne is established from of old,                                                                 From everlasting art Thou.                                              The floods have lifted up, O Lord,                                              The floods have lifted up their voice,                                              The floods have lifted up their roaring.

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But above the thunder of many waters,                                                       Mighty waters, breakers of the sea,                                                                 Mighty art Thou, Lord on high.

The testimonies are exceeding sure;                                                        Holiness beseems Thy House,                                                                  O Lord, for evermore.”

——

So, that was the end of today’s Sabbath services at the New Atlantis Synagogue, downtown. It was so serene and blissful. God bless all people who attend and also who do not attend Services. It is time to go home and be with my family.

Before taking off at the street-car station near-by, I wanted to extend my voyage nad have a tour around. Pushing the music botton again at the side of window, choosing Vivaldi’s “Double Concerto Per Eco” for Violins and String Orchestra, leaned back and plunged into deep thoughts for 65 minutes’ duration of that magnificient music and silently absorbed the miracle of being alive and a part of living, seeing and feeling world. This land was “a chosen land”; years ago, when our ancestors, including mine, when chose this territory, were in a dreaming stage, whether they were going to find an eternal happiness through living like “just human beings”, away from all kind of indicencies, mockery, envie and bloodshed. Their dream had come true, Thank God, and here we were and how happy I was simply being a worldly President of this lovely poeple, young and old. I returned home completely refreshed and rested. Hugged my beloved ones at home, sipped my lemonade in front of the Big Screen and watched some sportive events. It was a quite loaded week, full of events, and everything seemed to be in good controls.

“What your plans are for tomorrow, my Dear,” whispered my wife.             “Oo, let me think, I guess it will be good idea to visit the French Catholic Church for their Sunday Services tomorrow morning. In the afternoon, I am afraid I shall have to make some preparation for the evening’s Cabinet Meeting. You know, some new people want to establish a Masonic Lodge. We have to interview them too. Now, I should make some calls for those. I am glad you alerted me.”             “My pleasure. When you shall meet upstairs for the Cabinet Meeting, we, wives could get together for a cup of tea and cake, this shall be lovely,” cheered Juda.

I got up and called Keeth that he should call the other ministers, for a Cabinet  Meeting here, tomorrow, Sunday evening at 20.00 P.M., as well as the applicants for a possible Masonic Lodge establishment meeting, at 21.00 P.M. at the Presidential Rectangular Office, at the 33rd floor as well. These arrangements had been confirmed in ten minutes time. I succumbed into my comfortable arm-chair again. A youngster was screaming at the top of his voice: “Goal…. Goal, goal, goal..”

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13

 

          The French Catholic Church, is a relatively small but very charming gracious building, is situated at the corners of Mega Station and Venus Avenues. Its President, Pere Pierre Durand, is originally from Negal of Rika, a retired medical and a sage religious man. As he was getting older, like all of us, his ey’sight had begun to diminish that had upset him terribly due to the fact that he was an avid reader. But, he, solemnly had said then, “As Old Greeks say, when humans’ ey’sights weaken, the wisdom eyes shine!” So, he chose the pius occupation. His great personality, in spite of the fact of his being black, had spread and conquered everybody’s hearts. His lovely and devoted wife Lola, had always been his “eye and ear”, directing him everywhere near-by.

So, as we arrived this graceful church, Pere Pierre and Lola were just getting out of their quarters. We met at half-way and hugged each other with love and compassion. Then Juda and I, took our ‘pre-assigned seats’ for Government Cabinet Members, of course at the first row, as usual. Needless to say, before taking our seats, we did not neglect to burn candles and to kneel down before the altar. The beautiful odors of the scents had already filled the entire air. And, right on the dot at the eleven o’clock, as org began to vibrate its celestial melodies, Pere Pierre and his assistants, also alter-boys on the line, entered the ceremonial area. The church was completely full of prayers, very few of them with the ear-phones (trans-cares) in their ears, all rised. The small reading books in our palms, with the priest we began to read:

“PETIT JESUS, NOUS OFFRONS AVEC VOUS LA PATENE A DIEU, NOTRE PERE DU CIEL, PAR LES MAINS DE NOTRE BONNE MERE LA SAINT EGLISE, C’EST A DIRE EN UNION AVEC LE PAPE, AVEC NOTRE EVEQUE ET AVEC NOS PRETRES.”

(Jesus Child, we are offering the sacred bowl to God with you, our Father in Heaven, by the hands of our church’s servant angel, namely with the unity of the Pope with our Bishop and Priests.)

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Then, we sat down solemnly and, Pere Pierre, read the Morning Payer, while we listened to carefully and whole-heartily.

“Au nom du Pere, et du Fils, et du Saint-Spirit.”                 (In the name of Father, and of son and of Holy-Spirit.)

             “Mon Dieu, je crois fermement que vous etes partout et particulierement en ce lieu. Je vous adore comme mon Créateur et mon souverain Maitre, et je me soumets entirement a Vous.  (I believe firmly that You are everywhere and paricularly in this place. I adore You as my Creator and frequenter Master, and I submit myself entirely to You.)

                “Je vour remercie, o mon Dieu, de m’avoir crété, de m’avoir racheté et fait chrétien, comme aussi de toutes les autres graces que j’ai reçues de vous, et particulierement de m’avoir conservé durant cette nuit.  (O my God, I am grateful to you for you created me, you redeemed me and made me Christian; and all the other graces that I receive from You and particularly of conserving me during to night”  And so on.

After the communion was performed for the ones who desired, with the accompaniment of org, the prayers sang a hymn:

“Marchons, chrétiens : Christians, let us walk! 

Marchons, chrétiens au combat, a glorie,               Marchons, chrétiens, sur les pas de Jésus.               Nous remporterons la victoire,                Et la couronne des élus.”

(Christians, let us walk to the glory,

Christians, let us walk to war, (and the) glory                Christians, let us walk on the feet of Jesus.                We are winning the victory,                And, the crown of the eleets.)

The ceremonies ended with Schubert’s “Gloria”

Gloire, gloire au Seigneur, a Lui gloire,                Diront sans fin les esprits bien heureux                Gloire, gloire au Seigneur, a Lui gloire,                Paix au coeur droit ne cherchant que les Cieux

(Glory, glory to God, glory to Him,                Let us say endlessly happy spirits                Glory, glory to God, glory to Him,

Peace to the right soul that searches nothing but skies!)

How serene all of these were. Undescribable and unforgettable.

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14

            For tonite’s Cabinet Meeting we gathered at the RECTANGULAR OFFICE, as I had cited before. Why they had called here “rectangular, the reason was very simple. In this room, at the top of the 33rd floor of Pyramid I, everything was shaped in from of a rectangle. Was there a ‘secret’ freemason amongst our founding fathers, I don’t know. The windows, tables, chairs, the library material, electrical systems and decorative material all in were of a rectangular shape. From the windows, it were possible to see far away distances by kilometers the four corners of the Republic Island. Also the “IGL = Information Gathering Laboratory” and an “Observatory” were occupying the top place. Even though for a possible fire all precautions were taken care of, and just in case of a power failure, an iron made staircase, protected with unbreakable glass of 10 cm. thick, in a spiral way, is descending from here down to the bottom at the outside of the building, passing-by every single storey in the building, available to evacuate the people if and when needed. Next to the lightning rod at the utmost point, there was a waving flag: The flag of New Atlantis, a white base and a rainbow at the middle: Hope of all mankind.

No need to say, all my ministers were right on time in the Rectangular Office, taking their seats all around me at the Rectangular Table. I touched the “registration” at the beginning of the Conference. THERE IS NO NEED FOR MINI-SKIRTED FEMALE SECRETARIES TO ACCOMPANY US IN OUR MEETINGS LATE SUNDAY NIGHTS. At the end, we compile our printed material by hand, each receives one, one extra copy left on the table that the following morning a regular clerk when comes to work, by the direction of the Personnel Department Head, shall file the minutes of the meeting, whatever forms are proper.

“Okey gentlemen, the prospects shall be here within an hour or so. We shall interview them, and if everything is o.k., naturally we shall give green light. Keath, you had given me the list of the five men and some characteristics:

George K., 33, bachelor, Country came from: REECE;               Smith L., 39, married, from: GLAND;                            Clarke M., 28, single, from: RANCE;               Gregor S., 34, married, from: MERICA, and,               Yani Z:, 30, single, from: ALTA ISLAND.

                                                                            -98-

“Keith, would you be kind enough make photocopies of this list for the other ministers? Thank you!” As Keath went to the next room to the Copying Center for that purpose, I continued:

“Needless to say, Keith is going to check tomorrow morning on the International Information Center through “double-pink lines” whether these men have any record or not. Suppose they don’t have any, how we should proceed?

“Where they are going to function?” asked Jack, “namely where they are going to meet? Do they need any permanent housing, any supplies? Or, are they going to use one of the temples that already exists?”

“Since they are going to to their own secret meetings, continuous ceremonies and rituals, they need a separate, independent place. Where do you think such a place could exist?”

“Atilla, what do you think; as I visited the French Church this morning, there I saw the unusued chapel, at the other corner of the garden, under chestnut trees. (I adressed that minute to Keith who was just returning from the copying room who was distrubuting the names’ list) Keith, is that building suitable for them you think or we have to provide some other place?”             “Mr. President, I think it is available. The last we had used that gracious building for three elderly French nuns as special dormitories as well as for some private praying sessions, but when they needed more supervised medical care, we took them to the Retirement House. Since then it is free. Jack, why you, tomorrow morning, don’t send me one of your building supervisors to my office that we should visit the French Church and see what we can do.”            “You bet I shall do Keith.”            “I myself too, in the morning I shall call Pere Pierre, and request a permission from him for such possibility,” I said. “I want to be sure that he should not have any other respectable projects on his mind. Okey?”             “Okey.”             “Furthermore, for any other cleaning, repair, personnel, kitchen or service material and needs, you Jack and Keith, between you, I am sure you’ll arrange then, aren’t you?”             “Yes Sir, by all means“Jack, I have a very special request from you. The other night, as usual I was secreening the entire Halls, especially the sacred meetings of course with no Screen on, but the sound appeared to be somewhat disappearing, week or interrupted, noisy. Particularly that of Mormon’s Church. Would you be kind enough to check there, of course in as much as in a natural manner possible and let me know whether there is anything wrong in communication channels? For this prospective building to, on the grounds of St. Ethienne Church?”             “Sure, Mr. President. Now already is the beginning of the summer, we are about to start to make a general surveillance for all. I shall pay a particular attention to the buildings that you mentioned. And, I will report you back.”              “Thank you Jack. And, your gracious ladies, Edith and Debra, I did not lean upon you to night that much. Besides the subjects that we had spoken personally at the beginning of the week, is there anything that you would like to contribute to night?”

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Both ladies with velvety smiles, “Thank you, Mr. President. You are quite loaded to night. Nothing special. If there shall be, you know, we are quick to lay eggs!” (Everyone laughed!)

At this point the group of five, in their clean attire and polite mannerism, appeared at the open door and, after the customary formal introductions and name exchanges amongst all, sat down on the chairs around the Rectangular Table.              “Well, gentlemen, first of all I hope you feel very comfortable here, in our land, that also is going to be your land. There had been a complete week since your arrival, is everything in order? Settlement in the houses, the routine evaluations?”               “Yes, Mr. President, everything is in order, nearly perfect.”, responded Smith L. “We are from GLAND, have two children, Alec 5, and Heather 7, who immensely loved the clean and orderly way of life. Plenty of room to run. Big screen to watch everything big, you know kids. I am sure, Mr. Gleem’s office received the total evaluations. I guess, in a short while, we shall be provided with some jobs that I am quite anxious to start.               “What was your job or training in your Home?”                “I am a mechanic; I worked as a master mechanic in auto-repair business, then in some industrial machinery, milk industry and alike. My wife used to work in nursing homes for elderly.”                 “You gentlemen, let us start from George, Mr. K. Would you like to summarize with a few sentences who are you and what you were doing?”                  “Well, I am from REECE, a bachelor. I worked in sailing business and, in the production and repair of sailcloath, aslo worked in winehouse, as taster for years.”                   “I am sure we shall use your first qualification at large. Well, Mr.Clarke M., what about you?”                   “Sir, I am from RANCE; also single. I am principally an auto-mechanic. I was one of the private chauffeurs of a motor company vice-presidents.                   “Mr. Gregor S., you Sir?                   “Well, I am from MERICA, Sir. I worked at a News’ stand for years, then I had my own. I am married, having one son of 7, Gary. He is quite a boy. My wife worked at the Education Department as teacher’s helper with the pre-schoolers.”                   “And you, Mr.Yani Z, the last but not the least, what about your whereabouts?                   “Well, I’m from ALTA ISLAND and a graduate of a Junior College, specializing in Public Relations, also doing a lot of work to guide the tourists. I am a bachelor too.”                   “Very fine gentlemen, for this briefing. Now, would you tell me how did you get the idea of establishing a Free-Masonry Lodge in this New Atlantis Republic? Did you know each other before and most importantly, what are your credentials in Freemasonry, if you would like to be the founders of this Brotherhood?”

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“No, Mr. President, we did not know each other until we came here, to the Island by boat,” replied Mr. Smith L., “We all belong to certain nominations, as usual, and the least, has third, namely “Masters” degree in Freemasonry in our original homes, registered officially in the lodges that are internationally registered and recognized. I, for the past two years, was “The Right  Worshipful Senior Grand Warden” at the Battleborough, Lodge No:176 in Land, having been finished my 33rd degree two years ago. Junior Grand Warden then, I was. You should not have any doubts about it, otherwise, how we could initiate this very responsible and respectful project here? On the way, before reaching New Renfusa, as we have met by chance -as you may have heard how masons do recognize each other by their general mannerism and way that they walk, talk etc.-  were talking whether any Lodge in our new land was present; naturally neither of us knew what facilities were present here that we could practice.”                 “This is much more than I expected Mr. Smith L., truthfully. The rest of you, also are registered in an internationally acceptable free and accepted masons lodges?”                 “Yes Sir, sure we are!”

I plunged into thoughts and then looking to the faces of my Cabinet Members whether the things were satisfactory or not for them too. After reading a green light in their looks, I started to talk slowly:                 “Gentlemen. Based upon your words, I, as President of this Republic of New Atlantis, also taking into the account of my cabinet members ‘silent’ okeys, initially give you a start for your noble project. Starting tomorrow morning on, through Mr. Gleem’s office, the Minister of Administration and Personnel, your names will be forwarded to your original Lodges where you are registered. Again by tomorrow, our Administrative Department officials shall be starting for a search for your worshipping place. Initially we thought the old chapel at the St. Ethienne French Catholic Church grounds, if Pere Pierre has no objection.”

Clarke joyously intervened my talk, “Oo, Mr. President, I hope it will come true. It is a beautiful place. Incidentally, I saw you there this morning with your wife. It was my first visit, but I loved it.”                “Oh, good, I am glad you liked it. And, as I know somehow about the Freemasonry, I advice you start up working within yourselves. First of all, 1)  Addressing to me, write up your project and apply and register at the Department of Administration, 2)  For the offices be held, divide the possible titles and duties among yourself. To start with, since your are just five people now, I advise the following offices and officers should be decided and nominated by you: The Most Worshipful of Grand Master, The Right Worshipful of Junior Grand Warden, The Very Worshipful of Grand Secretary, The Very Worshipful of Junior Grand Deacon, and The Worshipful Grand Sword Bearer. Forwad those names immediately to me. 3)  I shall forward these nominations and my approval of them, of course temporarily, to the lodges that you are registered with, and with their final advice, either directly or through them, I shall endeavour to register you with International Free and Accepted Masons.”

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4)  At the first opportunity, that is to say within a few days, or a week or so, I would like to present you to the entire Nation first on the Big Screen, and give some introduction. I am sure that some people know something about this organization. I personally don’t want anything hidden or secretive, as open as a clean heart, all your activities and sharing shall be at the open, as Old Greeks used to say, “A real honest person could act when he is alone, as if he is at the presence of Zeus!”               “D’accord gentlemen?”               “D’accord Mr. President. Thanks by millions.”

Then, they shook hand one-by-one and left us. The general consensus among us had been a very favorable one. And, our ministers extended their congragulations and thanks to me for a brief but efficient, fruitful and informative meeting. I said, “This is my duty. This is why I am here for.”               “Okey three musketeers, pick up your wifes and kids, and go home. Ladies, thanks to your graceful existence too. I have to meditate and read some books. Pleasant dreams!”

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               15

This is monday morning. Another “not that much routine week” is just starting. The only difference is: The newcomers to the State. For every other six months or so, they bring new flesh and blood, the City-State is in a state of livelyhood and joy. So, I requested Edith to accompany me who very graciously agreed upon a train-ride city tour, at times coming down to the very streets, restaurants where people are shopping, eating, taking new things to their new homes in a joy. This is quite an education for us, I am sure for them too.

So, at about 10.00 A.M. we got on the train right in front of Pyramid I and circle around, as I call it “newcomers follies.” Old timers used to say in French, “Bon observeur, bon médécin!” (Good observant is a good medical man!) Trains of course were presently much more fuller than the previous weeks. The people who almost completed all medical and personal achievement tests and evaluations, now are throwing themselves to the street, ice-cream parlors, restaurants and shopping plazas for indeed a free-dreamland satisfaction. We are witnessing first these wishful shopping chit-chats, like, “Mom, I really want to have a nice, pink night-gown. May be two. The other day I have seen such beautiful gym-shooes. All white and blue, red stripes around. Wow!” “Dad, I saw a blue-jean as I used to dream of. Is it tre they say all for free? Then, I would like to go to ice-cream parlor too, I haven’t eaten a banana split for a long, long time!” “Mom, do you remember, you promised me an Angora cat. This week-end shall we go to the Animal World and get one?” “Of course my dear.” “I hope it is not that expensive.” “It is for free for the citizens, we don’t have to pay anything!” “Mom, how come? Why the things should be for free? Who pays those monies?” “Government. Money is not circulating in the market, but I and daddy shall be working every day somewhere. So, everyone helps everyone even without knowing each other and every person is equal. Isn’t it nice? On our way back, we can buy some toys too.” “Good Mom, but what we shall do when Santa Claus comes to town in Christmas?” “Here Christmas is every day. Santa Claus, as you have just started to understand and discover last Holiday Season that is just a symbol of goodness, kindness and givenness. If human beings would and realy could be a Santa Claus, here is our chance. That’s why we left your grandparents and the other belowed friends behind, not just for an adventure but for a dream that can come true not through the statesmen, politicians and armed soldiers but through very essence of our own existence: God loving, human loving, unselfish, hardworking, non-envious, giving, sharing individuals. Let’s get off. We came to downtown!” I cannot add anything else to these beauties.

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There, we got off too. We entered into one of the largest department stores in downtown, “Jacey’s!” There too, you can easily track the eager-beaver new customers, who, in spite of their best wills and dignity, shall nearly attack whatever is offered or on the scene, but within the next six months or so, for the next newcomers, they shall just smile with a comfort, remembering how themselves had behaved six months ago.

My old habit is to visit bookstores of course where the people do not look for “Do-it-yourself” or “How you can be more successful in business or sex?” “The name of the game is money” kind of books that we don’t display that much because people want differently, and indeed there is no need for them. Teen-agers, of course, still dream of a sentimental life, “Heidi”s, “Sleeping Beauty”s, some may still prefer “Anna Carenina”, “Doctor Jivago” or existentialistic and post-existentialistic novels, “stranger, now?”, “return of Hamlet”, “Would King Lear Live in 21st Century?”, “Don Quijote, welcome home!”, “Celestial Melody”, “Shaman’s Loves”, “Dimensions of Sky Life”, “The Fate of the Universe”, “Physiology and Histology of Thinking and Love”, “Art of Praying and Dying”, “Angel Follies”, “The Anatomy of the Religion”, “Frequencies in Thinking and Feeling For Each Other”, “Stories from Previous Lives”, “The Poetry of Non-Being”, “Phobias in Flowers”,“The Invisible Bridge Between Sun and Moon” are best-sellers now, of course just by definition, otherwise as anything else, all books are free too.

Thou human beings continue to eat: Pop-corn, cheee-burgers, musroom-burgers, burger-burgers, chocolate candies, cheesoronies, macoronies, roni-ronies, fried potatoes, fried bananas, pickled melons and watermelons; drink mineral waters, sherbets, fruit juices and every kind of meat: Frogs, crocodiles, fish, sheep and chicken, fresh or cooked, baked or fried. We encourage green vegetables: Cauliflowers, spinach, squash and beans, salads, broccolis, carrots, mashrooms and fresh apples, peaches, melon, grapes, figs, fresh or dessicated. So, nothing is new in this old world.

Toy stores are in a real booming stage. Younger the ages, more ambitious and unsatiable the children are. “Hey, look at that, mom, I want this electric train. I want that flying helicopter too. Oo, look at the blocks, second-aid kit. Mom, are there any guns, machine guns here? No? Oo, too bad?” The attending clerk advices one type of toy from each department; so one has to chose either electrical train or helicopter; crayons or water-color set; if you choose a three-wheel bycycle, you can not have a two-wheeler at the same time. Note book, unless required in a very special type from the school, one at a time. You can eat chocolate, or cholate cake, even chocolate cake with ice-cream on it, but cannot eat chocolate cake and mille-feuille pastry too. It is a health principle. Too much is too much, and overweighing is a medical sickness. Besides, from earlier ages the children have to learn to control their ambitions. We respect the old saying, “One is what he eats!”

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Dress and clothing departments are much the same in essence but at a much more slower pace and less ambitions displayed. “I love these skirts, can I have two of them? No? Okey, I can have only one, this straw yellow one. Thank you.” “Can I have this shawl? Okey, Thank you. This pair of gloves. I need undercloth too. How many? One pair each? Okey. Measure:36 please. Handkerchiefs? One? Okey. This pair of Moccasins? No.8,5 for my feet? Perfect! Thank you. Let me try, oh, fits perfectly. Let me see, what else? Can I go to parfumery department too? Today? Oo, thank you.”

Edith and I set at the cafeteria for a light luncheon. Service is either self for ready things, or you may order to cook, like omelet as we both did. With an additional fruit salad,  and a glass of milk, we were quite satisfied. The people who were serving around were very pleasant doing their shift work very diligently and willingly, and the second and then the third shifts would be coming. Three-shift cafeterias and restaurants were restricted only to populated areas, like hospitals, factories and alike, otherwise two-shift services are generally good enough to serve the entire population. Drug stores also were working only two shifts, and in case of any need, hospitals, health centers throughout the Island could supply the emergency medicine. As we said before, transportation, namely rail-car service is available for every other ten minutes that is also on twenty-four hour a day basis, but, after 22.00 P.M. to 01.00 A.M. they come down to every other twenty minutes, and from 01.00 A.M. until 07.00 A.M. they are available for every other half an hour. Should there be any accident or mishap of any kind and someone need any help, transportation or any health issue, you could push one red botton that is placed on a special small concrete construction with one hundred meters intervals at the both sides of the streets, in a few minutes an emergency vehicle from nearby hospital, a male helper and a registered nurse with a first-aid kit in hand, will rush to your area immediately, since those concrete blocks all numbered, coded and mapped. On the same block, protected with a thick glass, there is also a red phone laying that you also could pick it up and speak to someone who can help you twenty hours a day, regardless who you are and wherever you are. We love our citizens and care about them.

Well, this kind of life might be boring to some people because of non-existence of gangsters, car races, police chases, bullet firing and drunk people’s halloring, shouting around. When I was a young boy at our arrival here, still there was no police force; instead some night-watchmen were making rounds. They were not carrying guns, but mops. They were dressed in dark blue coats with the same color caskets on their heads. Their communication system was that of their whistles. On each street there was one, and were letting each other know about their whereabouts. They were ready to help the people if needed, like someone was assaulted or a house was about to be broken, like two hundred years ago some third world countries used to have them. They were very frendly fellows, woul chat with the young girls who were coming late from movies, would accompany them if needed, an alderly lady would ask for help to cross the street, someone was searching for a pharmacy and alike. Now, everything is more efficient, fast and -fortunately or unfortunately- formal. After briefing these to Edith who did not have this experience as a youngster, I thanked her for her lovely company and wished a nice time for the rest of the day.

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                                                                            16

 

          Well, this is monday evening again, and after having my supper with my wife, in my home and special work desk. As I experienced something strange last monday evening, I am dying to hear what is going on in Mormon Church!

I touched the “sound” button and am awaiting anxiously. At last something began to be heard.             “Sarvan abhivadaye vah! Oo, they speak of Sanskrit. (Meaning: I greet you all!) (A few unclear voices.”)             “Ciram adarsanem aryasya vayam udvignah!” (We have been distressed of not seeing your Honor for a long time!)              “Cirasya kalasya praptah asi.” (You have arrived after a long time.)              “Anyah kuh agacchati?” (Who else is coming?              “George ca Kevork!” (George and Kevork)              Sadhu.” (Good)              Bhhagavant..” (Your reverence)              “Mitranam eva priyam etat. (To friends, this is a welcome night.) Arya, api satror uyasenam upalah-dham?” (Have you discovered a weakness of your enemy, sir?)              “Na tatha!” (Not yet!)              “Jnayatam punah kim etad iti!” (Find out again what it is!)”              “Api khalu svapna esa syat?” (Could this indeed be a dream?”              “Kim uktavan asi?” (What did you say”)             Api khalu svapna esa syat, aryah?” (Could it be indeed a dream, Your Excellency?”              “Khalu!.. punar, drsya..” (Certainly! but, to be seen..)              “Akarnayati!” (Listen to!) (then, something incomprehensible..)              “Nı ayam katha-vibhago ısmabhir anyena va sruta:parvah.” (This part of the story has not been heard before by us or anyone else.” -a few sounds, then-              “Tat kim ity asankase?” (Why then you are afraid?)                                              “Avagacchami te tesmin sauhardam.” (I understand your fondness for him.)              “kim tu ‘katham asmahbir upagantavya’ sampadharayami!”  (But I am wondering how we should approach him!”              “İcchathı aivı aitan, na va?” (Do you want this or not?) Dehi me prativacanam.” (Give me an answer.)

 

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Asmi!” (I am).             “Distya dharma. Sadhu! Su:yanah. N’edam vismarisyami.(Congragulation! Bravo! Good man! I will not forget this!)             “Sru! Apnuhi prathama… anyutha, hata! Asti mant Moroni Plates. Band ca pariraksyantam asya pranah. Aduna!” “Listen! Obtain first… otherwise, kill! He is the possessor of Moroni Plates. Enter into his friendship and spare his life! Now!)

I turned the knob off. I had heard enough. These were really and truly astonishing for me, and were occurring for the first time at the Presidential level.  From time to time, we hear some loose talk, threat or some uprise-like moves but they never come alive in spite of the fact that we do not have any armed police force. People come here in their own choosing but knowing a little bit personal and social psychology, when the basic needs are not satisfied, then oppressed, repressed envies, desires and feelings may come close to the surface. But, I sincerely belive that the system in toto does not permit for grandiosity or foul play. If you don’t have monitary system, in spite of the fact that this may partially curtail a healthy challenge in the commerce and may be in the national growth and advance in some areas, but we are advanced enough as far as civilization is concerned; we people who came from old worlds, know better what “we should not do”, other than “what we should do”. At the moment, the Republic is going through the second generation -like me- who is in power and eveything (not everything, except this last mystery to be truthful!) seems to be under good controls. But, I sincerely believe that after the third generation’s dominance, the nation shall really get level off.

Anyway, let us come to the puzzle. There are a lot of serious questions need to be answered. First of all, why people speak Sanskrit?. I am the only one in this nation, due to my social psychiatry education know that dead language, as I had mentioned earlier somewhere. It is well possible they don’t want anybody should hear and know what they are up to. Perhaps, perhaps not. Secondly, who is this “Your Majesty?” Since we are not a political empire or an Emirate, or a “safe” place for escapees from genocides, this could well be a religious or sacred chevaliers group’ adventures or ambitions or something like that. The request for establishment a Freemasonry Lodge which came contemporary with this mystery, now gains a special importance; is it a complete coincidance or is there any interrelatedness between? What are those “Moroni Plates”? Never heard of them. The person, I gather supposedly have them is who? One of the state greats? Or ME? Oh my gush, I really thrilled, since they talked of a “killing” that had never occurred in this State’s history within the past sixty years, not even once. I know I do not have such a thing in my possession. I don’t have any ambition of any sort, any unsatisfied envie, an eye on anything, God knows that and my poeple here know that. I do not have any hidden property or steel safes or… Wait a minute, let me think. When I said “steel safe”, that brought to my mind my grand-father’s belongings that were passed from him to the third generation, namely to me for safe-keeping; but for God’s sake, I even don’t know what are they? Anyways, this is one important point  to search for. But before anything else, I am going up to the Presidental Library and make a little bit research in ancient books and

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and encyclopaedias, and see what they write about Mormons and those Moroni Plates. As I started to move, I felt better. If there is a hidden mystery somewhere and I could do something to solve this uneasiness, I know I am the person who could do and would do that. Oh, I already feel better now.

Our library may not be comparable to those of Atican’s or ancient nations’ national galleries, but for the reserach, is uncomparably better and much more practical than most of them, in a way, quite unique. As I had been elected as President to the New Atlantis Republic, I had donated my ten thousand of Latin, French, German, English, Italian, Sanskrit, Spanish, Turkish and Arabic volumes to this very special library. Secondly, since my childhood on I myself kept writing “the contents” and “idioms” to the tops of the pages with crayon of the books that I read, that, later on, those notes were classifed and entered into our Supreme Mega Computers. Throughout years either at the University while teaching or in general education programs, I advocated this system to the entire nation that, now, almost anyone who reads a book does the same, and, whether they donate the book or just bring it in temporarily let be borrowed by our master librarians for a while, all these titles are compiled in huge volumes. For instance, as you may touch the word “love”, in a split second, the compilation of all idioms, sayings, the verses from poems or a few sentences from all write-ups come true on your screen, like, from “Bible” or “Koran”, from Aristo’s “State”, or “Aristoteles’ “Greek Theatre”, or Solon’s “Sayings”, Homer’s “Iliada”, Shakespeare’s “King Lear” or “Hamlet”, V. Hugo’s “Miserables”, S. Zweig’s “The History of Yesteryears”, Chechov’s “Three Sisters” etc. This system, of course permits for valuable research projects in depth. Any case, for this personal contribution of mine, I am really proud of myself. Once more, whaetever I have learned in this world, is not mine, it is the product of this culture and shall remain so consciously, and will be renewed, rejuvanated and re-appearing in the subconscious of the forthcoming generations as”collective unconscious”. Incidentally, for old-timers like me the best gift to give a friend is a book, especially old prints. The rest, is published by the State and free-exchange is already the mode. We share everything openly in this land.

There were relatively a few books and limited information about MORMONS and MORONI PLATES, but, old good Encyclopaedia Ritannica, Panati’s book about “Sacred Things and Customs” directly gave me the initial information and knowledge that I badly needed. I could not find an original “Book of Mormons” that I should request from the Leader of the Church right tomorrow morning that could also give me a chance to visit the church tomorrow evening anyways. (Let me see whether I shall be able to identify those voices that I heard from the system. Shame, shame on me!) As you also shall learn with me, the relatively short resources about this subject are due to Mormonism’s quite late presentation to the world, say for the last couple of centuries or so, thus not being a well-studied subject to the thinkers and philosphers of the world, as the other great religions might have been.

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Well, here it is what the books say about this religion.             Old Testemant informs us that God, assigned three archangels to different duties: Michael was the national guardian angel for Israel, is “like God” (Hebrew), is imagined as the warrier leader of the heavenly hosts against the forces of evil. At the early and medieval Christianity, he is regarded as helper of the Christian forces against the heaten. He is  the heavenly high priest, keeps the keys of haven.  In Islam, called as “Mika(i)l”, is recognized as the controller of the forces of the nature, with his 1,000  assistants, called “karüibiyün” (cerubim), providing men food and knowledge. He was the one who delivered Moses the Ten Commandements which tuned to a much more deeper piety. His feast day is on September 20th. Along with Gabriel, they did herald the birth of monotheistic Judaism, Christian-based Christianity, and, Koran inspired Islam.

            Gabriel, is conceived as “God’s man” (Hebrew), “God’s messenger,” who announced to the Virgin Mary she was to bear Son of God as well as announcing the coming birth of John the baptist. In Islam, recognized as “Gibril”(Gebreal) – ‘faithful spirit’, also reveaaled the Koran to Mohammed. In Christian art, Gabriel is depicted as a human figure with a long hair and multicoloured wings, holding a sceptre, or a lily. His feast day is on March 24th.

              Raphael, “God heals” (Hebrew), is known as the healer of the Tobit’s blindness (The apocryphal book of Tobit) and the conquerer of the demon Asmodeus. Also ‘patron of travellers’, He is “the angel of the spirits of men”. His feast day is on October 24th.

In the A.C. 1820’ies, in the U.S.A., in Palmyra, N.Y. to be exact, the Mormon Archangel Moroni inspired a teen-eager, named Joseph SMITH, to establish the “Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.”

As MORMON doctrine dictates, GOD, who was a MAN once upon a time, had married a “heavenly mother” and therefore had been a father of “spirit children” who had assumed outwardly bodily shapes and populated the world. Marriage is a very sacred thing for Mormons; and they are expected to marry at a Mormon Temple, in two styles in their own choice: “for time”, and “for eternity.” First through “baptisim”, then “marriage through a Mormon Temple”, a Mormon himself becomes God-like. Consequently, Mormons are very much attached to the Church labor deeply, even endlessly one would say. One of the most prominent believes is that they are “able to convert the souls of deceased non-believers”, through a ceremonial staging, called “babtism of the dead.” In A.C. 1995, Jews had asked Mormons “to stop converting dead Jewish Holocaust victims” of the World War Two (A.C. 1938-45) into the Mormon faith. Upon this request, Mormon Church Administration Headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, had agreed to remove more than 380,000 Jewish people’s names -that were registered at the International Genealogical Index- from such baptism. However, it is known that the Church still practices to convert the dead souls, at the moment about 20 million being registered.

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Mormon life, in reality, heavily depends upon the Family, however male oriented. Wife achieves exaltation, a kinf of ecstasy through participating in her husband’s eternal priesthood. Husband who is a man, is a kind of priest and even God, or His representative. Their belief extends to the point that, the glorified-exalted couples spend eternity in painless and pleasurable procreations; they must continue their existence in all other planets too where they may be worshipping the original Heavenly Father and Mother.

Mormons believe that, they did live in CHRIST’s time. We already know that the Christianity, had itself figured out from the Jewish Sacred Scriptures, beyond any doubt. Similarly, according to the Islamic belief, Jewish Prophet Abraham was the first Muslim. Thus, if this is true, Islam antedates Judaism. According to the Latter-day Saints theology, during His lifetime, Jesus Christ himself had established here, on the earth, particularly at Jerusalem the original “The Church of Jesus Christ”, and, “the Saints” were its members. After His resurrection, Jesus had visited the New World (America), and there, before ascending to heaven, He had established a church that was the beginning of the official re-starting of Mormons in modern world.

In the year A.C. 1820, a fifteen-year old young man Joseph SMITH (A.C. 1805.- A.C.1844) received his first divine vision. Jesus Christ, through his (Mormon) Archangel MORONI had warned him “not to go to any other church, since until then, a true church did not esist!” Following that, in the forthcoming ten years or so, he inspired a serie of revelations that had claimed him as a Reverend, then the First Prophet of the new church, namely the “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”. Then, previously established “The Earlier-day Saints” Church, had been extincted. Rev. Smith, however, had to be involved in several bloody battles, like Mohammed, moved around a lot with His followers, and died at a very early age of 39, during one of those battles.

Since Mormons also believed in “polygamy” and practiced so -including the Founder  Prophet), in A.C. 1856, a Republican presidential platform enacted a law against that. Until A.C. 1890, more than one thousand men were convicted on ‘poligamy’ charges. At the same date, the U.S. Supreme Court gave its final decision on this issue: “The Polygamy is illegal!” As a coincidance, a Wilford Woodruff, the head of the Mormon Church in Utah then, said he had “received a divine command on the issue that the multiple wives practice should be stopped!”, therefore it did stop.

The history of the religions teaches us that, all religions and/or sacred belief systems, had their own books of inspiration: For JUDAISM: Tanak-Old Testament; for CHRISTIANITY: New Testament-Apocrypha (Hidden things);  for ISLAM: The Koran-The Recitation; for CONFUCIANISM: Analects-Selected Sayings of Conficious; for HINDUISM: The Vedas-the wisdom; for BUDDHISM: The Tipitaka-three baskets; and for MORMONISM : the Book of Mormon.

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Joseph Smith, the founder prophet, had received from the Angel MORONI, the “golden Moroni plates”, a kind of “tablets” that were the proofs of old Israeli registration of Mormons, sacred history and beliefs, that due to wars and constant moves during the settlement in mid-west provinces of the United States in A.C. 1850’ies, were completely disappeared and until nowadays, their whereabouts are not known. Supposedly, Reverend Smith translated that knowledge into English and turned them into the Mormonic Bible. The Book of Mormons that accepts God as a real person with a visible body of flesh and bones; that is originally registered in papyric writings, collected and saved at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City…

The other very interesting claim in the Book of Mormon -reportedly, I did not read it yet!-, according to the writings who supposedly read them, is that, the virtuous, industrious, fair-skinned Nephites, later on were exterminated by the sinful, red-skinned Lamanites. There follows the life philosphy of Mormons: God’s good people are first very prosperous and prideful, then decadent; finally, they are punished and they repent. This moral cycle is very well known and recorded in the sacred literature.

The Book of Mormon, denies the existence of the “original sin” and the family relationships could be eternal. This view is more anthropometric than that of theocentric.

One of the Joseph Smith’s revealed scriptures was: “The Book of Abraham”, Similar writings, as said above, on papyrus exist in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In Smith’s translation, person with ‘black skins’ were cursed, and, as to pertaining to the priesthood, black Afro-Americans were excluded from any office in the Mormon Church.

Very interesting material, tiring to eyes and mind, but taught me several things and fired me forward to search more. It is quite late at night; tomorrow morning I shall make arrangements to attend to the Mormon Church, perhaps to start with a private visit tomorrow evening; then, yes, then to open my grandpa’s memoires and start to read. I believe it contains very important information, may be the keys to this puzzle that possiby, or probably may be threatening somebody’s, including my own life. Anyways. For to nite, at least our “Idioms’ Encyclopaedia” gained some  new ‘key words’ and corresponding entries, like: Mormons, Joseph Smith, The Book of Mormons, The Book of Abraham, Nephites, Lamanites, Moroni Plates, Wilford Woodruff and enrichened the World War II Haulocasts, Archangel Michael, Archangel Raphael, Archangel Gabriel, Mohammed, Polygamy, Islam, Judaism and Christianity.

I am going to bed. Goodnight everybody!

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16

             As I sat at my desk, naturally first thing came to my mind that to call Mormon Church headquarters at down-town, and request an appointment for this evening, if it were possible, from Reverend Arthur, the President of the Church. It did not take that too long to accomplish that; Rev. Arthur, in his very calm and settled, sure tone of voice, greeted me in his usual gentelmanly and charmingly attitude:

“Good morning Mr. President!”              “Good morning Reverend Arthur.              “It is indeed a pleasure to hear from you. I know how busy you might be that we have not seen you in our Church for a while. What can I do for your Excellency?”              “My dear friend, I would like to make a visit with you, if possible this evening. Are you too busy?”               “Yes and no, but for you naturally no. From these newcomers there seems to be a very interesting small group that would like to join our Church, so they are coming to visit us again this evening. You may meet them if you wish but not absolutely necessarily. We could meet in Parish Hall or in my office, can invite a few others, commensurate with the intent of your visit, by all means.”              “Okey, thank you, I shall be there; say at 19.30 P.M., alright?”              “Alright Sir, perfect. See you then.”

I took a deep breath. My heart was slightly poundering in my chest cage, but, this was to be done as they used to say in old country, “You have to hold the bull from horns, otherwise he can nail you down!” Also, as French say, “Anything that starts, has to finish!” Soon after that I received a message from Edith, Minister of Education -you also know her by now- who would like to send her assistant, Michael Deem, if I wish to, for the Summer Literary Festival. Naturally I said yes, at this point and time in my life, I needed a little bit festival-like activities, even the thought of it that should relax my mind a little bit that recently, as you know well, had been under some tension.

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Michael Deem, is a slim, tall, serious looking gentelman, with an Education Degree (Ed.D.), soon appeared in my office. He greeted me very gently and shook hands warmly. He was holding a rather thick bunch under his arm.              “Sit down, please, last week when we were talking about the Festival with Dr.Plump, even thou we did not fix a proximate date for the event, we both had the impression that, particularly of being quite busy with prospective citizens, the Festival would be displayed toward the end of the summer. Is there any change in planning?”              “Yes, Sir. You were right, we were already busy with the evaluations anyways, but they finished astonishingly early; and, during our contacts with people, they showed a tremendous interest for some musical and theatrical festival, staging their original countries dresses, music, dances and alike total cultural activities too. Consequently, Dr. Plump and I thought we should consult with you, and if you wish, either we should replace the Literary Festival with that type of more elaborate, cultural festival towards the end of the summer, or, do the Literary Festival soon, say in a few weeks, and then, toward the end of the summer, stage the other. What do you think, Sir?”                    “Thank you asking me. Well, I still favor of doing the Literary Festival for the fact that for the past twenty five years, it had almost been a traditonal event; we should not skip this year. Is there any other obstacle or reason we should not make it soon?”                 “Oo, no, we could do it anytime. If you wish.”                 “I shall call the Communication department right away and give necesssary directives for Big Screen appearances and advertisement, you also may get in touch with Mr. Clarke who is the chief of that division for further details. I think general plan should be this way: People should be informed that the Festival will be of two-day duration, at one week-end, say two or thee weeks from now, depanding upon your readiness. The subjects for competiton for this year, again are “Poems” and “Short Stories”. Every one shall participate with only one entry, and shall read himself or herself. As a place, I still recommend the “Torpedo Fish Beach Green Field”, the picnic field next to the Animal World that while people challenge with each other, people can have a chance to go to visit animals, also to swim too. Between the challengers, celebrity literary men and women should read some poems, literary pieces between, just to decorate the event. What do you say, Mr. Deem?”                “Sounds very good Sir.”                “Naturally, Dr. Plump and you make the final decision and the time-table. I am sure, you will not forget to select a jury, under Edith’s chairpersonship, of course including you too. So, by Friday let us get in touch with other and see where we are. Okey youngman?”                 “Thank you Sir, much obliged!”

It took for another two minutes to give a call to Mr. Clarke and give him highlights of our plan. As usual, in our State everyone is in “alesta”, ready to sail any minute anywhere.  I was rushing, on the other hand, to run and get out of the diary of my grand-father’s sealed bag that had been in dusts for almost half a century. How exiting is uncovering some mysteries and hidden material, as we used to enjoy in our mid-childhood, playing hide-and-sick in closets.

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17

 

Even though I know whole-heartily that time has come that I should open the past history and read my grand-father’s diary. I had avoided this for a long time, but as if there was a hidden hand was pulling me back. My grandfather who was also a physician, an analyst, the first man in the family tree who had crossed the family and country boundaries, extending himself to the other challenges of the world. A man with a legend in his own life style, adventures, accomplishments and glories and defeats which he has been through. My father, Ismailov the 2nd, or with his first name Souhi, used to talk about him all the time, frankly I appreciated those very much, but I am a person who, as a principle, lives in the present and the future while still being respectfull, non-judgmental and silent about the past, because human beings do whatever they can do under those circumstances, nothing else. However, in spite of the fact that my attitude’s being “past is past, let it rest there!”, I wanted to remember my grandfather as he was in my memories. Some people are legend, they might be great, it is so because they are presented that way to assume so, to live with them day-to-day might be a different story. Therefore, if it were my choice whether I could live with him or not, is a different thing. When I came to “New Atlantis” with my Dad, as I said before, I was only ten years old, and left grandfather in Old Country. He died 18 yers later and my Dad went to his funeral and brought back his ashes that are right here now, in a steel brief-case, right in front of me now. My father had told me that, since my grandfather had not died in this country, we did not need to stock his ashes with the common Crematory here though if one day I wanted to do it, I could do so. I should keep this case that contains “the body ashes” and “very important material, diary etc.” that might involve me one way or the other, and, one day, the situation was going to speak for itself and in a way, obliging me to open it and reveal the secrets, if it had any. To me, right time seemed to me ringing its invisible bells. Opening code of the lock of the steel brief-case was 177, my  primary school number that was most sacred to grandfather, as my father has said. So, here we are, without any ceremony other than my heavy sounding heart beats, I said “Open Sesame!” and lack was opened.

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At the left side of the brief-case, there was a wooden box, obviously hand-made and looked very special. It is covered with very delicate flowery figures all around. A small wooden key is in its hole. Obviously this the ash-box. Under it, there lays a “Glorious Koran”, as I was told, was given to him his most belowed person in his life, his aunt, with the promise “to be burried with it!”. The rest of the case, is full of beautifully and compulsively arranged several cartoon files.  Each of them carefully marked for its content: “My childhood”, “School Years”, “University Years”, “Military Service”, First Marriage”, “Across the Ocean”, “My Children”, “Second Marriage”, “Glorious, Achievement Years”, “Decline and Return!”

I am a very patient person and I would have wished I would have read all of them, line by line and in order, from the beginning up to the end. May be one day. Now, I have to be away from all sensitivities and emotions, I would like to find some facts that most probably caused my grandfather’s constant moving around, unexpected decline and the rest of the circumstances. What was the mystery? What was the inside story of those recordings that I have not been able to connect?  Since I was the grandson and carrying “the remainings of my ancestors”, hopingly thorugh reading and uncoding, if necessary, these documents, would have brough an end to the unrest, just decribed.

I already remember the high-lights of his beginnings, medical school years in old country and then crossing the Ocean with a boat for a “New start” somewhere, as we all done; trials and tribulations connected with those; but I am so impatient, and would like to start from the Second Marriage of which even my father who himself lived it through was not very much acknowledged, not knowing about the tiny details of insight stories, and, as a matter of fact, a half-brother who he has had but had never seen him life-time. So, I think for many good reasons, I would start from the second marriage on.

DR. ISMAILOV, Sr                                          (Diary –  The Second Marriage)

July 19 1968                                                                                                                              Code Island

I am very excited to day. My son Ismailov Jr., whose nick-name is Souhi, had begun to take piano lessons. This could be a simple event for anyone I assume, but it is quite important for me. As I had detailed my youthhood events, during my educational years, I was mesmerized by the piano melodies that used to spring from our next neighbor’s walls. Listzs,  Schuberts, Schumans, Beethovens were my dream-fathers. In spite of my beggings, my father and step-mother refused to do anything about it, because “it was unnecessary” in spite of the fact that my father was the owner of a small-grocery store, also a three-storey apartment at the mid-town, and, step-mother who’s six years old son was going to a private

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school; a good money earning dress-maker herself… Then, I had gone to an Classical Oriental Music School, and learned Eastern Music, all by myself, but had promised to myself that “one day, yes, one day, I would grow up, earn some money, and buy a piano.” As I had also given some information in the chapters of the inconveniences and mishaps at the first marriage diary, the day that my son was born, I had bought a piano for him, a “Stark”, upright piano. My ex-(first) wife then had shouted, yelled at me, saying that I had not bought that gift to her but to myself, since that was an old wish of mine (forgetting the fur that I had bought for her after the delivery of the same son). After she left us, my son was too small to play yet and myself, due to work in the hospital and prepare myself for medical examinations, really had not a chance. But now, after having passed the medical examinations and being appointed as Commissioner in the State, and my beloved son reached the age 8, the time was right to start.

So, I asked around. They recommended a Mrs.K., a young mother of late twenties, a private music teacher. I arrranged first in a way that I should come at the beginning of the lesson, go to my work again and come back at the end which I did. A pleasant, blond lady gave her report that my son was above of a mediocre talent, had a “good ear”, and we would start, if I wish. After having my son’s consent, we started. To my son’s honor, I had already brought a chocolate cake that we shared together. I believed my son’s start was also going to give me an initiation, an incentive in the same subject. Due to my age, business and so, I would not start like a small child, but perhaps a correspondence course and a local supervising teacher would do the job, since I knew the notes and the tones, musicality and the rest quite a bit, in general. Anyways, this is how did we start to this thing.

August 17’1968                                                                                                                            Code Island

Piano lessons with my son go very well. In the evening, after having our supper, he plays some melodies. Now he is  fingering “The Jingle bells, Jingle bells”. I bet he will be playing the Christmas melodies at the Holy Season. In school he is doing very well too, being at the top. The only thing is worrying me that since he is the only child in this small family, with no mother, plus the fact that father is a workaholic, virtually has no time for anything else, and, my son has very few friends. He goes to the sportive activities, baseball practices that I seldom visit during those times. I don’t want to bring him up in a complete isolation from the outside world. He has very good manners, is well-accepted among his friends. I sometimes invite them to play at our small backyard and mostly go with friends, but they have to come back at sun-down. We don’t have anyone to take care of our house on permanent basis; as I myself decided to do so. On saturdays two of us vacuum the one-and-a half storey ranch where the floors are covered with wall-to-wall carpets, pile up the garbage together and then go for a ride, to the restaurants, bowling, basketball or baseball games. Good and clean life, but needs a little bit more coloring.

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This sunday morning while my son was studying piano, and I, in my pajamas, sweeping, vacuuming the basement where also my home office located, the door-bell rang. Since I was not dressed properly yet, I hesitated a little bit; then, ‘what heck!’, the automatic sweeper in my hands, opened the door. There, a young lady about twenties was standing, thin and polite, also holding a book in her hand. With a gracious smile in her face, she asked:                “Is there a lady in the house?                 A little bit angry perhaps, but polite, I answered, “No young lady, there is no lady in this house, here I am, and there, my son is playing piano. What can I do for you?”                 “Do you belive in God?”                 “Of course I believe, but why you are asking these questions to me right at the door, and obviously I cannot invite you inside because you came in unprecedented, and visibly, I am not in good shape to accept a guest, particularly a lady! But what is the relevance of your question?”                 “Well, we are Seventh-Day Adventists (She was alone, but at the cross of the street, a young man was standing-by and perhaps considering him she referred as ‘we’) and would give you a chance to know Lord better that can help you in case off…..”                  “Look Lady,” I roared, “what I need now neither Lord nor, what did you say, seventh day…”                  “Seventh-Day Adventists!”                  “Yes, Seventh-Day Adventists… but a lady who shall make my bed also share it and sweep the floors for me!..” and perhaps being a litle bit rude, I closed the door gently.

Well, this type of behavior was somewhat strange even to me for a such well-tempered man, but I did not think that I have done terribly wrong. Perhaps He -from Upstairs- was sending me messages that there was really something lacking in the household.

September 1’1968                                                                                                                         Code Island

My lack about a new marriage is giving me signals but in strange ways.  To day sunday again, and the picture in the house is just the same. Some light house work and my son’s studying piano or playing with Atari and Nintendo.

The doorbell rang again. Strange. I do not have many friends, and if I have, mostly professionals. Poeple very rarely contact me, and if they do, they call me first, as the rule is. Anyway, at least I am relatively better dressed than the previous episode. I opened the door. There stood two relatively older looking couple, of Oriental features, probably Chinese, and a relatively young looking girl, all cleanly dressed up, bowed politely.                “Hello, I am Dr. Ismailov, Sr. Are you sure you are at the right place? Who you are looking for?”                 “Oh. No. We are at right place!” replied the fatherly gentleman. “You don’t know me but we know you. Yes you are Dr. Ismailov. Can we come in?”

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With their boldness, a little bit surprised I was, but since the cleaning was almost over, and I had nothing else to do particularly at that time, I invited them in. Indeed, exactly similar to the visits that were in my old Home: You visit someone anytime you want to, as if they are ready for you since they may not have nothing else to do other than just waiting for the guests that God sends you. If you don’t find anyone home at the time of you visit, it does not matter, you can come again until you succeed. A little bit hesitantly I opened the door wide. “Please, come in!”

We climbed five-to-six stone stairs to go upstairs hall. Up there, there is a saloon-day room, next to it a kitchen, one is facing the street and the other backyard. Towards left, three bed-rooms of medium sizes. For me and my son, comfortable enough. After I got rid of what I had in my hands, we sat altogether in day-room, and, a few minutes later my son who did not know what was going on, also came in and greeted them silently and went right back to his room. For a while we exchanged the smiles with no words. Of course I asked them whether they would like to drink some tea or coffee, with a similar smile all on their faces, a “tea!” sound  ‘with accent’ came out.               “With sugar?”               “Yes, please!”

It took just a few minutes for me to prepare the tea-cubs and tea bags to offer them.              “Any biscuits or salteens, cookies with ?”              “No, thank you!”              A while later we were all sitting together, sipping from our tea-cups and still smiling at each other. This time I was decicive not to ask any questions and go along with the pandomime. The gentleman finally broke and, very politely started to his speech:              “Sir, you don’t know us, we are very honorable people; we do know you, as we searched out, you are a very honorable person too. We know you are also a wise, learned man from Orient; a doctor and a professor, single, taking care of his child, alone. (After cleaning his throat and looking at his wife and his young) My daughter is here, now a student at the University of Code Island. We all are citizens and living very comfortable here. We thought …. that… you may need… to have a wife, in your accustomed style, but your are not citizen and you may be soon, after completing your permissable time here, your visa shall expire and you shall have to leave this Country. Correct?”

“Yes, correct, so far.”               “Well, what my wife and I thought, since it is very hard to find an eligible man of good character, if you wish to, we would like to offer our daughter to you as wife. You automatically become citizen and live happily after. Do you understand?”               “Well, not only I understood well, but also greatly bewildered by the boldness of the offer.” I raised my eyes to the ceilings and sent a silent message to the Creator, “How quick you got the message? Seventh-Day Adventists may have a direct red line with you!’ Then, I succumbed into thoughts. Yes, I have heard a lot about these “arranged marriages leading to citizenships” and could have been, or would have been possible. I asked a question to the father:                “How old the you“Twenty, but she is very skilled in home affairs and child-rearing. She took care of the other five children of us until recently.”

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I looked at the girl; she was smiling with a grace. A negotiaton has been going on concerning her entire life and she was quite submissive, accepting the deal even before start.

“Well,” I responded, “as you may appreciate well, in spite of the fact that I am 39 years old, however healthy and relatively young, yes, I do contemplate the marrige at times, especially in a strange Country like here. But, this offer came to me rather suddenly and as a surprise, to tell the truth. Please leave your business card, with your names and telephone numbers and allow me certain time to think and share this important subject with my son. Either you shall hear positive, or, … you won’t hear anything. Thank you very much for this honor.”

We bowed in two lines, facing each other, and they left quietly, as they came in. Was this a dream? This book, needless to say, was closed even before it was opened.

September 15’1968                                                                                                                    Code Island

I had become appointed as chief consultant to a Child Psychiatric Service that was a quite surprise to me. This was rather a  ‘Residential Care Center’ for children ages 6 tru 18, giving a long term treatment to the children with psychiatric disturbances, pricipally of behavior disorders, somewhere between one-to-three years. It is a kind of hospital where all medical and neurologic studies are done, but which also contains an educational unit where with some specially trained people, called “Residential Care Center Workers” and “special teachers”, all children attend to school too, hand-in-hand with the private psychiatric care. That was great. So, it was possible to sit with children in classes where their most disturbances were observed directly, then, in the aftrernoon, we were able to offer the children group and occupational therapies along with sports and activities. That also gave a chance to everyone involved to work as a close together working team, gathering with the families in order to train them also, as well as giving better service to the children. Night time, they slept there, and we and young residents were also on duty. Besides being consultant to the Unit, I was also assigned to be the Chief of Autistic Unit that was a brand new, mysterious field that had been very recently under scope of research and treatment. As to my State job, since I was literally ‘timeless’ there, I would also have worked up to two days somewhere else too, they said. Very good indeed.

In that Unit, there was a young teacher, just out of college, having been trained as “counselor” to this kind of children, however with no clinical experience. These children do not speak, they do not relate to people; when they look at you, they “look through you”. They are much more in inanimate world than that of animate one. Anyways, of course they need more intimate care, like being held by hands, singing together in circles, spelling every single letter and syllable of the things for they were just trying to have them to register in their minds. When they cried, they cried with an unearthly voice that we all had to squeeze them over our chests, to give them an inner sense of love and security. This tedious work, of course brought me too

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close to the young lady too and vice versa, who, indeed, most of the time feeling helpless and incompetent before these children who even don’t smile or give any humane emotional response to your most inner driven hugs. At times she was coming close to tears in her eyes, telling “In church, I pray to God for these helpless children, at nights they enter in my dreams. What unjustice is this, as if these are from Mars? So, God help me!”, most of the time, ending in my arms.

Since I was getting, -I guess- from the same God some messages about another union, I began to think about this young girl, ‘may be?’ She was 21, I myself almost 40. Mary, -that was the worker’s name-, as I have been respectfully treating her in the service, as well as giving some rides some late afternoons to her home since she did not have a car yet. One day she invited me in to meet her mother. Naturally I accepted. They were living in a mediocrely furnished two-storey house at the other side of the city. Her older sister was already married and living at the other side of the Ocean. Mother was a chemist-pharmacist, and divorced from her husband who was owning an antique furniture store near-by, seldom visited house, and always slept in his shop. They were catholics, as I newely heard the inside story about catholicism that since they were married in the church, if they were permitted to get a divorce, this was conditioned not to marry again since in the church they already have made a committment to God ‘for good’.

I never met her father during this relationship but mother, who, in general stood by between Mary and I, all the time, giving her frank opinion as “friendship is o.k., marriage is: N.O.             I have them met my son too, and some sundays, almost two out of three, I brought him into their house in the morning, then we went to church altogether and there I began to take some cathechism classes. According to the priest, those classes were not a guarantee that the Catholic Church was going to give me an o.k. for a possible marriage. I, as a divorced muslim, may not marry a single, unmarried Catholic girl in the church, in spite of the fact that since I was not baptised before, my previous marriage may not have been counted anyway; but in order to make a final decision, whole case may go to Bishop’s office, then perhaps up to Rome.

Well, these days are lightful one side, and dark on the other. I am the victim of the battle among two religious principles who are suppose to make we, poor, human beeings human loving, good and happy citizens in this world and prepare us to the other side: God’s eternal residence. How many times in my dreams I observed Mohammed’s playing sword with Jesus Christ. God, help me!

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September 30’1978,                                                                                                                    Code Island

Eveything is going alright, since I see Mary in the Center, go to my State job, then make consultations to the other clinics around and come home and cook hamburger, rice pilave and make salads for both my son and myself. The relation with Mary, from closeness sems to be turning to love and affection, however sometimes spoiled with her mother’s witchcraft attempts and, in reality, Mary’s some young student friends coming to visit her home, thus, giving mother a chance to strike, stating, “Look, here are some young Christians, you are just waisting your time with an old goat! If you shall really be getting serious about the marriage, I may put my head in the owen, like old Jewish mothers used to do about their unfaithful daughters!”. When I heard these, of course worried a lot, but ‘I offered my help’ to her mother, namely should she wished to put her head in the owen, could I help her then? She banged the telephone to my face.

The cathechism classes are going really good. To my surprise, I have re-discovered a lot of religious material that were similar to my native religion that were obviously coming out of Old Testament. If we shall have time, we’ll come back to Old Testament, for now, since our time is limited for six months, I would like to start “to study the Bible, according to Mathhew,” said father Protano, my sponsor. So, we started. First we studied “The Book of the Origin of Jesus Christ – The Coming of the Savior.” ‘Now when Jesus was born in Betlehem of Judea, in the days of King Herod, behold, Magi came from the East to Jerusalem, saying: ‘Where is he that is born king of Jews? For we have seen his star in the East and have come to worship him.’ But when King Herod heard this, he was troubled, and so was all Jerusalem with him. And gathering together all the chief priests and Scribes of the people, he inquired of them where the Christ was to be born. And they said to him. ‘in Bethlehem of Judea’; and thou Bethlehem, of the land of Juda, art by no means least among the princes of Juda; for from thee shall come forth a leader who shall rule my people Israel.’ …… ‘And when they saw the star they rejoiced exceedingly. And entering the house, they found the child with Mary, his mother, and falling down they worshipped him. And opening their treasures they offered him gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh…….‘But when they had departed, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph, saying, “Arise, and take the child and mother, and flee into Egypt, and remain there until I tell thee. For Herold will  seek the child to destroy him. So he arose, and took the child and his mother by night, and withdrew into Egypt and remained there until the death of Herod.” ‘Then, “The Baptism of Jesus”: ‘Then Jesus came from Galilee to John, at the Jordan, to be babtized by him. And John was for hindering him, and said, “It is I who ought to be baptized by thee, and dost thou come to me?” But Jesus answered and said to him, “Let it be so now, for so it becomes to us fulfill all justice.” Then he permitted him. And when Jesus had been baptized, he immadiately came up from the water. And behold, the heavens were opened to him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove and coming upon him. And behold, a voice from the heavens said, “This my belowed Son, in whom I am well pleased.”

             Naturally at times I was asking some stupid questions to my mentor, like “Why God didn’t help little Jesus and his mother Mary right in his native town to protect from the wrath of King Herod? How come a God and Son-of God  -that itself very hardaaa to accept for a foreigner, at least at the beginnings- had to be baptized by a mortal being John even thou he was also great and closest to Jesus? I cannot write here my priest’s answers for those and like questions that I asked throughout, but he principally told me that, in belief systems, either you believe or you don’t; you cannot question the scriptures, miracles, revelations or any of the divine inspirations. They are celestial and immortal, they are as they are, what they are, that’s all!

Then, the journeys of Jesus eveywhere to preach. He was at Capharnaum. ‘The people sat in darkness have seen a great light; and upon those who set in the region and shadow of death, a light has arisen.’ From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say, “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.”

Then Jesus while walking by the sea of Galilee, he saw two brothers, Simon, who is called Peter, and his brother Andrew, casting a net into the sea (for they were fishermen). And he said to them, “Come, folllow me, and I will make you fishers of men.” And at once they left the nets, and followed him. And going further on, he saw two other brothers, James the son of Zebedee, and his brother John, in a both with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and he called them. And immediately they left their nets and their father, and followed him.

Thus, Jesus started to his mission of preaching and showing miracles in the synagogues, preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every disease and every sickness among the people. And his fame spread into all Syria; and they brought to him all the sick suffering from various diseases and torments, those possessed, and lunatics, and paralytics; and he cured them.

Needless to say I am deeply grateful to Father Protano who dictated all of these word by word, line by line from his notes and different Bibles to me since no book was allowed to be brought out of the church. This way, those valuable informations were becoming more valuable to me too. I did write all of them in my own hand-writing and shall keep them the rest of my life.

October 7’1968                                                                                                                           Code Island

To day’s cathechism was the best of all. Father Protano, in an almost ecstasy, read to me the highlights of Jesus’ “Sermon on the Mountain”.

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“Blessed are the poor in spirit, since theirs is  kingdom of heaven. Blessed are the meek, for they shall possess the earth. Blessed are they who mourn, for they shall be comforted. Blessed are they who hunger and thirst for justice, for they shall be satisfied. Blessed are the merciful for they shall obtain mercy. Blessed are the clean of heart, for they shall see God. Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called children of God. Blessed are they who suffer persecution for justice’ sake, for their is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are you when men reproach you, and persecute you, and, speaking falsely, say all manner of evil against you, for my sake. Rejoice and exult, because your reward is great in heaven; for so did they persecute the prophets who were before you.”

After hearing all these great sayings, my eyes, chest and heart were all full of bliss. “My dear Father,” I said to Father Protano, “I don’t know whether there is or there shall be a heaven after death; but why we all don’t emphasise the importance of man himself, whether he is the representative of God that could be- or not; and, apply all the principles what Jesus brings spring-water clear to the world: Love and justice, caring and sharing, empathy for each other; don’t forget that I, you, he or she, even it, we, you and they, all are blessed with the same stuff that Jesus prescribes; and, the importance of existence and truly exercising to live a truly good life, as we already have a chance of just being on the Earth”. Father’s eyes were grown big; he took a deep breath and said, “I can frankly say, you are a far more advanced Catholic than my any of my original ones. God bless you. You are learning and advancing tremendously.” Since I had found a chance to be a little bit personal, without thinking of taking any advantages of this closeness I posed a question to Father:

“Father, what do you think my chances are with Mary to be with? All, we are two good, innocent people; we both are free and not interested in someone else but ourselves; we do attend to the same church and embrace the same moral values, then, why not?”

Father, though sincere, took a rather serious position, telling me that, as long as a divorce case and a child do exist, church has to put forward certain stiff religious principles to be obeyed with.

“But, father, if someone commits a crime and ask for forgiveness, even in one confession session if God forgives one for a moral sin committed, let me ask  for forgiveness from Him not just once but thousands of times but what kind of immorality I am charged with? Is it a sin of being born onto another religion that might be another great prophet’s way of explaining the same routes of eveyday living to reach the same God? I feel persecuted and how this persecution fits into Jesus’ sayings, as above, ‘Blessed are you when you are reproached and persecuted!’?”

“Son, your lesson is finished today. See you next sunday, after the Mass.”

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Well, I returned home, but divided within myself, as believer or not a believer of anything at all. I called Mary and explained to her what has happened this noon time. She also had mixed feelings too. “My dear Ismailov,” she said, “I went to church all along my life, and as long as I did go by books, everything appeared to be beautiful. I still am not doing anything wrong, I believe, the church’s dogmas can appear to us beyond logic or any reasonable comprehension, but they are put and they shall be going as such, til eternity. Look my dear, what I have been thinking… Hey, are you there, do you listen to me?; “Yes, my love, of course I am here, I am not in love with Father Protano but you!”; “O.K. honey, look. I don’t know whether you know, there is a Presbytarian Church that is the closest to the Catholic Church amongst all others. That church, thou somewhat tough, in principles does not care too much about divorce. So, it may be possible to get married there; I, in all whites; but I guess, first, I have to convince my mother in that matter, second, we have to find a priest that may sympatize with us.” “Okey, until she gives a positive answer, I am going to put the oven off for a while then. (Both laughed!) Well, that’s it now. Let me prepare my son to go out and perhaps, have a nice Chinese dinner and play miniature golf next to it. Love you, bye!” “Bye, love you too!”

October 11’ 1968                                                                                                                       Code Island

To night, we are invited to Mary’s home for my birthday. (Strange, I never knew that my grand-father’s birthdate was october 11 too. What resemblence! Very striking!) Souhi and I dressed well, bought a cake for four, also having a bouquet of flowers for Virgina, Mary’s mother. -She looks like Virgina Woolf, except her genie and ingenuity in creativity, personal grace… and… sometimes I wish her Woolf’s fate.-

Both Mary and mother were also dressed nicely and I did not feel any hostile feelings to start with. It was nice to be with a family, at least in certain times of the year, like Thanksgiving and Christmas. Virginia asked my son how the piano lessons were going. She did not need to ask me how the business was going on since I was most of the time with Mary, she might have obtained the daily news from her. Besides, indeed there is not too much fun, or rather something to report in my business. What you can speak about human misery, suffering, strange and unacceptable attitudes, feelings etc. Just to be polite, I asked Virginia how the things were going in her work, with a cool look, said, ‘As it is, always. No change!’ I was dying to hear from mom anything at all about our situation, but she maintained an absolute silence. She indeed was a good Catholic, except the divorce that she had exercized like me, and, according to her religion, that action was permissible, and my divorce that was permissible in my faith, was not acceptable to hers. I am getting confused.

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“After a brief celebration and the exchange of  personal gifts, Mary wanted to murmur some news to my ears and we found a quite corner for a while. She, in a warm and sincere voice that mother last Monday had gone to see the head-priest, Father Pagan in the catholic church and asked seriously the probabilities of our prospective marriage. Fathers Pagan and Pratono had given for me a clean, respectable and passable note upon my personality, character, attendance to the classes and sincerity in the will to unify with Mary; but the “Catholic church can not be managed with Cannon rule; love is love, people can do anything what they would like to do; even we, could have married outside of church but considering new trends, namely newely mortifying attacks on the Catholic Church, the validity of the Trinity Principle and the death and resurrection of the Jesus Christ and alike subjects were pushing the church to be quite rigid and firmly standing on basic principles of it.”

So, they decided that I should apply to the bishop’s local office for such permission. Should it not be granted then, that is quite possible, I shall have to write to Rome, to His Holiness’ Ecumenical Council for consideration. Mary was smiling, “Isn’t it good? At least they are showing a way and perhaps testing out, but nevertheless the only way.” “Rome may take at least two years to respond my dear, and, WHAT IT SHALL RESPOND if it responds? That blows my head off and tomorrow I am going right into those priests’ office and ask them very very important questions. I am fed up and drawing my sword off. That is enough idiocy!” Then, I pulled my son as fast as possible and left there. Mary was thoughtful and worried and her witch mother was triumphantly smiling from the window and wawing her hands.

I am not going to write the details of what happened the next day at the Church Office. Whatever I had been suffering from the minute that I stepped in, in this Continent, itseems to create enough hell in me that is going to breake lose. Well, I am sure, you shall read in a few months, or next year probably in a book form what and how I had suffered in this Dante’s Hell. I already decided abut the name of the book: “Wheelwright”. First I have thought as “Challenge of Believing versus Non-believing””, or “Wars among Gods” that was going to sound a Grecian style write-up that would sound like a drama. However, I wanted to make it a human comedy where there was no winner, but everybody was going to have fun, so, I insist about the name ‘Wheelwright’. Read it and remember me. For the time being, I am closing this book with the intentions of not to open it again, whatsoever. “So long and see you in Heaven, Mary, if I go there; see you in Hell, Virginia, if I go there.”

October 25, 1968                                                                                                                          Code Island

“Mrs. K., my son’s music teacher, for the first time complained, rather gently pointed out my son Ismailov 2nd’ın relatively poor performance as far as piano is concerned. She claimed, “I see a kind of disinterest, unwilling-

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ness to commit himself. He does not seem to have the joy he used to possess. Naturally he is a young, growing boy, may have some transitory issues to cope with, approaching the pre-teens. But regardless how little I know about you, I feel and breath a nearly perfect, comfortable air whenever I come to your house, and, I know I cannot put my nose into your private family affairs… but my empathy and respect for the little guy is quite deep. Is there anything I could do?”

I outlined to her that he had lost his mother since the age of two years and nine months old and had never seen her again. Recently I was in a serious relation with a young lady that might have ended up with a matrimony; however, due to some external factors, that possibility was nullified. We did not talk to him yet about the details of it, we both, in a rather quiet, passive ways, are trying to absorb the outcome of it, I guess. Since this was a reality, we had to deal with it as it came out. That was all. I thanked her for her interest, and requested that she should not probe anything, please, and does not need to be much more kinder than before, just keep going on with an understanding, that was all I wish at this moment. She thanked for my frankness and wished good days to come.

Well, I guess, we grown-ups all behave, the same way. ‘The child is child, he could be seen but not heard.’ We do not know how to approach them. There is no school for it. To lose his mother was not his choice, was rather mine due to incompability in the family and, for heaven’s sake, on long run, it was going to be far more deleterious than whatever could happen now on. Of course this is my fantasy, and since there is no way of measuring it up, we have to live and learn, if we can. Even though I am a prominent child psychiatrist, that does not help me too much, other than perhaps preventing myself from doing something wrong, with good will, like being overly indulgent with him, feeling sorry for him and treating accordingly, buying useless toys or make some pleasant offers, as if nothing bad happened. I never forget the French proverb, ‘L’enfer est pavé de bons intentions!’ (The hell is paved with good intentions!) Yes, I am holding tight nowadays, but when I am ready, I am sure, I shall speak about our mutual fate, at least I’ll thank him for his understanding and not complaining what he has been through and alike. Kant, I am losing my respect for you, where was that individuals were determining their own fates? Uufff. I am tired, I am going to bed!

November 24’1968                                                                                                   Code Island

I have not been writing for a long time. I guess, I had not had enough energy. I was quite busy too. I had resigned from that Private Child Psychiatric Hospital and indulged rather keenly and deeply in Community Mental Health affairs. Since it was in my power and duty, I was in touch with clergy-men, fire-men and teachers to make meetings with them, and discuss about the community mental health protective services, child neglect,

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unnecessary punishments, early detection of behavioral difficulties, parent-child interaction, how we can detect the tendency to suicide and not to succumb into drug habit and alike. I was arranging state-wide symposiums, conferences and T.V. talks. I indeed felt quite good and energetic. Between, whenever was possible, I was able to talk with my junior too, referring to our mutual loss, his durability and capacity to endure this sort of things and finally telling him how much I was proud of him.

Yesterday was Thanksgiving Day and we were invited to our piano teacher’s home, as guests. That was our first visit to their home and also having a chance to meet her husband and nine-year old daughter. The atmosphere was very good, simple and sincere, filled with the natural ingredients of a natural home. No doubt I felt I missed Mary and related home atmosphere. We watched plenty of College Football follies too. After a while, when husband and two children were watching T.V. and looking at the family album, Mrs. K., with a very sincer voice and friendly manner, talked to me about my possible loneliness, plus the fact that the child needs a female touch and so on so fort, so, if I am willing to meet an unmarried young lady, a nurse, with a strong sense of family and integrity; no smoking, no drinking, no premarital adventures, she would do whatever she could. Of course my heart was empty, I could not put myself in my son’s shoes whether he needs a mother or not, my need for a faithful wife was obvious.

I told her I would think of it; at my age and life experiences perhaps a ‘logical marriage’ was, or could be a much more logical preference than a ‘love story.’ I asked more about that young lady. She said, she is a Mormon girl, age 26, living with her father and mother who are very dignified people; mother of course a housewife, the older sister had already been married for the past three years, having a small baby girl. Father, an engineer, also holding a very high, important position in the church administration, ‘Councillor or something like that’. Family lives in their own house, in a small village called Lake Laman, right at the border of the other neighbouring State. She works as a registered nurse at the surgical unit of a local district hospital.

I told Mrs. K. that I tentatively and hesitantly say ‘yes, let me meet her,’ provided that I do not know anything about Mormons, while she could make an arrangement for such a brief togetherness, I would search, perhaps thru encyclopaedias about the religious principles and customs of that Church. Needless to say, I was not going to go through another experience upon ‘divorce’ story. So, I think I felt a little bit anxious about the possibility of this new adventure, but indeed it was getting a little bit strange to sit at the Govermental dinners all alone, at one head of the table all by myself, and an unmarried priest at the other top, and all the others, including the Governor and the ministers with their delightful wives. For sure, I was missing something, and, this adventure that probably was going to be the last, may be was worth to try. Needless to say, last night, it took too long to fall asleep, and in my dreams, Father Protano with a devilish smile, kept looking at me, without saying a word.

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December 1st’ 1968                                                                                                                      Code Island

During the week I had a chance to go to the library and seek out some information about Mormons, from various books. The best came out again from ‘Encyclopedia Tannica’ (Gush, one hundred years later what coincidence!). It may be of public knowledge for an ordinary citizen but for a foreigner, it is a brand new history and quite interesting to read. I had to rush because Mrs. K. Had already arranged with the Lady Francis (That was the prospective lady’s name!) to go to a movie, however three of us altogether since going alone with a strange man was also not permissible in Mormonism, so someone had to shaperon us. Good so far. This shall take place tomorow evening.

Well, in summary, ‘The Book of  Mormon, taken from the plates of Nephi, is written to the Lamanites, who are a remnant of the house of Israel; and also to Jew and Gentle – Written by way of commandement, ans also by the spirit of prophecy and of revelation – Written and sealed up, and hid up unto the Lord, that they might not be destroyed – To come forth by the gift and power of God unto the interpretation thereof – Sealed by the hand of Moroni, and hid up unto the Lord, to come forth in due time by way of the Gentile – The interpretation thereof by the gift of God.’ I was surprised to note that they were also of Israel origin, the boom takes its origines from the Old Testament, the book of Moses and that of Abraham. The historians had found some evidence, written on the original Egyptian Papyri that been found at the Common Egyptian Funerary Texts, about the existence of these tribes then, there. The old books say about the Nephrites, their having a history of virtuous, industrius and fair-skinned people. Sinful, red-skinned Lamanites, tried to exterminate them, so they followed the same fate of Jewish people: Wandering around the world. One big gap is that, from those before Jesus days until A.C. 1830, Mormons were not heard of. Then there suddenly comes a Reverand James SMITH (New York born, A.C. 1805), proclaims that He is the prophet of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and establishes his head-quarters first in Missouri, building an entire brand new Mormon City, Zion, in A.C. 1931. Their biblical existence, was taken from ‘golden plates’ and a very specially made golden plate with special stones that were placed in silver bows, also called Moroni Plate, as a proof of the glorious Israeli and Gentile backgrounds of Mormons, was delivered to Prophet Smith by a male angel, MORONI himself in Kirkland, in front of two witnesses: David WHITMER and Martin HARRIS. That plate, was to be saved and protected at the Mormons’ head-quarters until eternity.

“The essential principals of Mormonism could be summarized, as follows;

. GOD has evolved from man,             . MEN might evolve into gods,             . The Persons of Trinity are of distinct beings,             . Human souls pre-existed. Christ came to the earth so that ‘all might be saved and raised from the dead’, but, ‘a person’s future is determined by his-hers own action.’             . Justification is by faith and obediance,             . Obediance to be ordinances of the church,

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            . Repentance and Babtism are performed through immersion,             . Laying on the hands for Spirit Gifts, including prophecy, revelation, speaking in tongues (I had met some people in one of the ‘Born-Again Christian Churches who were speaking in tongues, meaning without knowing about anyone, they were able to speak, communicate with each other not only with persons, but with their ancestors too which was quite an experience for me!)             . Faitful members of the church, would inherit eternal life as gods.             . When Christ will return, then shall be ‘the temple work’, principally “Baptism on behalf of dead” shall be in order; . Proselytism, Polygamy were set by Smith himself, but legally declined in 1890.

As I understand Prophet Smith and His followers, had a quite opposition to their existence and celestial claims that they are from Israel long before Jesus Christ, their priesthood and rituals are “true representa-tives of true church”, the American Indians are their descendents, the Prophet is ordained as such by an angel MORONI to settle this discipline throughout the U.S.A., spreading to Ohio and Missouri, using even force when necessary and alike, have them involved involved in actual battles with the Government and a lot of blood was shed, like The Mountain Maedows Massacre, A.C. 1857. (Mohammed too was indulged in several wars while trying to spread Islam.)  Rev. Smith himself was killed in one of these battles as early as in 1844, at the age of 39, right after building a new city, NAUVOO in 1839 A.C.; however his disciples, Lieut.Gen. Brigham YOUNG who later on became Governor in A.C. 1852, and his son, Joseph Smith III, in Iowa and Illinois set the church (A.C. 1852-60) on very strong foundations and and worship in Utah thereafter, however extending themselves up to England and Scandinavia. Prophet Smith was once in touch with a Masonic Lodge and present in their meetings quite frequently, also reported.

As far as the administrative structure is concerned, each church has a president that is one of the  descendants of the Prophet and is appointed by revelation. In every church there are two Councilors who possess very powerful political power, a Council of Twelve Apostoles, The First Council of Seventy.                 Mormon people live close-by their churches; attend to them very regularly and religiously. 4,000 to 5,000 people live in “Stakes”, a few hundred stakes are managed by a President and the Bishop.

Well, sems to be interesting; sounds to me a Middle-Age-Chivalry-kind institution with some mystery course. I felt a kind of chill too. Anyways, now at least I feel half-ready to meet young lady Francis, my prospective bride, I guess. An untouched girl, late sixties in Merica, non-smoker, non-drinker and at the service of man obediantly? Hard to believe, but we will see.

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December 2nd’1968                                                                                                               Code Island

It is slightly after mid-night. We just returned from “Camelot”. Its music had mesmerized me. Needless to say Mrs. K., I and Lady Francis were altogether at the Central Cinéma, at the first balcony. Having a third person between, had really facilitated this important ‘first get together’, especially when it was amalgamated with a historical and mythical masterpiece.

Lady Francis is of medium height, somewhat plumb but not necessarily fat, with curvy blondish hair, gross green frog-eyes, talking nearly in an alto voice, however giving a sense of purity and serenity. On a few occasions when our fingers touched each other I felt a kind of cold and sweaty, trembly but definitely not-estrogen driven and ridden body extentions. One immeditaley feels a kind of security and trust. After movies too, not much has been said. We shook hands and said good-bye to each other.

About half-an-hour later Mrs. K. Called me up and with a curious sounding voice asked my opinion about Lady Francis. Of course I could not completely know a person in such relatively short time, neither she, but my first impression was positive. Love, could have developped later on, at this age and moment in my life, a logical marriage was perhaps much more wiser than an immediate fall in love, I guess. Mrs. K. Said Lady Francis had liked me a lot; I was serious, mature but witty too, and, trustable. “What shall be our next step?” I asked Mrs. K.; she said that, if it is alright with me, next sunday I am invited for a sunday dinner, in their home with the family. This jet speed, while somewhat scaring me, was giving me some sense of ‘right’ since, if the things were not this much in order, the succession of the events could not have been this smooth. So, I keep my fingers crossed, and shall wait for next sunday. Meanwhile I’d better to read a little bit more about Mormons.

December 10th’1968                                                                                                       Sea-Chief, Chussett

To day at noon, I and my junior, were present at Lady Francis’ home, one of the small private properties in the assigned locality in one of the Mormon stakes, in a small town called Sea-Chief, in our neighboring state Chussett. All names around here old American Indian Tribes’ names. As Mormons state that Indians are coming from Mormon blood, they may feel very secure and comfortable with their choice of settlement.

All family members greeted us right at the door, including father that really impressed me. That was the custom that I am used to observe. The family really impressed me as a very honorable one. Father, in his fiftiees with slightly greyish hair and eye-glasses, a serious but sincere man, an engineer, as I said before; a healthy, strong man and obviously the true head of the house. Mother, who looked like exactly her daugher: Somewhat plumb, emotional but sincere, thanked many times for the bouquet of the flowers that my son presented to her. The older sister was not present at the beginning, she was going to visit later on with her husband and the baby.

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Without talking too much, we silently and solemnly sat at the pre-designed seats at the dinner table. Lady Francis and I were facing each other, husband and wife also, and my son somewhere between. Father, before start, raised her hands half-way through and said his prayers:

I pray to the Father in the name of Christ; O God, the Eternal Father, we ask thee in the name of thy Son, Jesus Christ, to bless and sanctify this bread to the souls of all those who partake of it; that they may eat in rememberence of the body of thy Son, and witness unto thee. O god, the Eternal Father, that they are willing to take upon them the name of thy Son, and always remember him, and keep his commandements which he hath given them, that they may always have his Spirit to be with them. Amen.” And after he took his first bite of bread, we were allowed to take our own.

Lunch went on in a quiet but superficial air and exchange, with random talks about mine and father’s jobs, my son’s school, Lady Francis’ Hospital work and alike. As desert, cold cold fruit juice was served. All were fine with me. I was dying to be alone with my bride-to-be and talk about various facts of life, her feelings about marriage and sharing life with someone who had come from abroad, with a son in hands, whether she has any thoughts about having more children, future home namely where to live, finances and alike. However there did not occur any chance for these kind of things for we never were left alone long enough. These things were obviously taken for granted, mature grown-ups could have made their own decisions later on or any time; obviously the most important thing at the present time was my suitability to the Mormon congregation.

Thus, early in the afternoon, while the rest of the family was busy with getting acquainted with each other, the Father and I sat aside and he drew the conclusions. He said, openly, he had liked me; he already has heard about my reputation, righteousness, decency, hard and humanitarian work that I had been doing, and specially taking care of my child, all alone. It was not fair for a man with my qualities to carry on this kind of lonely life. God himself could not stand to be alone and had created man thereof. “Here we are,” he said. “We are opening our arms to you. If you don’t have any objection, next sunday morning, please come to Church, be our guest and observe the ceremonies. There, the President of The Church shall explain to you the basic rules of the church and what to do for a church wedding that is absolutely required.” Then, if everything was going to be alright, by Christmas time, at the Holy Season that was just a feew weeks ahead anyway, we would marry. I whole-heartily accepted the program for especially the day before Christmas was my son’s birthday; why not we could not meet the dates?

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Early in the afternoon, Lady Francis’ older sister, husband and  their nearly two-year old baby-girl arrived. They were too, open, sincere and joyous people. They wished us luck and we, vawing hands, took off, going for a ride in the beautiful surroundings and wilderness of the nature, in spite of winter season. Everywhere was white, but roads were clean and sun was shining all-over. I asked my son’s opinion how he is feeling about this forthcoming marriage; he, with a very clever smile, answered, “Dad, this is your business, it does not make any differrence to me as long I am with you.” This boy should have been a prophet himself. May be he is, time will show.

December 17th’1968                                                                                                                 Code Island

I woke up early this wintery sunday morning. I took my bath, and put my best suit on. I don’t need to impress anyone, but I do not wish any technical matter should be a subject to spoil my image. I left my son with hy next neighbor, doctor’s family from Uba. I am not rich, but I always had good cars to run since I even do not know even how to change the tires. Anyways, my blue Mercedes shines and slides over the crisby icy snovy roads and here I come.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is one of the newely-set, well-built churches in Code Island, close to Sea-Chief, Chussett town line. Mr. Normand, my prospective father-in-law who was the senior Councillor and Deacon in the church hierarchy, personally met me at the door aside the President of the church. After shaking hands, quickly we entered in one of the small administrative offices. Office was furnished very neat and simple. On the walls Rev.Smith’s pictures were faced with that of Jesus Christ, on the other.

Rev. Harold, in a very nice voice, asked about my original religion, marital status, and the degree of the knowledge about Mormonism. I summarized briefly my status and mentioned about my willingness of marrying Mr. Normand’s daughter Francis. He informed me that in Mormon Church, there are two kinds of marriages; one, “marriage for time”, and the other, “marriage for eternity,” or “celestial marriage.” The marriage for time, is losing its validity after death. It is believed that some ‘not that much responsible people who neither are not out of the world, nor are supposed to give in marriage, may prefer’ that type. One way, they do not abide by the church’s law completely, not out-cast, they ara saved too, but without enlarging themselves, they remain singly and without exaltation. In short, this lower form of marriage, if one wants to, may prefer this, or the person’s civic condition may not be suitable more than this.

             Celestial marriage is only performed in the holy temples, like here, and the participants eventually shall be rewarded with a celestial or higher garde of exaltation to come. The other name for this type of marriage is “Sealing”. Indeed, two good people, are sealed to each other until eternity and even thereafter; the President who also is ‘chief priest’, said: “By a reve-

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lation by Prophet Smith, in A.C. 1843, polygamy was permitted. Then prophet has spoken of women “given unto him to multiply and replenish the earth… and for their exaltation in the eternal worlds, that they may bear the sould of men,” namely, says a note, “the souls or spirits of men to be born in heaven.” But, with another revelation in A.C. 1890, conforming with the Federal regulations, the polygamy was abolished. President Wilford Woodruff, on A.C. November 1’1890, addressing to the saints at Logan, Utah, saying, “I want to say this: I should have let all the temples go out our hands; I should have gone to prison myself, and let every man go theree, had not yhe Gıd of heaven commanded me to do what I did do; and when the hour came that I was commanded to do that, it was all clear to me.” (Published in Deseret News, A.C. November 7’1891.)

“Therefore, my son Ismailov, if you marry Francis, as long as you remain married to her, you may not marry another person at the same time. Knowing Francis and now you and considering Mr. Normand’s position, in this church, you owe to marry in celestial form, only that fits you. That means, you shall have some ceremonies prior to declaration and sanction of the wedding which is unseparable part of our rituals. You shall never tell anyone in life time about the details of those rituals, may be just of highlights, or your personal feelings if and when deemed to be necessary, in good will and not serving any evil souls, that’s all. Otherwise, the results may be unthinkable. We recognize one year’s time as adjustment to the church and its principles; so, God forbid if anything happens within the next twelve months, even separation may be possible; but after a year, your said and unsaid- committments to Church, seals you them until eternity.

“I repeat my son again that, just as the relationship between husband and wife who are married only ‘for time’, does not carry over into the spirit world, so also is the bond od parents and children broken by death, unless they are sealed by the proper temple rite. It is a part of the celestial marriage rite to seal the children to the parents for eternity. But for a son (of who you have one!) whose parents were not so sealed til eternity a way is provided whereby a family connection in the future world may be continued. He can, by proxy, marry his parents for eternity and be sealed unto them through these proxies. This is frequently done today by new converts to the faith. But here, too, the sealing is not accepted unless it is freely accepted and all the conditions met by those who are sealed. Do you understand all what I am saying?             “I believe so, Sir!”             “Well, then, what date you choose? Mr. Normand mentioned one day before Christmas. Even though the church is exceedingly busy those days, as you may already know, if you wish we could arrange it. D’accord?”             ” D’accord!”             “See you on December 23rd, 02.00 P.M., for your celestial marriage. Good luck to you for now.”              “Yes Sir, on December 23rd, 02.00 P.M. for celestial marrriage. Thank you.”

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We all shook hands, and I left the church however in a kind of half-daze. It first appeared to be very plausible, acceptable and honorable principles, perhaps paving a road to a clean life, I am sure they still are, but what created a kind of chill in me because of those committments. I am a man of belief and committment, but I had never plunged into this deep chain of committments. I felt I was a small drop in an ocean, fresh and entacing, but frightening too. Well, “Courage mon ami, courage!” (Courage my friend, courage!), I consoled myself. I don’t think I shall be able to sleep to night, and considerimg my son’s age, that is almost nine, I am not going to give any details about these church committments  that more than half of them are obscure events even to me, at least at this point.

December 24th, 1968                                                                                                            Two Thousand Islands

Well, you can congratulate me for my giantic courage what I had achieved yesterday noon, at the Mormon Church. Francis was all in her whites and I was all in my blacks: The eternal challenge of contrasts. All guests were ready on time, including my own little son, who was dressed-up nicely with a black bow-tie, solemnly standing, having been gathered at the Ceremonial Hall.

As we had practiced before, Rev. Harold invited Francis and me to stand before him, and began to read some paragraphs from ‘The Book of Mormon’:              “Here, Ismailov and Francis are standing before me, also meaning before Jesus Christ, the Eternal God, to perform a celestial marriage in this Holy Church. However, according to our covenant principles this sort, Ismailov has to be ‘ordained’ an elder in the Melchizedek Priesthood (this was not told me before, and don’t know what is all about!) and also receive the other blessings pertaining the house of Lord, all of which the Lord has indicated shall be administered in his holy temple. As these blessings are made available for the living, they are also made avilable for their worthy dead. Now, we are taking our groom to be ordained and gone through some ritualistic, spiritual experiences before the Council of Twelve Apostles in our celestial ceremony chamber.”

He began to walk and I followed him. After two or three minutes walk, in eastern part of the church, we entered in an incense filled ‘holy room,’ before the said members of the church. There, they blinded me with a folder, turned the electricity off and pushed me forward. (I cannot say what experiences I had thereafter, what kind of questions were asked and what kind of suggestions were made due to high secrecy. I was not bewildered or scared whatsoever because I had had similar experiences at the initiation of my third degree of ‘master’ freemasonry, just two years ago.) Obviously I had passed the necessary trials and tribulations. Then, I was unfolded and returned, being held my hand by Rev. Harold to the Ceremonial Hall.

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There, again Rev. Harold, before the crowd, began to read some passages from the Book of Moroni:             “And again, I exhort you, my brethren, that ye deny not the ‘gifts of God’, for they are many; and they come from the same God. And there are different ways that these gifts are administred; but it is the same God who worketh all in all; and they are given by the same manifestations of the Spirit of God unto men, to prophit them (10:8).

“For behold, to one is given by the Spirit of God, that he may teach the word of ‘wisdom’ (10:9);             “And to another, that he may teach the word ‘knowledge’ by the same spirit (10:10);             “Wherefore, there must be ‘faith’, and if there must be faith there must also be hope; and if there must be hope there must also be charity (10:20);            “And again I would exhort you that ye would ‘come unto Christ, and lay hold upon every good ‘gift’ and not the evil gift, nor the unclean thing. (10:30).”            Then, Rev. Harold addressed to me: ‘The rings, please!’            I extended them, with somewhat trembling fingers. Holy man, took both of them and after examining for a very short while, passed them through my fiancé Francis’ and mine’ ring fingers; and he finished his blessings:            “Francis and Ismailov; as both of you came unto Christ, King of heaven, our creator, to conjugate in the form of celestial marriage in this holy church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, having been passed successfully all the necessary qualifications tests to be a member of this congregation before the President, Councils, The Council of Twelve Apostles, Deacon, all priests, in order to share the gifts of Jesus Christ on this earth and in death thereafter, I declare you husband and wife. God bless you too. Amen. Now, you can embrace each other.”

That was it and I am now a junior member of Mormon Church. I am sure, I shall abide with all rules and regulations of it. There is no reason why I may not do so. I am coming to a close in my writings, because my bride is just awakening. So long.”

*

I read the above written parts of my grand-father’s life story even without raising my head from the top of my desk; and, when I raised it up, I was in a kind of daze. I sure was mesmerized with the fluidity of the events, all intertwined with each other though appear occurring independently, displaying a faith. Were they personal choices or pre-destined? I wouldn’t know. Oo, my God, the time is almost 18.00 P.M., I should rush to my lovely wife for sharing the dinner; then of course, you know where I am going. Now, at least I feel much more confident and sure of myself that I could control the situation better than before, whatever the circumstances would bring. Because, because I am much more acknowledged and equipped than before. We shall see.

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I had previously mentioned about the architecturial designs of our houses that were mainly depended heavily upon the earth-quake proof principles, and built accordingly: as many stories possible, high but almost pyramid shaped, looking like old Assurian Ziggurats. Old people’s homes were built much more closer to the earth, nonetheless they may look like alike. However, we permitted to built the worship centers to be constructed as they were or might have been in their original features in old times. Thus, their looks, besides being very distinguished and serene, offer to eyes a beautiful panaromic scenes of different worlds. Classical Christian churches, Muslim mosques and Jewish temples are already known too many people but Mormon Church, due to its rarety presents a different kind of construction. One would say, “Oo, how beautiful Gothic chateau it is. Look at that cathedral from Middle Ages!” It is rich, big and grandiose from outside but warm and friendly from inside. However, wherever you go, you feel yourself as if you are in Salt Lake City, Utah.

Anyways, I was at the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-day Saints, just on time, for a visit, as previously cited. Needless to say, with a small group of followers behind, Reverend Arthur Brenner, President, shook hands with me quite lively, shaking a few times successively and presented me to his company: “Here is Mr. George Kwell..” When I shook hands with him, I immediately recognized him: He was the person who had come with a group of five for the possibility of the establishement of the Masonic Lodge. He too was very much emotional of being with me again. “Here is Kevork Papazian.. One of our most precious servants of the Church, Councillor.” “How do you do Mr. Papazian!”, and Rev. Arthur continued to present, “Here is the one of the utmost respectable persons, the last treasure who just joined us; His Excellency Reverend Pudowski!” A deep, bas-bariton voice while saying “My pleasure, Sir!” shook me because that was the exact voice, however speaking in Sanskrit then, who last night was giving the orders around. I looked into his eyes, they were as large as and as deep as oceans, and appeared to be spotlessly clean. Nonetheless I felt myself uncircled and queezed with a fiery-red iron. “The other councillor and the deacon shall join us later on. They are getting ready for to night grand assembly. Let us go into my office, if you wish,” and we walked. Still under the influence of my readings from my grand-dad, I and others followed him into his private office where I had never been before. I sat down in a comfortable easy chair, right at the entrance. The others also sat silently, after me. I looked around and make a polite comment about the beautiful internal design and delightful furnishings. President, calmly and quietly responded with a few polite words, but behind them, I felt there was going to come a strong wind, playing innocent perhaps, silently but strongly pushing me into a rather difficult situation, “Okey, please tell us, why you are here?”, knowing that, as we used to say in poker games in old home, “having the Ace of Spade in your palm!”, he did not need to worry about anything. “The card is in my hands!”

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Of course he did not ask the above question, kept looking, -as matter of fact, all doing the same- into my eye. After an initial anxiety state that I experienced for certain seconds, I said:             “Mr. President. I have some questions and puzzles on my mind, perhaps related to Mormon Church and Mormonism, however I do not feel competent enough to find some plausible answers and be fair to myself and to the entire people in this Republic, including you Mormons, who had been very respectable citizens throughout. I don’t want to go in the circles and repeat things that I myself am not clear.”

“I appreciate your frankness and sincerity,” replied Reverend Arthur. “Your nobility and fairness is well-known to everybody in the State. We do know your values and good-will, but still we do not know the essence or matrix of the problem, how we can help you, Sir?”              “As time goes by, I am sure, I will be more specific. At the present time, I enriched my knowledge just a little bit more about Mormon Church, but of course, they are not good enough. I went over the known encyclopaedias and some religious books, naturally not good enough. (After pausing for a while) I very specifically want to know more about MORONI ANGEL and MORONI PLATES… (As soon as I mentioned these, their eyes circled around, gave some sparks to each other, may be so, may be my paranoia) I don’t know whether you permit ‘The Book of Mormon’ circulate outside of the church, do you?”

“Under normal circumstances ‘no’, but for your Excellency, isn’t it (looking at the others, and then getting up and going to one of the cabinets, bringing out a rather small book with a dark blue jacket) here is your Honor, this should be our gift to you, keep it as long as you wish. And, after reading, if you need some interpretations, needless to say, we all are under your service.”

I was really grateful to them in a way, may be connecting inner thoughts and feelings via subconscious avenues, but outwardly nonetheless polite and helpful they were. I was just at the beginning of the mystery, but my conscious was clear from the very beginnings that, there was an unfinished business somewhere, and that was touching, if not threatening somebody’s, perhaps mine existence and only someone like me with a State power and good-will for humanity and fairness of “Khalifa Omar”, could make some people happy and, at the same time, fulfilling some justice, long awaited. I really felt quite eased up thru putting myself forward wide open, though sincere and innocent, perhaps a kind of securing myself too, or the other important person whoever could be, asking for extension of time. In other words, in a civilized way, we had crossed some messages for everybody’s benefit. I believe human beings could resolve all man-made problems, provided that they should keep their good-wills and intentions wild open, addressing to the very hearts of the other brothern. Well, once again, here is the greatness of the New Atlantis Republic: One is for all, all is for one!

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Although I am all worked-up for the Book of Mormon, to night, I have to fulfill my previous committment to the Shamanistic Center. If you have some free time and would like to listen to me in this subject, please come as my guests, follow me at the Center and come up to performance on the stage, as one of the most remarkable practices of Shamanism since we do not show those worship activities on Big Screen.

It is a rainy day today. At an island state, the rain usually comes as storm, since the Island is wide open from four sides, with a tremendous noise and high speed, wind comes and sweeps everything whatever can. It is as if another Flood. Birds fly around with wild screams restlessly, the sun is also hidden behind angry clouds, nature takes its cold shower and then, suddenly everything stops, sun smiles, clouds are getting whiter and thinner and fluffy, then the nature symphony starts from adaggio again.

So I watched the rain drops playing their last dances from my window, succumbed into thoughts again. Yes, where I was? The other nights’ hearing bells ring in my ears, repeating, “Sru! Apnuhi prathama… Anyutha, hata! Asti mant Moroni Plates. Band ca pariraksyantam asya pranah. Aduna!” “Listen! Obtain first… otherwise, kill! He is the possessor of Moroni Plates. Enter into his friendship and spare his life! Now!) George and Kevork ha! How friendly they were in the church. Wouldn’t they know I am innocent if there is some secret in it? Yes, I am innocent. Do they know I am innocent? Yes, they know. What they are after is somewhat known to me, but why is not known. Shall they give me enough chance to resolve this problem? Yes, it appears so. If I couldn’t resolve, could they harm me? I don’t know, yes or no. I am anxious to finish up my grand-father’s diary and read a little bit more from the Book of Mormon. But now, I am on my way to the Shamanistic Center and here I am in a place with different air.

The Shamanism Center’s leader, Ibn-ul Kadeem, greeted me warmly, and jokingly asked, “Are you ready to be on the stage, Excellency?” “By all means, I always feel young when I am coming here. People are ready? I brought my hat and mask that are in my hand-bag; did you prepare a shaman’s drum and a small rug at the stage for my use?” “Yes, all are ready, Your Excellency!” “Six of your students too?” “Yes, Your Excellency!”.

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“Good evening ladies and gentlemen;

“Last week, we have talked somehow about some principles or components of the “culture” and seeing Shaman as a cultural embassador of any given, particularly those of primitive, or developing masses of human societies. We have talked about the “Initiation exercises of Shaman” and related experiences, and as anyone of you could be a shaman candidate, we had looked over the small personal experiences that could make, for instance having “underworld” and “sky trips” and other visits. As you may recall, during these trips, shaman generally takes his drum, may use his mask and may resort to his”sacred animal” if he needs too.

“As you may imagine, all the details of these performances are cultural patterns of the people whoever they represent. Culture, of course, is closely related to some symbols that are transmitted from generations to generations. Though these symbols may change from time to time, (as Swastika was originally a mid-Asia sign to show the four-corner on the roads that used for the same purpose in South America too, also meaning ‘fortune’, ‘luck’ well-being’ in Sanskrits, Nazis used them in A.C. 1930’ies for different cause), they have to give some service to the nation which it belongs to. Some of those practices may not seem to be acceptable by general views such as in Old India women were burnt after their husbands’ death, on the other hand, to day, in Enga, the same is observed; however the woman is strangled; blood related people through father are not permitted to marry, but if a child is born from such relation, there is permission for infanticide.

“As Mircea Eliade (A.C. 1907 Bukarest, Romania – A.C. 1986 Chicago, U.S.A.) who is the dean of modern anthropology taught us first how shaman is charged with some almost impossible looking, a kind of clearance of dirty jobs. In Borneo, for instance, it is believed that a devil psyche (thou might be her next neighbour) enters in a woman’s body (Incubus) and shaman (Bungai) is called to take that devil out her body through some black magic and rituals. There for every 200 poeple there is one shaman. If someone is sick, that means his or hers healthy soul is angry at that person, leaves and goes somewhere else. Shaman, in general with his drum, has to travel, find it, and bring it back.

“Here, as a practicum let me show how this is done.             “Suppose we have a sick person, a young woman. (I call a woman, from the crowd who listens to this lecture.) She has tremendous abdominal pain and suffering. (I lay a small rug at the middle of the stage and let the woman actually lay on the rug!. I also take out a shaman’s hat out of my bag, that is a round, cane or wicker hat, with several feathers around and a shaman’s mask, looking like taken from old African Tarzan movies, wear both of hem In addition I take the drum that I am provided by the Center, starting to beat it with regular strokes, of medium height for number of minutes. Then, with a serie of three quick strokes, I stop drumming, put the drum aside and lay to the floor, next to the sick lady. Then, addressing to the audience while

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laying down) “So far, through opening ceremonies, we gave the signal to the ‘sick soul’ of the lady ‘here we are coming to look for you!’. Now, I am going to examine the lady’s body wheather her soul is there or not!”  (I put my ear on her abdomen. After searching through for a while, I tell her:) “Your soul left you. She might have been angry with you, and hostile to you. Now, my duty is to find it out, and bring it back to you!”

(Then, I straightened myself up and  clap my hands, six students of Ibn-ul Kadeem, run to the middle of the stage, form a “canoe” around the patient, kneeling down with some distance between, namely two at each side, one in front and one at back; I tell everyone:) “This is the spiritual canoo, and we all are going to search this woman’s soul who left her!”. (I also sit at the middle in the canoo, next to the patient, and drum slowly and regularly, with simple beats, with regular intervals. During this drumming, six youths, with only arms, imitate rowing forward, also syncronizing their bodies accordingly. This scenery gives the false impression that as if the ship is going forward, after the lost, rather escaped soul. Anyways, after six or seven minutes’ beating, I suddenly beat the drum with vigor, three times with three sharp beats, and stop. All arm and body movements stop too. That means we came to a cave where the escapee soul might be hidden somewhere. I got up alone, get out of the boat, and go to the audience one by one, asking,)

“Do you have an extra soul on you? Ha? Any extra guest? (Also checking with my finger-tips their immediately reachable pockets, their hair on the head, even touching their stomach. Finally, like a magician, I find the soul somewhere, -generally in an innocent child’s pocket- I hold -imagery- something very delicate in my fingers, carry it very carefully in the air, show the audience turning one hundred and eighty degrees around and and then putting it in my pocket. Then I re-enter the canoe, sit down then lay down slowly, take out the soul out of my pocket),

“Now, I put the soul in my mouth, and breath it to the patient’s abdomen!” (I do this a few times, with deep breathings. Then I ask the sick woman:                 “How do you feel now?”, she, (somewhat stunned, thinks and moves her eye-lashes anxiously, checks herself how she feels, and) finally murmurs:                  “Oo, indeed, I feel very well!                  “O.k., your soul is back; your are reconciled. Now on, you give good care to it!”. (Then, I took my drum in my hands again, started to the same beats as before, but this time, six youths, start again to move their arms, hands and bodies move, but this time in reverse; namely we are going home. Again, after a few minutes strıke, I bit three times three strong beats then stop. We all get out the boat and greet the audience. Plenty of applauds, deservedly so!)

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“Not only in primitive societies, but in higly cultured populations and nations too, Shamans are charged with important duties. In old Hungary, shamans are called “Taltos” and their prinicipal duties are to cure, to find out the witches, to limit the devil’s mis-deeds and alike. In order to achieve these, a shaman can transmute himself into a horse or a bull; do his job in reality or in his dreams. According to their beliefs, a shaman is created in his mother’s womb; thus he is sacred; if there is a war on the earth, he flies in the skies to save his country. He has a very strong sense of “finding the things out”, particularly those of treasures. Here it is, a very well known Hungarian myth, regarding a shaman’s endeavour to recover a treasure, and the games that he played even to his own people.

“Once upon a time there was very famous shaman (taltos), a Francis Csuba, (1721 A.C.), in Csökmö. To the people’s belief, there was a hidden treasure in a nearby swamp, however under the control of a monstrous dragon. Csuba, promised to his people to recover this treasure and give to them, as they deserve. So, he takes a long and thick rope; with one end he ties ties it to the entire people’s hand, and promises to tie it to the dragon’s hand although he cheats them, and ties the other end to a tree. In addition, he makes his helper sit on a nearby tree, with nude bottocks facing the paysants, having him blow a trumpet. Then, he addresses to people: ‘Who he is in sexual relation with his neighbor’s wife, has to let go the robe due to the reason that the dragon will eat him first!’ Everybody in a panick leaves the rope and escapes as far as he could go. Some other version of the strory is that, taltos, is a very good-willed person, scares the dragon off and the people gain their treasure.”

*     *

“In more than one way, we said, shaman is a mythologic hero. He rises from everybody’s ordinary life style, when necessary utilizing “the helping spirits”, goes to his journey; that could be travelling the world, underworld or skies. One of his most useful tools that accompanies him in almost every trip is that his drum. One of the grand masters of anthropology, Joseph Campbell, in A.C. 1980, cites these notes about that famous drum of shaman:

‘Once upon a time, there was a famous shaman, Morgan Kara, in the tribe of Barade of Siberia, who had the custody of a double-faced drum which had been said, through it, the shaman was able to call dead souls. On the other hand, the head of his clan, Örlin Khan, who also had believed that it was in his rights to call the dead souls and even to protect them. Having a heart-broke, Örlin Khan complains shaman Kara to Tengri, the head of gods, to correct the situation. God Tengri, wants to challenge young, demanding shaman in a competition, as follows. He puts a dead man’s soul in an empty bottle and hides it somewhere. Morgan Kara goes for an “under-world” journey to search that soul with his famous double-faced drum, but cannot find it anywhere. Then he tries the “upper-world”, sky-land, and there observes that the soul is resting in an empty bottle, but the God Tengri’s finger is blocking the open end. Shaman Kara immediately

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transmutes himself  into a hornet and bites god Tengri from his forehead. Naturally god Tengri takes his hand off the bottle and holds his forehead; then, shaman Kara picks up the soul and runs to “middle-world”. Tangri, being mad, instantenously creating a thunderbolt that strikes Kara’s drum, and that day on, a shaman can never have a double-faced drum again.’

“If we can sum up shamans daily responsibilities and functions:

1)     D e v i n a t i o n :  To answer the directed questions, for example “to search a  teacher in the universe”. 2)     C l a i r v o y a n c e :  Fortell the events that presently are not in sight, shall occur in near future; 3)     F i n d i n g,  s e a r c h i n g :  Of lost souls, valuable belongings and alike. 4)     H e a l i n g, c u r i n g :   To do whatever possibly be done, as had been demonstrated above, searching through “spiritual canoe.”

“Shaman, travels at three levels (Shamanic Format) :

“1)     At the L o w e r   W o r l d:    The world of dead, the ancestors resting place.             (You can exercise this too. Lay down for about ten minutes. A drum, played by someone else, can accompany this trip. Shaman candidate, closes his eyes, and lets himself go underworld. Since this could be somewhat scary, he can call his “spirit helpers” -those are invisible souls- to accompany your body, or your own ‘Power animal’ (that you usually carry in your heart, as an image, even as a bracelet or a neckless, or ring, primarily a symbolic docile animal like cat, dog, cow, but cannot be a serpent, bird or any kind of reptiles). Candidate, during trip may ask whoever he is seeking: Dead ancestors, an old friend, even his own power animal; can ask how people feeling there, then about in ten minutes, returns back, under the provisions of his power animal. The trip ends when the drum beats fast and loud on four successive occasions.)

“2)    At the M i d d l e   W o r l d :    The world which we live in.            Thus, he again travels through under the leadership of his power animal, or all alone, primarily in Nature: Rocks, plains, plants, forests, country. Solitude, therefore, is one of the most fundamental principles of shamanhood. However this is not a passive but rather an active experience. A shaman candidate, during this ‘Nature Trip’, searches and finds out “Power spots” in nature, sings “Power Songs”.

“Thus, to strengthening your ‘survival skills’, utilizing this kind of trip, you should do this kind of exercises:

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“Exer. 1 :   Just before sundown, sit in your seat, close your eyes, shake your ‘Bell’-which is another tool you must carry on you as a shaman candidate-, and invite all (living) souls, try to sing joyously. That should take about 15-20 minutes.

“Exer. 2 :   Do your ‘Devination’ job. Close your eyes, go for a trip to the places that you already know; a friend’s, grand-mother’s house, school, foreign countries, and come back.

“Exer. 3 :   Do travel and search places that you had never been in. 10 minutes.

“Exer. 4 :   One evening, right after sundown, go alone for an outside ride; rise your head, look up to the skies, choose a star; enter into that star, travel together with that star in the sky; come back after 10 minutes.

“Exer. 5 :   Visit your close friends, relatives for 10 minutes.

“Exer. 6 :   Quarz crystal that you also must carry on you as the symbol of power, is one of your important helpers. With him, travel in this physical world with pride and strength, go to unknown places, meet the unknown people, and come back within ten minutes.

“3)   At the   U p p e r   W o r l d :    The ultimate place where gods live.

“Exer. 1 :   Lay down, and close your eyes. Think of the top of a mountain or the flames. Climb step by step, look around and admire the beauty and majesty of the universe; in order to achieve the ascendance, you have to pierce through a “membrane” that could be scary, so use you power animal or helping spirits. You must turn back within 10-12 minutes.

“Exer. 2 :   You may repeat the above mentioned exercise through using ‘quarz crystal’ as your power animal.”

-Thus ended the exercizes.-

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Sipping my coffee, longing into complex possibility and probability issues about current unsolved problems, I am trying to program the day. Let us see, everything seems to be under control. All starting and ongoing programs are on their tracks. First, I should check with Administration and Personnel Department whether Keath was able to do something about the chapel for a probable Freemasonry House site.

“Keith, good morning!”             “Good morning Sir!”              “Did anything come out with Pere Pierre in reference to our prospective plans at the Chapel?”             “Yes Sir, yesterday afternoon I have been able to finalize with Pere Pierre who gladly gave his consent. This morning the cleaning team is going to wash and dust the entire place. I am sure, electricity, heat and other services that will be ready by this afternoon too. Then, of course, I shall wait from you and the group for specific requests and changes have to be made.”             “Very good. Would you be kind enough to get in touch, let me see, which one could be considered as leader? Smith L. I guess, oldest, wisest and most advanced in degree, anyhow would you tell him, or whoever you can catch from the group that I would like to meet them to night at 20.00 P.M. at the Chapel that we should make some planning? Any results yet about the personal backgrounds from Ternational Biography Center?”              “Not yet Sir, I shall get in touch with Mr. Smith right away. Incidentally, if you permit, I also would like to be at the Chapel myself to see the things first hand.”              “Thank you Keith, be good!”              “Thank you, Sir, much obliged!”

Good, that was okey. Now what? Even though it was just on tuesday, the day before yesterday, with Michael Deem, the supervisor of the Summer Literary Festival, I wondered whether they had come to a conclusion about the date of the Festival?              Then, I gave a ring to Edith.              “Hi, Edith, gracious lady. What’s up?”              “Everything is in order, Sir. The other day, you obviously have made a very useful meeting with Michael. As usual, you are one step ahead of me, I was going to give you a call that we should put the Festival in the air one week from this coming week-end.”               “Very good Edith. Make your final plans and start to advertise right away. The beginning of the next week we should get together and review the things that are already done. Oo, you know my neurosis, if you put me too among the celebrities who would read some ‘decoration’ poems between, I appreciate very much.”              “I already put Sir, without your olympic torch, we are lightless. You know that.”              “You are a jewel. God bless you! So long!”              “So long, Sir!”

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With a comfort that I felt inside of me, I am reviewing my speeches, classes and attendance for the rest of the week. Let us have a look upon them.

This afternoon, I could read perhaps my grand-father’s diary that is thrilling, or, The Book of Mormon, or can review the other notes, let me decide what to read after lunch.

This evening, that is to say, thursday afternoon, as you know, I am going to the French Church Chapel to meet the founders of the prospective Masonic Lodge applicants. To see Mr.George K. who also is among the Mormon Church celebrities gives me a little bit vertigo. Any misconnection, misdeed? I do not know yet, but I have to keep a close eye on him.

Tomorrow noon, I have to continue at the Muslim Mosque, with the lecture about “recognizing Islam!”. Since it involves a lot of historical names, dates and data, whether it comes rather heavy to some people, I don’t know. Since I am the President, the people even thou they know better, don’t dare to criticise me one way or the other.

Saturday, I cannot miss the Jewish Temple. This year I don’t want to interrupt the serie of beginning classes that are quite educational.

For sunday, I have to consult my wife too. We will wait and see, whatever comes up.

Thus, even without waiting for lunch, with an inner impulse of curiosity I immersed myself into The Book of Mormon.

In the “Introduction” section of the book, it simply cites, “The Book of Mormon is a volume of holy scripture comparable to the Bible. It is a record of God’s dealings with the ancient inhabitants of The Americas and contains, as does the Bible, the fullness of the everlasting gospel.”

The Testimony of the Prophet Joseph Smith is the most striking part of the beginnings of the book:

“On the evening of the … twenty-first of September (1823) … I betook myself to prayer and supplication of Almighty God…

“While I was thus in the act of calling upon God, I discovered a light appearing in my room, which continued to increase until the room was lighter than at noonday, when immediately a personage appeared at my bedside, standing in the air, for his feet did not touch the floor.

“He had on a loose rob of most exquisite whiteness. It was a whiteness beyond anything earthly I had ever seen; nor do I believe that any earthly thing could be made to appear so exceedingly white and brillant. His hands were naked, as were his legs, a little above the ankles. His head and neck were also bare. I could discover that he had no other clothing on but this robe, as it was open, so that I could see into his bosom.

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“Not only was his robe exceedingly white, but his whole person was glorious beyond description, and his countenance truly like lightning. The room was exceedingly light, but not so very bright as immediately around his person. When I first looked upon him, I was afraid; but the fear soon left me.

“He called me by name, and said unto me that he was a messenger sent from the presence of God to me, and that his name was Moroni; that God had had a work for me me to do; and that my name should be had for good and evil among all nations, kindreds, and tongues, or that it should be both good and evil spoken all people.

“He said there was a book deposited, written upon gold plates, giving an account of the former inhabitants of this continent, and the source from whence they sprang. He also said that the fulness of the overlasting Gospel was contained in it, as delivered by the Savior to the ancient inhabitants.

“Also, that there were two stones in silver bows -and these stones, fastened to a breastplate what is called the Urim and Thummim- deposited with the plates; and the possession and use of these stones were what constituted Seers in acients or former times; and that God had prepared them for the purpose of translating the book.

“Again, he told me, that when I got those plates of which he had spoken -for the time that they should be obtained was not yet fulfilled-  I should not show them to any person; neither the breastplate with the Urim and Thummim; only to those to whom I should be commanded to show them; if I did I should be destroyed. While he was conversing with me about the plates, the vision was opened to my mind that I could see the place where deposited, and that so clearly and distinctly that I knew the place again when I visited it.”

The other important chapters of the book are spread all over. It sems to be indeed a kind of testament we know, but decorated with different references. In deep-notes, they were corresponded with their classical Biblical versions. If I can take a few, for instance,

The First Book of Nephi”, in:                ‘Chapter 1’, cites: “Nephi begins the record of his people – Lehi (Younger son of Helaman) sees in vision a pillar of fire and reads a book of prophecy – He praises God, foretells the coming of the Messiah, and prophesies the destruction of Jerusalem.”               ‘Chapter 2’, “Lehi takes the family into the wilderness by the Red Sea – They leave their property – Lehi offers a sacrifice to the Lord and teaches his sons to keep the commandements…”               ‘Chapter 3’, “Lehi’s sons return to Jerusalem to obtain the plates of brass – Laban refuses to give them up.”               ‘Chapter 5’, “Sarah complains against Lehi – Both rejoice over the return of their sons – They offer sacrificies – The plates of brass contain writings of Moses and the prophets…

 

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‘Chapter 6’, “Nephri writes of the things of God – His purpose is to persuade men to come into the God of Abraham and be saved.”             ‘Chapter 7’, “Lehi’s sons return to Jerusalem and enlist Ishmael and his household in their cause…”.             ‘Chapter 8’, “Lehi sees a vision of the tree of life..”             ‘Chapter 9’, “Nephi makes two sets of records – Each is called the plates of Nephi – The larger plates contain a secular history; the smaller ones deal primarily with sacred things.”              ‘Chapter 10’, “Lehi predicts the Babylonian captivity – He tells of the coming among the Jews of a Messiah, a Savior, a redeemer – He tells also of a coming of the one who should babtize the Lamb of God – Lehi tells of the death and resurrection of the Messiah…”               ‘Chapter 15’, “Lehi’s seed are to receive the gospel from the Gentiles in the latter days.  The gathering of Israel is likened unto an olive tree whose natural branches shall be grafted in again.”              ‘Chapter 16’, “The wicked take the truth to be hard – Lehi’s sons marry the daughters of Ismael – The Liahona guides their course in the wilderness – Messages from Lord are written on the Liahona from time to time – Ishmael dies…”              ‘Chapter 17’, “Nephi is commanded to build a ship – His brethren oppose him.”              ‘Chapter 18’, “The ship is finished – The births of Jacob and Joseph are mentioned – The company embarks for the promised land – The sons of Ishmael and their wives join in revelry and rebellion – Nephi is bound, and the ship is driven back by a terrible tempest – Nephi is freed, and by his prayer the storm ceases – They arrive in the promised land.”              ‘Chapter 19’, “Nephi makes plates of ore and records the history of his people – The God of Israel will come six hundred years from the time Lehi left Jerusalem – Nephi tells of His sufferings and crucifixionThe Jews shall be despised and scattered until the latter days, when they shall return onto the Lord..”            ‘Chapter 20’, “The Lord reveals His purposes to Israel – They have been chosen in the furnice of affliction and are to go forth from Babylon..”            ‘Chapter 21’, “Messiah shall be a light to the Gentiles and shall free the prisoners – Israel shall be gathered with power in the last days..”            ‘Chapter 22’, “Israel shall be scattered upon all the face of the earth – The gentiles shall nurse and nourish Israel with the gospel in the last days – Israel shall be gathered and saved, and the wicked shall burn as stubble – The kingdom of the devil shall be destroyed, and Satan shall be bound.”

And, these are some excerpts from the “Second Book of Nephi”:

“An account of the death of Lehi, Nephi’s brethren rebel against him. The Lord, warns Nephi to depart into the wilderness and he journeys there.”

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‘Chapter 1’, “And now my son, Laman, and also Lemuel and Sam, and also my sons who are the sons of Ishmael, behold, if ye will hearken unto the voice of Nephi ye shall not perish. And if ye will hearken unto him I leave unto you a blessing, ye, even my first blessing.”              ‘Chapter 2’, “Redemption cometh through the Holy Messiah – Freedom of choice (agency) is essential existence and progression.”              ‘Chapter 3’, “Joseph in Egypt saw the Nephites in vision – He prophesied of Joseph Smith, the latter-day seer; of Moses, who would deliver Israel; and of the coming forth of the Book of Mormon.”              ‘Chapter 5’, “The Nephites separate themselves from the Lamanites, keep the law of Moses, and build a temple – Because of their unbelief, the Lamanites are cursed, receive a skin of blackness, and become a scourge unto the Nephites.”              ‘Chapter 9’, “Jews shall be gathered in all their lands of promise – Atonement ransoms man from the fall – The bodies shall come forth from the grave, and their spirits from hell and from paradiseThey shall be judged – Atonement  saves from death, hell, the devil, and endless torment – The righteous to be saved in the kingdom of God – Penalties for sins set forth – The Holy One of Israel is the keeper of the gate.”              ‘Chapter 10’, “And now, I, Jacob, speak unto you again, my belowed brethren that Jews shall crucify their God – They shall be scattered until they begin to believe in him – America shall be a land of liberty where no king shall rule – Be reconciled to God and gain salvation through his grace.”            ‘Chapter 12’, “Isaiah (The son of Amos) sees the latter-day temple, gathering of Israel, and millennial judgement and peace – The proud and wicked shall be brought low at the Second Coming.”            ‘Chapter 15, “The Lord’s wineyard (Israel) shall become desolate and his people shall be scattered.”            ‘Chapter 16’, “Isaiah sees the Lord – Isaiah’s sins are forgiven – He is called to prophesy – He prophesies of the rejection by the Jews of Christ’s teachings.”            ‘Chapter 17’, “Ephraim and Syria wage war against Judah – Christ shall be born of a virgin.”            ‘Chapter 19’, “Isaiah speaks Messianically – The people in the darkness to see a great Light – Unto us a child is born.”              ‘Chapter 20’, “Destruction of Assyria is a type of destruction of wicked at the Second Coming – Few people shall be left after the Lord comes again.”              ‘Chapter 21’, “Stem of Jesse (Christ) shall judge in righteousness  The knowledge of God shall cover the earth in the Millenium – The Lord shall raise an ensign and gather Israel.

Well, all are beautfiul and enlightening but very very powerful. I emphatize with my grand-father but I wonder how he might have carried this load since, as I am, I believe he was a believer but a scientific, medical man too, doing whatever he was supposed to do, from births to autopsies, trying to heal people at the best, still remaining a deep-believer and an objective man of this life and death game? This is why I am quite curious about his adventures, We all see. Now, I am hungry and willing to eat something.

*

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Evening meeting at the Chapel was short but a nice one. All concerned, that means I and Mr. Gleem from the Administration and five fellows, George K., Smith L., Clarke M., Gregor S. and Yani Z., the building-keeper on the grounds Mr. Chevalier were present and walking around and objectively trying to figure out what was needed. Pere Pierre was on night prayers that he could not attend. A few time-beaten doors and windows needed to be repaired and painted, so did the Hall. The small room that was situated at the end of the corridor that was going to be used eventually as ‘spare room’ for the candidates 1st, 2nd and 3rd degree of examinations, and also presently for storing the necessary clothings, the decorations and brick and bra, this and that, could also be placed there. One or two closets, a couple of book-cases would suffice for now. Needless to say, the little bath-room also had to be revived and renewed in many ways.

So, we decided these things will be taken care of immediately, and upon hearing the clearance of the candidates and completion of the building, after some public advertisements through Big Screen, we shall make an opening. Everybody involved was in a genuine cheery mood. We said “good-night” to each other and, without any mishap or unwarranted mystery of threat, like being followed by strange, dark shadows, some puzzling signs and write-ups that you usually read in mystery books and watch in movies, did not occur. Those kind of covered things don’t and can’t happen in New Atlantis. Indeed can’t? We shall wait and see.

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                                                                            21

To day friday. In the morning, we had our usual Cabinet Meeting with members, but there was nothing unusual to note. The outcomes of the newcomers’ evaluations had begun to crystalize as to man-power principally, the living headquarters and immediate extra needs that were invisible before; the Chapel’s repair of course, again the program of the Summer Literary Festival, the review of the Energy resources and stocks in hands and alike. It however took longer than I had thought, and I missed the ‘namaz’ portion of my visit to the Mosque. To my surprise, there was a massive crowd who would dare to listen to my historical speech.

“Wessalamun aleykum” (God’s greetings for you!), I greeted them, and got the classical reply, in chorus: “Aleykum salam!” (For you too!)

“I am continuing of speaking upon the religion before Mohammed and His Koran in Arabs. As we had said last week, this is necessary to understand the birth and the development of Islam.

“The religion of the Arabs before Mohammed, which they call the state of  i g n o r a n c e, in opposition to the knowledge of God’s true worship revealed to them by their prophet, was chiefly gross idolatry. The Sabian religion having almost overrun the whole nation, though there were also great numbers of Christians, Jews, and Magians (Old Persian Priests), among them. The S a b i a n s did not believe one God, but produced many strong arguments for his unity; though they also paid an adoration to the stars, or the angels and intelligences which they supposed reside in them, and governed the world under the supreme Deity. They endeavoured to perfect themselves in the four intellectual virtues, and believed the souls of wicked men will be punished for 9000 ages, but will afterwards be received to mercy. They were obliged to pray three times a day, the first, half an hour or less before sun-rise, ordering it so that they may, just as the sun rises, finish eight adorations, each containing three prostrations; the second prayer they ended at noon when the sun begins to decline, in saying which they perform five such adorations as the former; and the same they did as third time, ending just as the sun sets. They fasted three times a year, the first time thirty days, the next nine days, and the last, seven. They offered many sacrifices, but eat no part of them, burning them all. They abstained from beans, garlick, and some other pulse and vegetables.  As to Sabian Kebla, (the part to which they turn their faces during pray) authors greatly differ; one will have to it to be to the north, another the south, a third Mecca, and the fourth the star to which they paid their devotions. They did go to the pilgrimage to a place near the City of Harran in Mesopotamia, where great

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numbers of them dwelled, and they also had a great respect for the temple at Mecca, and the Pyramids of Egypt. Fancying these last to be sepulchres of Seth, and of Enoch and Sabi, his two sons, whom they looked on the first propagators of their religion; at these structures they sacrificed a cock and a black calf, and offered up incense. Besides the book of Psalms, the only true scripture they read, they had other books which they esteemed equally sacred, particularly one in the Caldee tongue which they called “the book of Seth”, and was full of moral discourses. This sect said they have taken the name of SABIANS from the above mentioned SABI, though it seems rather to be derived from SABA or “the host of heaven” which they did worship. Travellers commonly called them Christians of St. John the Baptist, whose disciples also they pretend to be, using a kind of baptism, which is the greatest mark they bear of Christianity. This is one of the religions the practice of which Mohammed tolerated in that expression of Koran, those to whom the scriptures have been given, or literally, the people of the book.

“The idolatry of the Arabs then, as SABIANS, chiefly consisted in worshiping the fixed stars and planets, and the angels and their images,which they honoured as “inferior deities”, and whose intercession they begged, as their mediators with God. For the Arabs acknowledged one supreme God, the Creator and Lord of the universe whom they call Allah Taala, the most high God, and their other deities, who were subordinate to him, they called simply al Ilahat; i.e. the goddesses; which words the Grecians not understanding, and it being their constant custom to resolve the religion of every other nation into their own, and find out gods of theirs to match the others, they pretended that the Arabs worshipped only two deities: Orotalt and Alilat, as those names are corruptly written, whom they will have to be the same with Bacchus and Urania; pitching on the former as one of the greatest of their own gods, and educated in Arabia, and on the other, because of the veneration shows by the Arabs to the stars.

“The worship of the stars, The Arabs might easily be led into, from their observing the changes of weather to happen at the rising or setting of certain of them, which, after a long course of experience, induced them to ascribe a divine power to those stars, and to think themselves indebted to them for their rains, a very great benefit and refreshment to their parched country.

“The Ancient Arabians and Indians, between which two nations was a great conformity of religions, had seven celebrated temples, dedicated to seven planets; one of which in particular called Beit Ghomdan, was built in Sanaa, the metropolis of Yaman, by Dahc, to the honour of al Zoharah or the planet Venus, and was demolished by the Khalif Othman (Osman) by whose murder was fulfilled the prophetical inscription set, as it was reported, over his temple, “Ghomdan, he who destroyeth thee, shall be slain!” The temple of Mecca is also said to have been consacrated to Zuhal or

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Saturn. “Though these deities were generally reverenced by the whole nation, yet each tribe chose some one as the more popular object of their worship.

“Thus, as to stars and planets, the tribe of Hamyar chiefly worshipped the sun; Misam, al Dabaran or the bull’s eye; Ölakhm and Jodam, al Moshtari, or Jupiter; Tay, Sohail or Canopus: Kais, Sirius, or the dog star; and Asad, Otared or Mercury.

“Of the angels or intelligences which they worshipped, the K o r a n  makes mention only of three, which were worshipped under female names: Allat, al Uzza, and Manah. These were by them were called goddesses, and daughters of God; an apellation they gave not only to the angels, but also their iages, which they either believed to be inspired with life by God, or else to become the tabernacles of the angels, and to be animated by them.

“A l l a t, was the idol of the tribe of THAKIF who dwelt at Tayef, and had a temple consacrated to her in a place, called Nakblah. Mohammed, in the ninth year of Hejra (Immigration to Medina), sending Abu Sofian to destroy this idol to great dismay of the tribal women especially. There is a question whether ‘Allat’ is coming from the same origin of ‘Allah’, that may also be a feminine significance, signifying the goddess.

“A l  U z z a, was the idol of the tribes of KOREISH and KENANAH, and part of the tribe SALIM. A chapel called Boss, built and consacrated by one Dhalem, from the tribe of GHADFGAN, where also there was an Egyptian torn, or Acacia, was destroyed by Kahled Ebu Walid, sent also by Mohammed, in the eight year of Hejra. Some said,  Dhalem himself was killed by one Zohair, becasue he consacrated this chapel with design to draw the pilgrims from Mecca, and lessen the reputation of the Kaaba. The name of the diety is derived from the root ‘Azza’, signifying ‘the most mighty’.

“M a n a h  was the object of worship of the tribes of HODHAIL and KHOZAAH, who dwelt between Mecca and Medina. Some say, AWS, KHAZRAJ and THAKLIF also worship the same. This idol was a large stone, destroyed at the eighth year of the Hejra, by one Saad. The name seems to be derived from the flowing of the blood of the victims sacrificed to the deity.

“There are also important but nonetheless secondary idols that we would like to outline in summary forms. Koran mentions all of them by name: Wadd, Sava, Yaghuth, Yauk and Nasr. These are said to have been antediluvian (anti-flood, anti-nature disasters) idols, which Noah preached against, and were afterwards taken by the Arabs for gods, having been men of great merit and piety in their time, whose statutes they reverenced at first with a cicil honour only, which, in process of time, became hightened to a divine worship.

Wadd was supposed to be the ‘heaven’, and was worshipped under the a form of a man by the tribe of Calb in Daumat al Jandal.

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Sava was adored under the shape of ‘woman’, by the tribe of Hamadan, or, Hodhail in Rabat. This idol, lying under water for some time after the deluge, was at length, it is said, discovered by the devil, and was worshipped by those of Hodhail, was instituted pilgrimages to it.

Taghuth was an idol in the shape of a ‘lion’, and was a deity of the tribe of Madhaj and others who dwelt in Yaman. Its name seems to be derived from gatha, which signifies to help.

Yauk was worshipped by the tribe of Morad in Hamadan, under the figure of a ‘horse’. It is said he was a man of great piety, and his death much regretted; whereupon the devil appeared to his friends in a human form, and undertaking to represent him to the life, persuaded them, by way of comfort, to place his effigies to their temples, that they might have it in view when at their devotion. This was done, and seven others of extraordinary merit had the same honours shown them, till at length their posterity made idols of them in earnest. The name Yauk probably comes from the verb aka, to ‘prevent’ or ‘avert’.

Nasr was a deity adored by the tribe of Hamyar, ar at Duh’l Kalaslı in their territories, under the image of an ‘eagle’, which the name signifies.

“There were two idols, Asaf, the image of a man, and, Nayelah, the image of a woman, which were imported from Syria and placed on mount Safa and mount Merwa, respectively. Asaf was the son of Amru, and Nayelah the daughter of Sahal, both of the tribe of Jorham, who committing whoredome together in the Caaba were, by God, converted into stone and afterwards worshipped by the Koreish, and so much reverenced by them, that though this superstition was condemned by Mohammed, yet he was forced to allow them to visit these mountains as monuments of divine justice.

Some of the pagan Arabs believed neither a creation past, nor a resurrection to come, attributing the origin of things to nature, and their dissolution to age. Others believed both; among whom were those, who when died had their camel tied by their sepulchre, and so left without meat or drink to perish, and accompany them to the other world, lest they should be obliged, at the resurrection to go on foot, which was reckoned very scandalous. Some believed a metempsychosis, and that of the blood near the dead person’s brain, was formed a bird named Namah, which once in a hundred years visited the sepulchre; though others say, this bird is animated by the soul of him that is unjustly slain, and continually cries, “Oscuni, Oscuni,” that is, “Give me to drink,” meaning of the murder’s blood till the death be revenged; and then it flies away. This was also forbidden by Mohammed.

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“Among the idolatrous Arabs, there also were some who had embraced more rational religions.

“The P e r s i a n s  had, by their vicinity and frequent intercourse with the Arabians, introduced Magian religion among some of their tribes, particularly that of Tamin, long time before Mohammed.

“The J e w s, who fled in great numbers into Arabia, from the fearful destruction of their country by the Romans, made proselytes (converts) of several tribes those of Kenanah, al Hareth Ebn Cabaa, and Kendah in particular, and in time became very powerful, and possessed of several towns and fortresses there. But the Jewish religion was not unknown to the Arabs, at least a century before; Abu Carb Asad, taken notice of in the Koran who was king of Yaman, about 700 years before Mohammed, is said to have introduced Judaism among the idolatrous Hamyarites. Some of his successors also embraced the same religion, one of whom, Yusef, surnamed Dhu Novas, was remarkable for his zeal, and terrible persecution of all who would not turn Jews, putting them to death by various tortures, the most common of which was throwing them into a glowing pit of fire, whence he had of opprobrious appellation of the “Lord of the pit.” This persecution is also mentioned in Koran.

“C h r i s t i a n i t y  had likewise a very great progress among this nation, before Mohammed. Whether St. Paul preached in any part of Arabia, properly so called, is uncertain; but the persecutions and disorders which happened in the eastern church, soon after the beginning of the third century, obliged great numbers of Christians to seek for shelter in that country of liberty; who being for the most part Jacobite communion, that sect generally prevailed among the Arabs. The principal tribes that embraced Christianity were Hamyar, Ghassan, Rabia, Taghlab, Bara, Tonuch, parts of the tribes Tay and Kodaa, the inhabitants of Najran, and the Arabs of Hira. The Jews of Hamyar challenged some neighbouring Christians to a public disputation, which was held sub dio (bishop’s office)) for three days, before the king and his nobility, and all the people; the disputants being Gregontius, bishop of Tephra, for the Christians, and Herbanus for the Jews. On the third day, Herbanus, to end the dispute, demanded that Jesus of Nazareth, if he were really living, and in heaven, and could hear the prayers of the worshippers, should appear from heaven in their sight, and they would then believe him; the Jews crying out with one voice, “Show us your Christ, alas, and we will Christians.” Whereupon, after a terrible storm of thunder and lightning, Jesus Christ appeared in the air, surrounded with rays of glory, walking on a purple cloud, having a sword over the heads of assembly – “Behold I appear to you in your sight, I, who was crucified by your fathers.” After which the cloud received him from their sight. The Christians cried out, “Kyrie eleeson,” that is, “Lord have mercy upon us!” but the Jews were striken blind, and recovered not, till they were all baptized.

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“The Christians at Hira received a great accession by several tribes, who fled thither for refuge from the persecution of Dhu Novas. Al Nooman, surnamed Abu Kabus, king of Hira, who was slain a few months before Mohammed’s birth, professed himself a Christian on the following occasion. This prince, in a drunken fit, ordered two of his intimate companions, who overcome with liquor had fallen asleep, to be buried alive. When he came to himself, he was extremely concerned at what he had done, and to expiate his crime, not only raised a monument to the memory of his friends, but set apart two days, one of which he called the unfortunate, and the other the fortunate day; making it a perpetual rule to himself, that whoever met him on the former day should be slain, and his blood sprinkled on the monument, but he that met him on the other day, should be dismissed in safety with magnificent gifts.

“On one of the unfortunate days, there came before him accidentally an Arab, of the tribe of Tay, who had once entertained the king, when fatigued with hunting, and separated from his attendants. The king, who could neither discharge him, contrary to the order of the day, not put him to death, against the laws of hospitality, which the Arabians religiously observe, proposed, as an expedient, to give the unhappy man a year’s respite, and to send him home with rich gifts, for the support of the family, on condition that he found a surety for his returning at the year’s end, to suffer death. One of the prince’s court, out of compassion, offered himself as his surety, and the Arab was discharged. When the last day of the term came, and no news on the Arab, the king, not at all displeased to save his host’s life, ordered the surety to prepare himself to die. Those who were by represented to the king that the day was not yet expired, and therefore he ought to have patience till the evening; but in the middle of their discourse, the Arap appeared. The king, admiring the man’s generosity, in offering himself to certain death, which he might have avoided by letting his surety suffer, asked him what was his motive for so doing? to which he answered, that he had been taught to act in that manner, by religion he professed; and of Nooman demanding what religion that was, he replied the Christian. Whereupon the king, desiring to have the doctrines of Christianity explained to him, was baptized, he and his subjects; and not only pardoned the man and his surety, but abolished his barbarous custom. This prince, however, was not the first king of Hira who embraced Christianity; al Mondar, his grandfather, having also professed the same faith, and built large churches in his capital.

“Since Christianity had made so great a progress in Arabia, we may consequently suppose they had bishops in several parts, for the more orderly governing of the churches. A bishop of Dhafar has been alredy named, and that Najran was also a bishop’s see. The Jacobites (of which sect we have observed the Arabs generally were) had two bishops of the Arabs subject to their Mafrian, or metropolitan of the east; one was called the bishop of the Arabs absolutely, whose seat was for the most part at Akula (or Cufa), others a different town near Baghdad. The other had the title of the Bishop of the Scenite Arabs, of the tribe of Taalab in Hira (or, Hirta), as the Dyrians call it, whose seat was in that city. The Nestorians had put one bishop, who presided over both these dioceses, of Hira and Akula, and was immediately subject to their patriarch.

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“These were the principal religions which obtained among the ancient Arabs; but as freedom of thought was the natural consequence of their political liberty and independence, some of them fell into other different opinions. The Koreish, in particular, were infected with Zendicism, an error supposed to have very near affinity with that of the “Sadducees” (Descendants of Zadok, believing only the written laws, but nothing else, like soul, angels, resurrection and alike) among the Jews, and perhaps, not greatly different from “deism”(Believing the Creator but not recognizing the other religious believes); for there were several of that tribe, even before the time of Mohammed, who worshipped one God, and were free from idolatry and yet embraced some of the other religions of the country.

“What about the  s o c i a l   l i f e  in Arabs before Mohammed?

“The Arabians before Mohammed were, divided into two sorts, one, those who dwell in cities and towns, and two, those who dwell in tents. The former lived by tillage, the cultivation of palm trees, breeding and feeding of cattle, and the exercise of all sorts of trades, particularly merchandizing, wherein they were very eminent, even in the time of Jacob. The tribe of Koreish were much more addicted to commerce, and Mohammed, in his younger years, was brought up to the same business; it being customary for the Arabians to exercise the same trade that their parents did. The Arabs who dwelt in tents employed themselves in pasturage, in sometimes pillaging of passengers; they lived chiefly on the milk and flesh of camels; they often changed habitations, as the convenience of water and of pasture of their cattle invited them, staying in a place no longer than they lasted, and then removing in search of other. They generally wintered in Irak, and the confines of Syria.

“The Arabic  l a n g u a g e  is undoubtedly one of the most ancient in the world, and arose soon after, if not at, the confusion of Babel. There were several dialects of it, very different from each other; the most remarkable were that spoken by the tribes of Hamyar and the other genuine Arabs, and that of the Koreish. The Hamyaritic seems to have approached nearer to the purity of the Syriac than the dialect of any other tribe; for the Arabs acknowledge their father Yarab to have been the first whose tongue deviated from Syriac (which was his mother tongue, and is almost generally acknowledged by the Asiatics to be the most ancient) to the Arabic. The dialect of the Korish is usually termed the pure Arabic, or, as the Koran, which is written in this dialect, calls it, the perspicuous and clear Arabic; perhaps because Ismael, their father, brought the Arabic he had learned of the Jorhamites nearer to the original Hebrew.

“But the politeness and elegance of the dialect of the Koreish is rather attributed to their having the custody of the Caaba, and dwelling in Mecca, the center of Arabia; as well more remote from intercourse with foreigners, who might corrupt the language, as frequented by the Arabs from the country all around, not only on a religious account, but also for the composing of their differences, from whose discourse and verses they took whatever words or phrases they judged more pure and elegant; by which means the beauties of the whole tongue became transfused into this dialect.                                                                           -156-

“The Arabians are full of the commendations of their language, and not altogether without reason; for it claims the preference of most others in many respects, as being very harmonious and expressive, and withal so copious, that they say no man, without inspiration, can be perfect master of it in its utmost extend; and yet they tell us, at the same time, that the greatest part of it has been lost; which will not be thought strange if we consider how late the art of writing was prescribed among them. For though it was known to Job, their countryman, and also to the Hamyarites (who used a perplexed character called al Mosnad, wherein the letters were not distinctly separate, and which was neither publicly taught, nor suffered to be used without permission first obtained) many centuries before Mohammed, as appears from some ancient monuments said to be remaining in their character. Yet the other Arabs, and those of Mecca in particular, were, for many ages, perfectly ignorant of it, unless some of them as were Jews and Christians.

Moramer Ebn Morra of Anbar, a city of Irak, who lived not many years before Mohammed, was the inventor of the Arabic character, which Bashar the Kendian is said to have learned from those of Anbar, and to have introduced at Mecca but a little while before the institution of Mohammedism. These letters of Moramer were different from the Hamyaritic; and though they were very rude, being either the same with or very much like the Cufie, which character is still found in inscriptions, and some ancient books, yet they were those which the Arabs used for many years, the Koran itself being at first written therein; for the beautiful character they now use was first formed from the Cufic by Ebn Moklahi Wazir (or Visir) to the Khalife al Moktader, al Kaher, and al Radi, who lived about 500 years after Mohammed, and was brought to great perfection by Ali Ebn Bowab who flurished in the following century, and whose name is yet famous among them on that account; yet it is said, the person who completed it, and reduced it to the present form, was Yakut al Mostasemi, secretary to al Mostasem, the last of the Khalifs of the family of Abbas, for which reason he was surnamed al Khattat, or the scribe.

“Then, we could summarize the  a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s  o f   A r a b s, as follows:

“The accomplishments the Arabs valued themselves chiefly on were, 1) Eloquence, and a perfect skill in their own  t o n g u e; 2. Expertness in the use of arms and horsemanship; and, 3. Hospitality. The first, they exercized themselves in by composing of orations and poems. Their orations were of two sorts, metrical, or prosaic, the one being compared to “pearls strung”, and the other to “loose” ones. They endeavoured to excel in both, and whoever was able, in an assembly, to persuade the people to a great

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enterprise, or dissuade them from a dangerous one, or gave them other wholesome advice, was honoured with the title of Khateb, or orator, which is now given to the Mohammedan preachers. They pursued a method very different from that of the Greek and Roman orators; their sentences being like loose gems, and the acuteness of the proverbial sayings; and so persuaded were they of their excelling in this way, that they would not allow any nation to understand the art of speaking in public except themselves and the Persians, which last were reckoned much inferior in that respect to the Arabians.

“Thus, the  p o e t r y, was in so great esteem among them, that it was a great accomplishment, and a proof of ingenious extraction to be able to express one’s self in verse with ease and elegance on any extraordinary occurrance, and even in their common discourse they made frequent applications of celebrated passages of their famous poets. In their poems were preserved the distinction of descents, the rights of tribes, the memory of great actions, and the propriety of their language; for which reasons an excellent poet reflected an honour on his tribe, so that as soon as any one began to be admired for the performances of this kind in a tribe, the other tribes sent publicly to congratulate them on the occasion, and themselves made entertainments, at which the women assisted, dressed in their nuptial ornaments, singing to the sound of timbrels the happiness of their tribe, who had now one to protect their honour, to preserve their genealogics, and the purity of their language, and to transmit their actions to posterity.

“Common discours upon poetry was never made cheap, they never did it but on one of three these occasions, which were reckoned great points of felicity, i.e. on the  birth of a boy, the rise of a poet, and the fall of a foal of generous breed. To keep up as an emulation among their poets, the tribes had, once a year, a general assembly at Ocadh, a place famous on this account, and where they kept a weekly mart or fair, which was held on Friday. This annual meeting lasted a whole month, during which time they employed themselves, not only in trading, but in repeating their poetical compositions, contending and vying with each other for the prize; to excel were laid up in their king’s treasuries, as were the seven celebrated poems hung up on the Cabaa, which honour they also had by public order, being written on Egyptian silk, and in letters of gold; for which reason they had also the name of al Modhahabat, or the “golden verses”.

“The fair and assembly at Ocadh were supressed by Mohammed, in whose time, and for some years after, poetry seems to have been in some degree neglected by the Arabs, who were then employed in their conquests; after their being completed all sorts of learning were encouraged. This interruption, however, occasioned the loss of most of their ancient pieces of poetry, which were then chiefly preserved by memory, the use of writing being rare among them in their time of ignorance. Though the Arabs were so early acquainted with poetry, they did not at first use to write peoms of a just length, but only expressed themselves in verse occasionally nor was their prosody digested into rules till some time after Mohammed.

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“The exercise of  a  r m s  and  h o r s e m a n s h i p  they were in a manner obliged to practice and encourage, by reason of independence of their tribes, whose frequent jarrings made wars almost continual; and they chiefly ended their disputes in field battles; it being an usual saying among them that God had bestowed four peculiar things on the Arabs, that their turbans should be to them instead of diadems, their tents instead of walls and houses, their sword instead of intrenchements, and their poems instead of written laws.

“H o s p i t a l i t y  was habitual to them, and so much esteemed, that the examples of this kind among them exceed whatever can be produced from other nations. Hatem of the tribe of Tay, and Hasn of theat of Fezarah were particularly famous on this account.

“The  s c i e n c e s  that the Arabians chiefly cultivated before Mohammedian were three; that of their genealogies and history, such a knowledge of the stars as to foretell the changes of weather, and the interpretation of dreams. The Arabians as the Indians also did, chiefly applied themselves to observe the fixed stars, contrary to other nations, whose observations were almost confined to the planets; and they fortold their effects from their influences, not their nature; and hence, as has been said, arose the differences of the idolatry of the Greeks and Chaldeans, who chiefly worshipped the planets, and that of the Indians, who worshipped the fixed stars. The stars or asterisms they most usually foretold the weather by were those they call anwa, or “the houses of the moon”. These are twenty-eight in number, and divide the zodiac into as many parts, though one of which the moon possess every night, as some of them set in the morning, others rise opposite to them, which happens every thirteenth night and from their rising and setting, the Arabs, by long experience, observed what changes happened to the air; and at length, as has been said, came to ascribe divine power to them, saying, their rain was from such or such a star; which expression Mohammed condemned, and absolutely forbade them to use it in the old sense, unless they meant no more by it than God had so ordered the seasons, that when the moon was in such or such a mension or house, or at the rising or setting of such and such a star, it should rain or be windy, hot or cold.

“Now, I would like to talk a litle bit about the state of CHRISTIANITY of the Eastern Churches and JUDAISM at the time of appearance of MOHAMMED; The methods taken by Him for the establishing HIS RELIGION.

               “By the beginnings of the A. C. third century on, quite contrary to several historians and clergymen who wanted to glorify the newely born Christianity and consequenly by changing the niceties of it into controversy, and dividing and subdividing about them into endless schisms and contentions, they had so destroyed that peace, love. And charity from among them, which the gospel was given to promote; and istead, continually provoked each other to that malice, rancour, and every evil work; that they had lost the whole substance of their religion, while they thus eagerly contented for their own imagination concerning it; and in a manner

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quite drove Christianity out of the world by those very controversies in which they disputed with each other about it. In these dark ages it was that most of these suıperstitions and corruptions we now justly abhor in the church of Rome, were not only broached, but establihed; which gave great advantages to the propagation of Mohammedism. The worships of saints and images, in particular, was then arrived of a scandalous pitch, that it even surpassed what is now practiced among the Romanists.

“After the Nicene council the e a s t e r n   c h u r c h  was engaged in perpetual controversies, and torn to pieces by the disputes of the Arians, Sabellians, Nestorians, and Eutychians; the heresies of the two last of which have been shown to have consisted more in the words and  form of expression than in the doctrine themselves and were rather the pretences than real motives of those frequent councils, to and from which the contentious prelates were continually riding post, that they might bring every thing in their own will and pleasure. And to support themselves by dependants and bribery, the clergy in any credit at court undertook the protection of some office in the army, under the colour of which justice was publicly sold, and all corruption encouraged.

“In the  W e s t e r n   c h u r c h, Damasus and Ursicinous carried their contest at Rome for the episcopal seat so high, that they came to open violence and murder, which Viventius the governor not being able to supress, he retired into the country, and left them to themselves, till Damasus prevailed. It is said that on this occasion, in the church of Sicininus, there were no less than 137 found killed in one day. And no wonder they were so fond of these seats, when they became by that means enriched by the presents of matrons, and went abroad in their chariots and sedans in great state, feasting sumptuously even beyond the luxury of princes, quite contrary to the way of living of the country prelates, who alone seemed to have some temperance and modesty left.

“These dimensions were greatly owing to the emperors, and particu- larly to Constantious, who, confounding the pure and simple Christian religion with anile superstition, and perplexing it with intricate questions, instead of reconciling different opinions, excited many disputes, which he fomented as they proceeded with infinite altercations. This grew worse in the time of Justinian, who, not to be behind the bishops of the fifth and sixth centuries in zeal, thought it no crime to condemn to death a man of a different persuasion from his own.

“The corruption of the doctrine and the morals in the princes and clergy was necessarily followed by a general depravity of the people, those of all conditions making it their sole business to get money by any means, and to squander it away, when they had got it, in luxury and debauchery.

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“The Roman empire declined steadily after Constantine, whose successors were for the generality remarkable for their ill qualities, especially cowardice and cruelty. By Mohammed’s time the western half of the empire was overrun by the Goths; and the eastern as reduced by the Huns on the one side, and the Persians on the other, that was not in a capacity of stemming the violence of a powerful invasion. The emperor Maurice paid tribute to the Khagan or king of the Huns; and after Phocas had murdered his master, such lamentable havoc there was among the soldiers, that when Heraclius came, not above seven years after, to muster the army, there were only two soldiers left alive, of all those who had borne arms when Phocas first usurped the empire. And though Heraclius was a prince of admirable courage and conduct and had done what possibly could be done to restore the discipline of the army, and had had great success against the Persians, so as to drive them not only out of his dominions, but even out of part of their own; yet still the very vitals of the empire seemed to be mortally wounded; that there could no time have happened more fatal to the empire; or more favourable to the enterprises of the Arabs; who seem to have been raised up on purpose by God, to be a scourge to the Christian church, for not living answerably to that most holy religion which they have received.

“The  P e r s i a n s  had also been in a declining condition for some time before Mohammed, occasioned chiefly by their intestine broils and dissensions; great part of which arose from the devilish doctrines of Manes and Mazdak. The opinions of the former are tolerably well known; the latter lived in the reign of Khosru Kobad, and pretended himself a prophet sent from God to preach a community of women and possessions, since all men were brothers and descended from the same common parents. This he imagined would put an end to all feuds and quarrels among men, which generally arose on the account of one of the two. Kobad himself embraced the impressions of this imposter, to whom he gave leave, according to his new doctrine, to lie with the queen his wife; which permission Anushirwab his son, with much difficulty prevailed on Mazdak not to make use of. These sects had certainly been the immediate ruin of the Persian empire, had not Anushirwan, as soon as he succeeded his father, put Mazdak to death with all his followers, and the Manicheans also, restoring the ancient Magian religion.     

“In the reign of this prince, deservedly surnamed the ‘just’, Mohammed was born. He was the last king of Persia who deserved the throne, which after him was almost perpertually contended for, still subverted by the Arabs. His son Hermuz lost the love of his subjects by his excessive cruelty; having had his eyes put out by his wife’s brothers, he was obliged to resign the crown to his son Khorsu Parviz, who at the instigation of Bahram Chubin had rebelled against him, and was afterwards strangled. Parviz was soon obliged to quit the throne to Bahram; but obtaining succours of the Greek emperor Maurice, he recovered the crown; yet towards the latter ends of a long reign, he grew so tyrannical and and hateful to his subjects, and they held a private correspondence with the Arabs; and he was at length deposed, imprisoned, also slain by his son Shiruyeh. After Parwiz no less than six princes possessed the throne in less than six years.

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“These domestic broils effectually brought ruin upon the Persians; for though they did, rather by the weakness of the Greeks than their own force, ravage Syria and sack Jerusalem and Damascus under Khosru Parviz; and while the Arabs were divided and independent, had some power in the province of Yaman, where they set up the four last kings before Mohammed; yet when attacked by the Greeks under Heraclius, they not only lost their conquest, but part of their own dominions, and no sooner were the Arabia, united by Mohammedism, than they beat them in every battle, and in a few years subdued them.

“As these empires were weak and declining, so  A  r a b i a , Mohammed’s setting up, was strong and flourishing, having been peopled at the expense of the Grecian empire, whence the violent proceedings of the domineering sects forced many to seek refuge in a free country, as Arabia then was, where they who could not enjoy tranquility and their conscience at home, found a secure retreat. The Arabians were not only a  populous nation, but unacquainted with the luxury and delicacies of the Greeks and Persians, and inured to hardships of all sorts; living in a most parsimonious manner, seldom eating any flesh, drinking no wine, and sitting on the ground. Their political government was also such favoured the designs of Mohammed; for the division and independency of their tribes were so necessary to the first propagation of his religion, and the foundation of his power; that it would have been scarce possible for him to have effected either, had the Arabs been united in one society. But when they had embraced the religion, the consequent union of their tribes was no less necessary and conducive to their future conquests and grandeur.

Mohammed came into the world under some disadvantages, which he soon surmounted. His father Abd’allah was a younger son of Abd’almotalleb, and dying very young and in his father’s lifetime, left his widow and infant son in every mean circumstances; his whole substance consisting but of five camels and one Ethiopian she-slave. Abd’almotalleb was therefore obliged to take care of his grandchild Mohammed, which he not only did during his life, but at his death enjoined his eldest son Abu Taleb, who was brother to Abd’allah by the same mother, to provide for him for the future; which he very affectionately did, and instructed him in the business of a merchant, which he followed; and to that end, he took with him into Syria he was just thirteen, and afterwards recommended him to Kadjah, a noble and rich widow, for her factor, in whose service he behaved so well, that by making him her husband she soon raised him to an equality with the richest in Mecca.

“After he began by this advantegeous match to live at his ease it was that he formed the scheme of establishing a new religion, or, as he expressed it, of replanting the only true and ancient one, professed by Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and all the prophets, by destroying the gross idolatry into which the generality of his countrymen had fallen, and weeding out the corruptions and superstitions which the latter Jews and Christians had, as he thought, introduced into their religion, and reducing it in its original purity, which consisted chiefly in the worship of one only God.

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“Whether this was the effect of enthusiasm, or only a design to raise himself to the supreme government of his country, or as some say, particularly of Christian writers, the ambition and desire to satisfy his sensuality; his original design of bringing the pagan Arabs to the knowledge of the true God was certainly noble and highly be commended. Mohammed was no doubt fully satisfied in his conscience of the truth of the grand point, the unity of God, which was what he chiefly attended to; all his other doctrines and institutions being rather accidental and unavoidable, than premeditated and designed.

“Since then Mohammed was certainly himself persuaded of his grand article of faith, which in his opinion was violated by all the rest of the world; not only by the idolaters, but by the Christians, as well as those who rightly worshipped Jesus as God, as those who superstitiously adored the Virgin Mary, saints, and images; and also by the Jews, who are accused in the Koran of taking Ezra for the son of God; it is easy to conceive that he might think in a meritorious work to rescue the world from such ignorance and superstition; and by degrees, with the help of a warm imagination, which an Arab seldom wants, to suppose himself destined by Providence for the effecting that great reformation. And this fancy of his might take still deeper root in his mind, during the solitude he thereupon affected, usually retiring for a month in the year to a cave in Mount Hara near Mecca. One thing which may be probably urged against the enthusiasm of this prophet of the Arabs, is the wise conduct and great prudence he all along showed in pursuing his design, which seem inconsistent with the wild notions of a hot-brained religionist. But though all enthousiasts or madmen do not behave with the same gravity and circumspection that he did, yet he will not the first instance, by several, of a person who has been out of the way only quad hoc (unique, quite special-Lat.) and in all other respects acted with the greatest decency and precaution.”

“Well, good people, thank you very much of listening to my long, long speech but I thought if we shall be fair about “what was fair”, knowing the truths and sequences of historical events, seeing the religion not only a “very personal belief”, but also as a cultural heritage, growth and social and self-refinement of mankind throughout the human history, then “living religiously” -whatever belief system one might belong to- shall become so natural way of “living humanly”.

“God bless you all. See you some weeks later, after our Summer Literary Festival and other thrilling founding experiences are over. So long!”

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                                                                                  22

To day is very important to me: Rabbi Braun is going to talk about Kabbalah exclusively that I do not want to miss. Among all, Kabbalah, for some reason or other means a lot to me. As you know, my ancestors had come from a Muslim background, and, my father and I have been a Unitarian, since the birthplace of my grand-father was Thessalonika, Greece, I wonder there was a Jewish blood somewhere between, for the Jewish Faith had interested me a lot; like the stories and movies about the concentration camps of the World War II were used to bring tears to my eyes all the time; “Fiddler on the Roof” was the best musical that the entire family had cherished for the past century; the most celebrated painter to the entire family genealogy is that of Marc Chagall, Russian born Jewish artist.

Anyways, full of joy, I rushed to Jewish Synagogue and caught Rabbis David and Braun just on time. “Without you, we already could not start Mr. President,” commented rabbi Braun with a kind of pride and his quiet, comforting voice that he started to preach.

KABBALAH, also written as CABALAH, in Hebrew means “a traditional teaching, a learning that had been transmitting from generations to generations.” It comes from “Kibel – KBL”, meaning “to receive it”. That refers to “receiving the secret doctrine of old Jewish religion, orally!”

“The beginnings of Jewish mysticisim, could be found in the ancient times in first establishments in Palestine, and later on Babylonia. The following apocalyptic literature appeared in the writings of the Essenes and in the Talmud. They call this as Gaonic period, lasting between A.C. 7th and 19th centuries. The significant works were done by Otiot de R. Akiva and Sefer Yetzirah. With an eclectic work in the following A.C. 10th to 12th centuries  and through the contributions by Sefer Raziel, Sefer Hasidim and Rokeah, and a principal man, a Sefer Ha-Bahir’s philosophical contributions, Kabbalah officially shaped up and spread Spain, Germany and mid-Europe considerably. Then, at the A.C. 17th Century, these teachings and mysticisim reached Palestine; and, there, in the city of Safed, a Rabbi Isaac Luria created a new Jewish system of mysticisim.

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“The principal teachings of the Kabbalah are, as follows:

1)      G o d, did not create the world, directly. God is above all, eternal, and the En sof (‘Endless’). Higher and lower forms of life and conduct, emanate, proceeding God, from the more spiritual to a lesser one. The Ten Spheres (Sefirot) had emanated and sprung, in the following order: Crown, Wisdom, Intelligence, Greatness, Strength, Beauty, Firmness, Splendor (Zohar), Foundation, and Kingdom. The Kingdom, which is the last sphere, created the physical world. Through these spheres, God rules the world, and all His activities are performed this way.

2)      Eveything that exists is a part of  D e i t y; and only man through the acts of piety and moral conduct can achive union with God. Through the observance of the commandments every Jew can influence the Spheres, and, through which can influence God, in behalf of the mankind. The Jewish people were chosen by God to preserve the world by the strict observance of the Law.

3)      Man is judged by his s o u l. This is the most important thing of his being. During Creation, all souls were created at the same time; the soul, is in contract with the body says pure while being alive, whereas after death, it becomes a part of the world, ruled by the Ten Spheres. The contaminated-impure souls, after death, re-inhabit and migrate from body to body, until they are purified.

4)      E v i l  does not exit in itself but is a the result of the negation of good. It could be overcome through praying, repentance, self-afflicting, and absolute observance of the Law.

5)      The text of the  B i b l e  is full of hidden messages and meanings. In spite of the fact that is written in man’s language, the vords contain plenty of concepts of divine and mysterious nature. Man, by any means, should endeavour to uncover them. This could be achieved through different techniques that are applied by Kabbalists.”

“The KABBALAH is both a philosophical and teosophical system to endeavour to be able to find some answers on the subjects like: God – Creation – Universe – Faith and, Mankind. Through it, the significance of human life and its relatedness to the universal laws, is demonstrated and expressed through some numerical correspondence.

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“If we can review, in K a b b a l a h, the principal thema is under-standing, absorbing and re-using mental-psychic or para-psychological powers. Thus, the interpretation and expressing of the outer life in terms of our inner creative powers.

“BOOK OF GENESIS opens with, “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth!”, however this was not in reality, just in potentiality. PLATO, in his book Timaeus, describes the “Creation of the Universe” as, “…. God was the all-perfect ruler of the spiritual world, brought it down and endowed it with life, soul and intelligence. He also created, as lesser gods, Dyonisoen gods: Zeus, Apolllo, Athene; then created birds, animals and the rest..”

“God said, “Let there be light, and there was..” That was the first day of creation. On the 2nd day, “water” and the “vegetable world” were established. On the 3rd day, “the firmament of earth was settled!” Then on, everything on did co-exist simultaneously and manifested themself under the Light that was God himself. Thus, the world was completed within six days, and seventh, that falls on Sabbath, the “rest” was ordered.

“According to old Kabbalists, the first five chapters of Genesis were written in ‘code’ with Hebrew letters. As we shall see a while later in much more details, each letter has a specific meaning which also corresponds a certain number, however with no mathematical significance. Each letter and the corresponding number are simply an ideogram or symbol of a cosmic force. There is also an ongoing cosmic energy interaction in the universe and the man.

“PYTHAGORAS had also talked about “Nature Geometrizeses”, referring to the same kind of interaction. Psychiatrist CARL GUSTAVE JUNG, believing a “mutual-cosmic unconsciousness = collective unconscious” in all human beings, had thought that the material of the collective unconscious is residing at the depth of the subconscious (unconscious), and related numbers to these materials, in the form of “arche-types”, did pre-exist even before the birth. The term of “Law of Synchronicity” was also coined by him, meaning that “two meaningful events connected with each other, also with numbers, did exist in the pre-conscious.” A number is a symbol and conveys an idea. In a way, it is also a language, also conveying to communication.

“KABBALAH intends to make the people belive that God created the universe by means of Hebrew Alphabet. In that alphabet, there are twenty-two letters and, they represent twenty-two types of different states of consciousness.

“If we divide these letters into three further groups, we find:

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1)      Three “mothers”, also called “trinity”:           “ALEPH is the essence of “air”, also giving birth to “spirit.” In humans, it forms “chest”. In day-to-day living, it is the casue of “temperate weather”.           “MEM is the essence of “fire”, and “heavens” are created from it. In humans, it forms the “head”, it causes “hot” season; it interplays with SHIN, to create the opposite forces“             SHIN, is the essence for “water”, “earth” is created from it. In humans, it forms the “belly”, it creates the “cold” season.

2)      Seven “doubles”:

“BETH,  representing “Wisdom” and “Folly”,           “GIMEL, representing “Grace” and “Indignation’,           “DALETH, representing “Fertility” and “Sol           “CAPH, representing “Life” and “Death”,           “PE, representing “Power” and “Servitude”,               “RESH, representing “Peace” and “War”,           “TU, representing “Riches” and “Powerty”.

3)  Twelve “simples”:

“HE – Sight”,            “VAU – Hearing”,             “ZAYIN – Smell”,            “CHETH – Speech”,            “TETH – Taste”,            ” YOD – Sexual Love”,            “LAMED-Work”,            “NUN – Movement”,             “SAMEKH – Anger”,            “AYİN – Mirth”,            “TZADDİ – Imagination”            “QOPH – Sleep”

“We also should not forget that, the twelve (simple) letters mentioned here, are also:

“12 months of the year,             “12 months of Zodiac,             “12 organs of man : 2 hands, 2 feet, 2 kidneys, 1 spleen, 1 liver, 1 gall-bladder; sexual organs, stomach, intestines.

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“Well, this was the opening class. Pretty soon, for the newcomers, I would like to spare sometime during the weekday evenings, some KABBALAH teachings and practices that we have been doing for some time.We will get together, choosing the most available times. For that purpose, I am stopping here and promising what kind of subjects we are going to go into, as follows:

“Kavvanah” in meditation; Elements of Kabbalistic ritual (Identification with Nature & Purification with holy oil; Life Tree; Avatar; SIDDUR: The vehicle of Kabbalah; Course of the tides; the cosmic egg, Zahar etc.

“Now, before closing off, I would like to give brief answers to two questions were asked to me, before the ceremonies were started:

“What is K a d d i s h ? One newcomer from another faith, had asked me.

“K a d d i s h  is an important portion of the daily liturgy in the synagogue. It had been used for many centuries as a mourning’s prayer. Originally it is a prayer, written in Aramaic, meaning of “Sanctification.” When used as prayer, it is recited by the mourner at the grave-side of parents or close relatives, and during the three daily prayers in the synagogue, for the first eleven months, following the death event. Strange enough, the Kaddish has no direct reference to the dead or to mourning; essentially it is a doxology, praising God and praying for the speedy establishment of God’s Kingdom on the earth. It is only the special burial Kaddish incorporates a prayer for the resurrection of the dead. In the reform liturgy the Kaddish is recited only as a mourning’s prayer.

“The second question, rather request was that of, “would you please outline the Ten Commandements?”

 

-165-                         “T E N   C O M M A N D E M E N T S  that are also known as “DECALOGUE” is the fundamental law of the Jewish people known in the Hebrew as Aseret ha-Dihrot, which according to the Bible that were revealed to Moses and the people at Mount Sınai.

“A shortened form of the “Decalogue” could be summarized as follows:

1)   I am the Lord, thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage, 2)   Thou shalt have no other God before Me, 3)   Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain, 4)   Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy; 5)   Honor thy father and thy mother, 6)   Thou shall not murder, 7)   Thou shall not commit adultery, 8)   Thou shall not steal; 9)   Thou shall not bear false witness against thy neighbor; 10) Thou shall not covet anything that belongs to thy neighbor.

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“Those Ten commandements, both by Jews and non-Jews are regarded are basic social ethics to every civilized society. They are commonly represented symbolically in the form of two tablets, called Tablets of the Law, used as a sacred design in the sinagogue, also as ornaments on different objects and articles.”

“Thus ended saturday, this very Holy Sabbath Day activities and teachings. Hallelullah!”

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Ch. 24                          To day is sunday. I told my wife how much I love her, who, smart cookie, immediately told me that, “I got the message, in this beautiful day, you would like to stay home, not going outdoors and read something! Isnt’it?” I told Juda, who, I never lied life-time, that she was very correct, and I had in my mind very important ‘must’ things to be done, she could choose whatever she could, but I must be forgiven. Even though we share everything in the book, of course she does not know anything about this Mormon business, as the other big secrets of the statehood that if and when they occur, and, when I was in practice, personal secrets and problems of my psychiatric patients. Not to talk anyone does not disturb me since those things are private properties, right or wrong, I cannot judge. But the basic principle is that “I cannot share some secret knowledge, without permission or presence of the involved people” that is ninety nine percent impossible anyway.

So, my lovely Juda, took her pastel, crayons and whatever she is using for her painting hobbie that I have no any even simple knowledge of it, and began to sketch and color, I do not know may be one thousandth time, the sleeping beauties’, namely our cats’ eyes, noses, ears, tails, you name it. And I, rushed to my study-room, opened my grand-father’s Diary from the place that I had left the other day.                                                                                                                                                                             January 6th’1969                                                                                                            Code Island                                     It had been a week that I have been married to Francis. We just returned from a week’s honeymoon trip. For sure, there was a visible “change” in the house and our life style. In the plus side, it is nice to have a young lady at home who cares for you. Even though I am not a social butterfly, to go to parties, dances or so -thou I love dancing. When I was young I had taught dance to youngesters to earn some money- but it completes the picture, you know what I mean. As I had mentioned before, she was a nurse and working at a municipal hospital near-by at the Operation Room that, I am sure, is quite a tiring business. She is not on night duties, so, it gave us some chance to have a relatively regular home life as far eating and sleeping is concerned. She is a mediocre cook that is good enough for us for due to carrying a single life for quite a while, besides opening cans and utilizing the microwave, I myself used to do some simple cooking, like rice pilaf, frying squash and egg-plants, making green pepper ‘dolma’s (fillies with rice and onions), macaroni and alike. As many newely married say, “There is a reason to come home!” now,  in spite of the fact that I had always come home due to my son Souhi anyways, but, this is different.

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By the same token, concerts, movies, shoppings also had been more regular, meaningful and more fun, from both togetherness with an adult who you have a love relations and sharing the responsibilities points of view. Our sunday noon lunch committments at Francis’ home with her family naturally go (seem to go) on unchanged, as had been this noon. Mr. Normand’s sure qualities and undeniable paternity seems to be continuing perhaps forever. No complaints (yet).

At the minus side, I am afraid the pan of the scale weighs heavier to that direction than the other. First of all, there is no real, a ‘sparkling’ love between the two of us, but I do not blame neither she or me, because the way that we had chosen each other. There was a ‘like’, a kind of ‘admiration’ for general politeness, sense of appreciation and social behavior, general culture and adaptation to social life and alike at both sides for each other, but again, as if something is lacking. To bring two good people together does not gurantee for a good marriage though it is too early to make an evaluation in this subject. Francis, in spite of her mid-twenties, had never been in love with anyone. That did not surprise me, as a psychiatrist I know well, if any girl is so much in admiration and domination of her father, she can never relinquish that attachment to the father figure which we call Oedipal; if this is true, nonetheless having a baby would perhaps moderate and may nullify the degree at least of that bounding. In that subject too, we have to wait and see.

Naturally, there is an intimate-physical side of any love story. From an untouched girl I wouldn’t expect a stormy, hell-burning love scenes, but nonetheless, as we analysts believe, the corporal pleasure of the sex, also depends upon the natural development of the psychic aspects of growth and human relations. If you don’t give a chance to the fantasy because it is sin, or not permissible, and then when one day you are given a legitimate license to do it, one is expectedly a little bit afraid, a little bit surprised and a little bit dissatisfied, “Oo, whas that all?”, and a little bit satisfied, “Thank God, it is over!”. Even anticipation of that relation visibly creates some anxiety on her, I see. But, I am a patient person, it is fair for such a noble girl to give enough chance, therefore a little bit more time. But one thing did really bother me that I wouldn’t pass without detailing a little bit that scared me. Here is the story.

You know we have married just before Christmas, and at the day of Church Wedding, as I had left my nine-year old son to my next neighbour, my best friend, a Uban doctor and his wife with two children of almost similar ages, as usual. Unfortunately I could not invite them to the Church, because they were black and this was against Mormon tradition and believes. We, in my car, very same afternoon began to ride towards Nadian shores and wanted to either stay on Two Thousand Island -from where I have made my first notes after-marriage last week, written above-, and/or to go up to Réal and stay a few days in that magnificent city. While driving smoothly and after having a relatively simple early dinner at one of the road-side restaurants, when we were on the drive again, I observed some visible anxiety on Francis’ face and asked, “Is there anything matter, honey?” “Nothing, nothing!” denied Francis first, but as I insisted she finally broke out:

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“Ismailov, I don’t know whether we did right or wrong; but I sincerely feel that, before it is too late (namely, we have not been intimate yet!), we may return back!” Surprised and a little bit mad, I screamed:                          “Don’t be silly! It is ridiculous. Are you aware what you’re saying?”                          “Yes, I know!”, she also angrily responded, “As a matter of fact, I want to punch you right from the face!”

I pulled the car to the side of the road and put the blinkers on. What was my sin that my lovely (?) bride was going to punch me right on the nose? I gave her a few minutes to think, cool off, and told her in a calm voice that if she insists, by all means, I would drive back, and close this book even before opening. She thought for a while. I did not know what was passing from her mind, but was not too difficult to be read by almost anyone easily. She was married to a man with a nine year old child. From one hiearchy, she was going to move onto another; but this was going to require a lot of responsibilities, house, child care and SEX that she was not used to. On the other hand, should we return back, what church and the most importantly: Father were going to say?

I told her that I respect and accept her mixed feelings about this or any marriage, but I would not understand and not to accept that undue aggression, in the form of punch or any form. What it was? I cannot know the details, since I did not observe any visible aggression at their home (However too short time to make a logical observation!), I interpreted this a “repressed-pushed down to unconscious kind of aggression” since a woman’s status in that religion was just an eternal submission to men but nothing else. So, I was greeting King Oedipus, that supreme power, once again.

After just a few minutes’ thinking, Francis, subdued and with a pale face and, apologized from me for saying so, and said, “Let’s continue!” Both thoughful, began to drive car forward, but the initial joy had gone away. Plus the fact that, my hidden anxiety that occasionally shows itself as phobia, had come to the surface. It used to come from time to time as “hights” or “bridge” phobia. As we approached to the bridge that connects the highway to the Two Thousand Islands, I began to shake, and a kind of heaviness filled my chest and a fear of unknown began to pump my heart. As I stopped the car, Francis asked anxiously:                         “What happened now, Ismailov? Is anything matter?”                         “My phobia. It did arise again!”                         “What phobia?”                         “Bridges or heights… It sometimes avoids my flying too. It comes out when I am enduly anxious or facing some problems. Are you mad at me?”                          “No, but I am rather surprised. A psychiatrist with your qualifications… Strange. But I understand, I too have some; I can fly but I can not take trains or buses. I have the driver’s license but for that anxiety, I don’t drive. However, if you wish, if you cannot pass this bridge, I can do it temporarily for you. I see the car is automatic, isn’t it?”                           “Yes it is, but let us drink some coffee at the road-side restaurant again… And, I shall have some minor tranquilizers!”                                                                     -170-

After having a kind of breakfast, combined with a few miligram benzodiazepines, my heart in my mouth, we passed the bridge of one kilometer long. An the top, as if the bridge was falling off, and, I was pushing gas pedal to the speediest. I finally made it Both were silent throughout. We found a place to stay overnight that came first to our sight. With the effect of the pill, I almost immediately went to sleep, saving rather deferring my bride’s “first night anxiety” to the next. Fortunately, in spite of the winter, the nature was beautiful around us. Long trees appered dressed all in whites, still was reflecting Christmas mood. The time that we spent there that was three days, we went to see a historical chateau that was built four hundred years ago for his ‘lovely wife’. We both signed some heart shapes on the damp walls of the building, piercing it through with an arrow, like teen-agers. Being in an isolation and with the holiday season’s music and tranquility, we both believed that we might have done something good of marrying each other. Who knows, may be we did.

To return home, especially passing the bridge back appeared to be relatively easier than before. On the Islands and at the way back, we bought some small gifts and presents: colored albums, old Indian crafts, sweaters and alike, and returned home much more settled.                                                                                                                                    January 13th’ 1969                                                                                                           Code Island

‘Business as usual’, but marriage began to show more pores in its psycho-biological structure. My wife was still on her yearly vacation that gave us much more time to be together daily. One strange thing kept going on, and my wife did not show any will power to correct or change it: Each morning, after my son went to school bus at the corner of the street, Francis too took her own bus and went to her home at Sea-Chief to change her dress. She, indeed, to my sudden recollection, has brought almost nothing from her native home, nothing but nothing. We did not need any furniture and/or bed-room, dining-room sets or something like that, neither refrigerator, washer-dryer, or electric microwave owen. As far as personal belongings are concerned, she had come with only two suit-cases, naturally raising the question, “Well, lady, are you married, or are you going somewhere for a vacation for a short while?” More surprizing was that why her well-to-do parents, in spite of my generosity which is another issue, just to make her feel “at home”, have not suggested, warned or pointed out this thing? Why they did not ask what is the reason that she is changing at home and did not encourage to reverse it? Still showing her loyalty to mother and father?After a few days I raised my voice and asked her whether we are on a trial marriage or not. Weren’t we “celestially” married at a Mormon Church? She gave me very vague answers, like “I don’t know, I guess I am just getting used to it! This way easier,” etc. I finally brought the subject  privately and gently to mother’s attention, she very softly replied: “Please be understanding, my daughter is a very delicate person. I understand you have some phobias, she has this kind of phobias too. It will take some time.” It was very hard for me to comprehend what was the relation between my occasional phobias and her strange, unaccustomed newely married lady’s, rather their marriage style in reference to changing clothing?

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This very afternoon, when we were alone with father-in-law for a while, he very quietly but authoritatively asked me:                         “Doctor, now I found a chance to ask you. Just before you married, we had found some birth control pills in our daughter’s hand-bag. Would you answer me man-to-man; did you have any sexual relations before you married my daughter?”                         “I, for sure, was not ready for this kind of questioning, and was greatly surprised and angry too; but I kept my cool and replied; “You should know your daughter better than I could. Right after meeting, perhaps due to emotions , her menses had been irregular, so we both decided that she should take pills for a few months, until they shall be regulated. That’s all.”

He took a deep breath, so I did. Something was more than strange in this family members’ interrelatedness. Should I have replied him, saying, “Why you don’t ask your daughter?” “Are you checking your older daughter too what they are doing in their marriage, say sex, changing clothes and alike?”

One more thing began to bother me too. In the mornings, when my son was going to the street corner to get on the bus, Francis’ face was getting somewhat sullen for some time. I finally asked her,                         “Francis, is there anything that bothers you, as I observe, your face gets sullen when Souhi goes to the stand? Is it anything the matter?” With some hesitation she finally spoke up:                         “Well, first, he is a big boy, why every morning you have to go with him and wait for the bus?”                          “Francis, you surprise me. Why I shouldn’t go? He is just nine, besides, whether this is my duty or not, this is a pleasure. We grew up together. Do you know what this boy has been through throughout years, being alone with his father, away forom a mother’s love and care, tenderness? If one day we shall have a child and he or she will grow up and there shall come the school time; shall I not go to the corner for him too? What is the matter with you?”

Instead of answering my questions, she added another pearl to my troubled mind:                         “Well, I have another worry in my mind. I constantly worry that if we shall have a child whether he shall be a colored one? Since, you know, where you are coming from!”                         “Hey Francis, are you mad or stupid? Don’t you see I am white, and he is also white. Who told you that someone with my background, the country of origin so on so forth, suddenly brings out chocolate babies? Suppose such miracle happens, if he is ours, isn’t he sacred too, aren’t we going to love him? Incidentally, we are having very little relations, besides, you are on pills, I guess it will take quite some time for your readiness for having babies.” Francis bowed her head down, and murmured:                         “I want to have baby so much… I have not been taking pills… I was supposed to see my menses last week, did not happen. I really, if I am pregnant, would like to stay home this week along, namely here, with my mother. Then, I shall make my mind accordingly!”                         “Francis, what you are talking about? My goodness.” But she quietly went away. I was alone for a while. Then mother came along, with some teary eyes, said Francis was feeling a little bit nervous and depressed. It was much better for us to be apart for a little while. I however should be coming to visit them next sunday for dinner, also attending the church.”

Tons and tons of bricks had fallen at the top of my head. Took my son and left, even without even saying good-bye.

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January 20th’1969                                                                                                      Code Island

Well, our week passed quietly and without any problem. My son went to his school, I went to my job. Between I never called her home asking how she was doing. Whether she could have started to her work or not, I do not know. I began to think what was going on? Less than a month’s marriage? This was ridiculous. We hadn’t known each other by no means. What about the possibility of pregnancy? God forbid, if she is pregnant what we are going to do? If people decide together to marry, to get apart or to have or not to have a baby doesn’t require the same? She married me because she wanted to have a baby? Just like that? And here, in this Country, as newely-born babies, should divorce occur go with the mother, of course he will go with mother, and, I shall support him the rest of my life even without having the pleasure of fatherhood, meaning playing home, going together to baseballs, basketballs, movies, travelling, camping, abroad, as I have been doing with my lovely son Souhi? I don’t want to be a “week-end father!” What is my destiny, Oo, mighty God, why you did not give any signal to warn me before this togetherness? Well, I am sure, no one knows the correct answers to those lamentations. We shall live and see.

My son appears to be not to be affected from this early separation. He is a quite talker, but a little bit secretive in this subject. I am sure, there had not been a serious attachment to Francis yet, even no more than a baby-sitter who he used to be with, throughout years. But, this was a different kind of promise. As a Child Psychiatrist, I know, he might have had a fantasy that one day, may be, his natural mother was going to be with us, in spite of the fact that he never had consciously outspoken about that. Perhaps subconsciously could have been glad too. But nonetheless, I was exposing him to another separation from a promised paradise.

*

Time out! Time out for a coffee break, may be a cone of chocolate ice-cream. First I need to visit the W.C., stretch my arms and legs, look out of the window and figure out what strange things going on in this strange world. If we did not have this sort of problems, was life worth living? May be, may be not. We do forget the things and our sufferings; one does not erase them from the mind completely, but I guess, time erases the emotional attachment to the events. Memories are becoming detached from our body-soul fusion, and pass through our minds, as if we are seeing a movie that we have seen before: Each time with a little bit less enthousiasm and outpouring feelings. The poeple who have some writing skills -that unfortunately I do not have- put these feelings into some other appearances, like writing novels, poems or the best: Plays that we call this mental process  in Psychiatry as “sublimation”. Then, you have different feelings; even though you may be talking about suffering, you have a feeling of triumph, even an ecstasy that you have mastered the underlying sad feelings and make the others happy and made some other people to applaud you too! I told you, this is a very strange world. Hey, time is up. Let’s go to work. We have some business to finish.

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January 27th’1969                                                                                                         Midnight, Code Island

A big storm broke up to day, and, I am still shaky. How the things go this fast, like a heavy truck going downhill with no brakes on, I don’t understand. There had been many things to day that I just cannot understand how they may happen and of course another question with no answer is: why?

Let us start with the Church that is the main issue. I dressed up nicely and, in spite of some hesitation that I had at the beginning, whether I should have my son with me too, since we were going to be at father-in-law, Mr. Normand’s house for sunday dinner after the church services. One could say honestly, they were very kind and gentle, very accepting toward my child throughout. I felt a little estrangement thou, particularly when we were going to face each other with Francis, what kind of feeling it was going to be? Has she made her mind about coming home, or extending her visit, or staying there permanently? Was she pregnant? Off, let us go. I drove first to Mr. Normand’s house and dropped Souhi there without getting out of the car, just shaking my fingers to my mother-in-law who opened the door.

Church was more crowded than ever, it seemed to be. People were talking at the Hall, before start, that to day some very special and precious speakers were going to talk about a very important subject: Angel Moroni, Book of Moroni and Moroni plates. I only know about Moroni, His being a kind of founder angel, a messenger to Prophet Smith from God, that’s all. Why this program was not told us before, I don’t know, I only come to the church from sunday to sunday. Maybe some more senior people knew more about the forthcoming incident. There was also a rumor that “some very precious, historical and biblical documents about the gospel, were going to be held in our church for a while, since there was a move in headquarters of Mormon Church, and until it is completed, they were going to be held in one of the most trustable churches in the nation, like ours here. They even may be demonstrated too.” Well, all these are good, however, just a news to me.

Before the ceremonies started, Mr. Normand, my father-in-law, as I had said before was Deacon and the 1st Councilor at the Church, greeted me with a smile, as if nothing happened between Francis and I, murmured to me, “’I am glad you came. This is one of the most important days of our Church. Sit close to me!” I took this as a good sign, man’s still having good feelings about me in spite of the fact that the things were not that good between his daughter and I.

Anyway, finally the ceremonies started. A Holy Most Reverend Christian Whitmer the 4th, in his solemn and very respectable appearance, began to give the history of the Plates of Nephi, of two kinds large and small; about the ministry and teachings of the prophets from the time of Mosiah; the Plates of Mormon, the Large Plates of Nephi, a brief history by Mormon and his son Moroni; The Plates of Ether, summarizing the history of the Jaredites; and, forth, the Plates of Brass that are brought by the people of Lehi from Jerusalem in B.C. 600, contanining ‘the five books of Moses… and also a record of the Jews from the beginning.’ This divine man, reportedly, was the fourth generation of the first witness to Prophet Smith’s ordainment as Prophet.

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“And,” Reverend Witmer continued, “In or about the year A.C. 421, Moroni, the last of the Nephite prophet-historians, sealed the sacred record and hid it unto the Lord, to be brought forth in the latter days, as predicted by the voice of God through his ancient prophets. In A.C. 1823, this same Moroni, then a resurrected personnage, visited the Prophet Smith and subsequently delivered engraved plates to him. No one had seen them, as historian say, but, we, in the sacred hearts of us, in spite of pressures, assasinations and bloody wars, have been able to keep them in somewere, however the exact whereabouts are not known to anyone. Fortunately, our Prophet Smith, after translating them into English in summarized form, re-wrote those sacred tablets, that, we had been holding those very precious treasures entrusted to our Mormon Church Headquarters for safe-keeping. Since there is a renovation shall be going for a long time there, I proudly brought those treasures and gave to the President of this church, Very  Reverend Arthur for another safe-keeping until due time.”

Everybody was smiling and I am sure, was very proud of this high honors. I myself too felt a kind of joy, being a new and small part of this holy church. Then, almost simultaneously with the time that Very Reverend Witmer completed his opening speech, suddenly fire alarms went off. Besides, some smells of smoke filled the air and rushing men into the Hall created a sudden commotion. ‘Fire, fire, let us empty the Hall!’

Mr. Normand told me hastily, ‘Follow-me!’ and I began to run after him. Everybody was rushing toward somewhere, the most, naturally to ourdoors, but there was a big fire too. Then of course a panic started, where to go? People were attacking here and there, opening and closing the doors one after each other, hoping to find some hole to get out. Then, we did not know the details yet, but as if fire had started from several points at the same time, possibly, even probably being set intentionally by someone or someones for they were coming live, strong from every corner. My father-in-law murmured to me, “let us go to my Holy Office and get some valuables out. I did not bring my car, I need yours. Come on!”

So, we rushed to the unknown parts -of course to me- of the church building. He finally stopped at a door, short of breath; then opened it. We entered into a prosperously designed and furnished room. He opened some drawers, unlocked a few safes in a hurry; brough out several small packages all carefully wrapped; files, Holy Books; pulled off several certificates, framed pictures from the walls and made a small pile at the middle of the room. First, he loaded me with them as much as possible, himself too embracing the rest, gave me the order, ‘Follow me!’ As we were rushing out, the smoke and some reddish, hot stuff were entering the room. We turned to the left, and from the back corridor, Mr. Normand opened a -perhaps hidden- door an, Thank God, we were at outdoors, on the grass, at the backyard. Together we rushed to the parking lot. This time he was following me. After putting the staff into my luggage and back seat of the car, Mr. Normand looked around and said, “There doesn’t seem to be fire would reach here. Let us go back and help the others!” So, we went back to the church that still was in turmoil.

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Within an hour’s time, everybody was taken out safe and sound, except a few bruises and burns here and there. Of course the fire department and police were immediately reported and soon, we heard plenty of sirens. A couple of people, just in case, were referred to the hospital for smoke and a few scratches, burnt fingers and alike. Religious leaders had gathered at the middle of the road that leads to church, in their solemnly state, were praying. The leaders consoled and secured everybody to go home safely, for who couldn’t drive; few taxis were called as well as some offerings were made for a ride. Fortunately, no one was seriously hurt. I have never seen a disaster’s being handled so masterfully, in an orderly and caring fashion. While these things were going on, the President and other big leaders, also comprising the guests, made a short meeting by themselves, on their feet. I assumed they made some future plans what to do next. Then, they scattered in small groups. At the end, after almost everyone had gone away, as a captain’s leaving his ship the last, my father-in-law came near me and said, “Well, let us go home. It is getting late. I may come again later on, after the fire shall be put off!”

On the way back I kept silent, as respect to this very dedicated man. Since we had witnessed the tragedy that had occured abruptly, there was nothing to talk really unless he was going to initiate. I put the radio on; the news obviously had gotten on the media, giving the details and some doubts, thoughts about the possibilities of the occurrence of the fire that was unusual. I shut the radio off; at home, the ladies who most probably may have already heard of the story, were gallantly going to question and display plenty of emotions anyway.

Home, as expected was full of emotions, however, as we two men, quietly, maturely and in an orderly fashion handled the situation quite well that those high emotions did not reach a hysteric level. Some fire had broken out, there were a lot of commotion, but no one was hurt. The reason or reasons are unknown, and we are home, safe. That was it. I helped Mr. Normand, taking out the material out of the car that we had brought out from the church for safety, and carrying them to the second floor of their house that I had never been before.

He thanked to me and said he was going to place them somewhere later on. I went down immediately, he also came down, however a few minutes afterwards.

Francis said ‘Hello!’ to me that I replied the same, after kissing from her cheeks gently. Probably, this undesirable accident had broken pre-existing icy atmosphere that I felt a kind of soft air around, however still tense inside. I hugged my son who had watched T.V. a little bit, then played with puzzles. Mother, rushed to set the table for dinner, also Francis to help her out. A few minutes later, Mr. Normand too came down, a little bit serious and thoughtful, but quiet and as nice as possible. We ate at a mediocre degree since our emotions had really undertaking us one way or the other. The local T.V. was announcing the event in much more details and the ongoing putting off endeavours by the Fire Department. Eveybody was listening to, but no one made a serious effort to intervene or say something that may not have sounded that much appropriate under those circumstances anyway.

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After dinner, Mr. Normand went back to the church, understandably. That left us in much more face-to-face contact situation free. Mother also found a job for herself at home, so did Souhi. Thus, Francis and I, had an unescapable situation in which no choice but talk to each other. So, here she was, as serious as all times, however in a much more depressive tone, asked me how we were doing. I thanked and asked the same question to her, the answer was much the same, of course.                            “What do you think about coming home, Francis?” I asked directly holding the bull from the horn.                            “That’s what I wanted to talk to you,” replied Francis. “I have been thinking a lot and, trying to evaluate the marriage. Whether this is you or I, or both, frankly, I did not find what I was looking for in marriage. You are a nice man, good man, but I guess, I was looking something different. Yor son is a very nice boy too, no problem, but I still feel quite a stranger to him too.”                            “Yes, then? Weren’t you expecting these somehow? We all are experiencing a transitional episode, some estrangement, but some joy too. Didn’t you advance even one single inch than the beginning?”                            “Frankly, not, and there does not seem to be.”                            “And, then?”                            “Well, one pregnancy test showed positive, however doctor says we have to repeat at least once more!”                            “Well, next to the prophets’ miracles, that strikes me as the most interesting. How many times we had relations during this first month? I can count with my finger-tips. Plus the fact that you did not use the pills. That was not fair to me, as a mattaer of fact to both of us. How you were getting hopeful about a baby while you were afraid of having a black baby from me, I just can’t understand that.”

At that point Francis got a little bit upset, probably angry due to the fact that I was  little bit offensive, or she felt that way.                          “You do care your own thoughts, I’ll take care of mine. Here is my final decision: I shall wait the result of that test; if I am pregnant, I shall stay home and proceed with the divorce since, according to our Church rules, the separation is easily permissible during the first year, afterwards it becomes almost impossible. If I am not, then I may return home, to you.”                          This time I got mad:                         “It is too difficult to understand you. Let me repeat, if you are not pregnant, you’ll come home. For what? To use me for breeding only? Heaven’s sake. I am not Apis! That does not go along with a woman’s integrity and sense of family, at least in my book!”

After this last sentence, Francis got up angrily and left the room in tears. There is an old saying in Turkish, ‘Kiss your grand-father’s beard!’ I was burning inside.

-177-

I stayed in room alone, mixed with different feelings and quite angry with myself. No doubt, this idea of marriage for me, was a compensation to the ‘loss’ case with Mary, thou even it was so, why I should not have tried a nuptial togetherness other than running around that I had never done anyway. Then appeared Mrs. Normand, visibly anxious if not tears at her eyes, who, I neither called her so far with her first name nor ‘Ma’ or something like that since I don’t think she was not ten years older than I anyways.                           “What happened dear Dr. Ismailov?”, she moaned. “Francis is in very bad shape. What did you fight about?”                             Well, there comes again my grand-father’s beard. She is so unadulterated and far away from any ability of problem-solving. She was asking just for the sake of asking, helplessly.                           “No, we were not fighting for any particular subject. I asked an evaluation from her, I think this is my right, whether she may be willing to return home, to be pregnant or not, a possible separation and alike. I am upset too, but I did not offend her for any particular reason, I am sorry. Most importantly, a young, newely married lady, at her class, why should be willing to stay with her mother’s if she is pregnant, return to her husband if not pregnant. Do you have any ideas about it?”                           “I really don’t know. This is her idea. She may be feeling much more secure here with us.”                           “Why she should not feel secure with a man at my calibre, within the boundaries of a safe marriage and clean-cut life?”                           “This is true, but personal feelings might be more important than the realities of life.”                            “I am afraid, there lies your responsibility. In spite of how wisdomful you might have brought her up, obviously you missed certain points preparing her in reference to marriage and family life.”

There Mrs. Normand visibly got mad, got up quick and, with the corner of her mouth said, “I am afraid you crossed the lines a little bit more than you should. I am going to call Ray (Mr. Normand), he should come home. I can not deal with this.’”                             And, she left all in tears.

Another forty minutes or so, I kept suffering. I got out of the room, going into the other room where Souhi was watching ‘Buggs Bunny!’ I sat near him and enjoyed just being there, with him. One does not need to verse from Beaudlaire or watch Puccini’s ‘Butterfly’ to be in ecstasy; we may need those fine moments too, but the most essential love, to me, to be just there, with someone to share life, regardless whatever is happening around you. Just being there, that is the secret formula of happiness. Human beings should have known better, but they did not know, and shall not know that simple truth. “Because, we are in this world just to suffer and be ready to the other world!” say most religions…”

-178-

Mr. Normand came all steamed up. He has not finished his work at the Church, but had to come home sooner because his wife, as we know, called him home for the situation. He directly came to the room where I was staying and, trying to kep his cool, asked what was going on. I said, at this age and stage of my life, I don’t like the idea of being questioned by the parents as if I was not doing wright, or, I was doing wrong. As his wife mainly had complained to him that, as I had said, “they were not able to bring their daughter for a marriage!” had bothered him the most. I told him that I was not going into polemics of ‘what I said, what I should have said’ and alike, the matter was that “why a young bride was changing her clothes still daily in her mother’s home and how come she was taking time off, first one week, the  another week, to decide about the outcome of the marriage. Shouldn’t have I too to say something about the situation? What kind of game was going on and I couldn’t stand to that,” I itterated.

“Until I shall speak to my lawyers, you may stay away from this house”, gently warned me Mr. Normand. I replied, “Gladly!” and called my son to go to my own home.                             “No,” roared Mr. Normand, “he shall stay here too..”                             “Nonsense,” I objected, “Who is having who’s child under custody. Who do you think you are?”                              “You can see who I am, just try!”

I am a polite and civilized man, I have done my military sevice long ago, I don’t fight with another man or woman, unless one threatens my life. I walked off the house, even closed the door gently not to give them any excuses that they should hold against me, I went into may car, and from the wireless phone, I called the State Police Headquarters.                             “Lieutenant Upright? Oo, good afternoon Chief. This is Prof. Dr. Ismailov, the Mental Hygiene Commissioner of the State. I hope I am not bothering you!”                             “No bother at all, no bother at all. Big surprise, Sir, what can I do for you?”                              “Sir, this rather a strange personal business. A family affair. My son is being held hostage… O, no, no bandits, just by a reliable, respectable business and church man.. Ya… Ya.. Here is the address.. I shall be waiting for you with your men… No, I am at the outdoors, and am safe. See you Tom. Thanks a lot.”

In a few minutes two State Police cars silently were parked in front of the Normand Residence. I summarized the business to the Chief who very politely and patiently listened to. Then asked me,                            “Doctor, I am sure you are not hiding anything, excuse me, do you? Any arms are or any verbal threats are concerned?”                            “No Chief, the man is very respectable person. I don’t know him, but I do not carry a gun. Never use it. We did not have any aggression nor violence or threat between. A divorce may be on the way. I just want my son who is underage and is under my sole custody. He is ten, and he is kept in, against my consent.”                            “Strange,” chief twisted his lips and walked to the door, rang the bell.

-179-

Mr. Normand opened the door, and greeted the Police Chief who had the fire call this afternoon and knew what was going at the Church. He, politely asked my father-in-law,                           “Mr. Normand, this gentleman, the State’s Commissioner of Mental health, as I understand is your son-in-law, correct?”                           “Correct, Sir.”                           “And, he has one nine-year-old son, name…”                           “Souhi!”                           “Yes, Souhi, and, he is inside of the house.”                           “O.K., so far so good. Do you have the custody of the child, or do you know who has the custody of the child?”                           “Father, Dr. Ismailov has the custody.”                           “Is that child from your daughter, namely, any way is related to you legally or not?”                            “Not Sir, he is from the doctor’s previous marriage. We do not have any legal rights upon him.”                            “I am glad you are realizing that Mr. Normand. Now, is there any serious threat or any legal complaint that you would like to file against the doctor?”                            “No, Sir.”                            “This is fine too. Now, would you have any objection to the child’s coming out to join his own father?”                            “No, Sir.” And he yelled at inside, “Souhi, your father is here. You go home, come…”

We went home. Oo, I was not aware that now was after mid-night. I don’t need to say how tired and exhausted I was. We shall wait and see what shall develop.                              Needless to say, I am equally tired and overwhelmed with my grand-father’s unbelievable life story. I still could not come close why he is going that much into details and how one connect all these to Sanskrit talk, threat and some plates. However, I have a feeling that we are coming close to the final chapters of this mystery. I am sure clues somewhere, in the latter parts of the memoires.

-180-

Ch. 25

In old country people used to say toward the end of the week-end, “Thank God, it is friday!” That was to say, people in the new continent worked hard enough all through the week-days, as to friday, here it was the beginning of long week-end. Since the actual work had been limited for some time to five days a week, eight hours a day, one hour lunch and two fifteen-minute coffee breakes, people did belive that they were working hard. Instead of monthly payments as they were accustomed to, pay checks were paid on friday nights, so almost everyone after 17.00 P.M. rushed to “Happy Hours”, that meant “one and a half dollars coctails between five and seven”, cheap enough to make any youngster come there with his girl-friend, be happy, imbibe himself with some ethyl-alcohol whatever its commercial name would be, then go home on time, clean. Friday nights were felt the most lonesome night of the week, regardles one was married or not. If anyone did not give a clean account about his her whereabouts for friday nights, one indeed had to be suspicious about. Saturdays you go to sportive events, concerts, steak restaurants and alike common places; sundays are ‘family’ days, again church, concerts, baseball or football events, you are at the eye-sight of everybody. But friday nights? Special luncheons, long week-end trips or escapades, country music and dancing in one of the neighbouring state’s barn with your secret lover. So, watch yourself then.

Times had changed, we work hard enough too long that, after finishing the week mostly by sunday noon with a sense of ‘as if being accomplished something good’, or, ‘completion of plans’, mondays bring us a fresh ‘program thinking’, something new to think, create and gather with people in the State business for new ventures. That’s why now, at least I say, “Thank God, it is monday!”

Freedom of thinking is very refreshing. As if one has no limits, like skies. Now, you also know my unfinished business, especially in this Mormon thing. So, let us plan together: I have to read more from “The Book of Mormon”, and “Grand-father’s diary”; then, some night get together with the prospective founders of “Freemasonry Lodge”, here and there some news about the Summer Literary Festival. See, like a botanic garden, pick up any flower you want to. Of course you need to have a certain type of discipline to shape up yourself this way, to be ready almost all the time for all occurrences, old and new, yet be flexible enough to shift the programs and yourself and keep smiling at everybody. Oscar Wilde can afford to say, “I like the men of principles, but like more the men who are’nt!”, but I just cannot say “I ain’t!” I do what I am supposed to do and wish eveyone should have a share in it. Amen.

-181-                          Therefore, after dowdling around just a little bit, that is to say looking over the newspaper with a quick glance, then answering a few business calls, I plunged again in the Book of Mormon. To understand my grand-father’s diary and interpret his mode of behavior, thoughts alike, I guess I need to know more about Mormonism and then evaluate how it may have effected his behavior, escapes and alike, if there is a truth in it.

The Book of MormonContinuation from Second Book from NEPHI :

‘Chapter 24’, “Israel shall be gathered and shall envoy milennial rest – Lucifer cast out of heaven for rebellion – Israel shall triumph over Babylon.”

‘Chapter 25’, “Nephi glories in plainness – Isaiah’s prophecies shall be understood in the last days – The Jews shall return from Babylon, crucify the Mesiah, and be scattered and scourged.”

‘Chapter 26’, “Christ shall minister to the Nephites – Nephi forsees the destruction of his people – They shall speak from the dust – The gentiles shall build up false churches and secret combinations  The Lord forbids men to practice priestcrafts.”

‘Chapter  27’, “Darkness and apostasy shall cover the earth in the last days  The Book of Mormon shall come forth – Three witnesses shall testify of the book – The learned man cannot read sealed book – The Lord shall do a marvelous work and a wonder.”

‘Chapter 29’, “Many gentiles shall reject the Book of Mormon – They shall say: We need no more Bible – The Lord speaks to many nations – He will judge the world out the books thus written.”

‘Chapter 31’, “Nephi tells why Christ was babtized – Men must follow Christ, be babtized, receive the Holy Ghost, and endure to the end to be saved – Repentance and baptism are the gate to the strait and narrow path – Eternal life comes to those who keep the commandements after baptism.”  “The Book of JacobThe Brother of Nephi

‘Chapter 1’, “Jacob and Joseph seek to persuade men to believe in Christ and keep his commandements – Nephi dies – Wickedness prevails among the Nephites.”

“Chapter 2’, “Jacob denounces the love of riches, pride and uncahstity – Men should seek riches to help their fellow men – Jacob condemns the unauthorized practice of plural marriage – The Lord delights in the chastity of women.”                                                                   -182-  ‘Chapter 3’, “The pure in heart receive the pleasing word of God – Lamanite righteousness exceeds that of Nephites – Jacob warns against fornication, lasciviousness, and every sin.”

‘Chapter 6’, “The Lord shall recover Israel in the last days – Then the world shall be burned with fire – Men must follow Christ to avoid the lake of fire and brimstone.”

The Book of Enos” : “Enos prays mightily and gains a remission of his sins – The voice of the Lord comes into his mind promising salvation for the Lamanites in a future day – Nephites sought to reclaim the Lamanites in their day – Enos rejoices in his Redeemer.”

The Book of Omni” : “Omni, Amaron, Chemish, Abinadom and Amaleki, each in turn, keep the records – Mosiah discovers the people of Zarahemia who came from Jerusalem in the days of Zedekiah – He is made king over them – The Mulekites had discovered Coriantumr, the last of Jaredites – King Benjamin succeeds Mosiah – Men should offer their souls as an offering to Christ.”

The Book of Mosiah” : “King Benjamin teaches his sons the language and prophecies of their fathers – Their religion and civilization have been preserved because of the records kept on the various plates – Mosiah is chosen as king and is given custody of the records and other things.”

‘Chapter 5’, “The saints become his sons and daughters of Christ through faith – They are then called by the name of Christ – King Benjamin exhorts them to be stedfast and immovable in good works.”

‘Chapter 7’, “Ammon finds the land of Lehi-Nephi where Limhi is king – Limhi’s people are in bondage to the Lamanites – Limhi recounts their history – A prophet (Abinadi) had testified that Christ is the God and Father of all things – Those who saw filthiness reap the whirlwind, and those who put their trust in the Lord shall be delivered.”

‘Chapter 8’, “Ammon teaches the people of Limhi – He learns of the twenty-four Jaredite plates – Ancient records can be translated by seers – The gift of seership exceeds all others.”

“Chapter 10’, “King Laman dies – His people are wild and feracious and believe in false traditions – Zeniff and his people prevail against them.”

‘Chapter 11’, “King Noah rules in wickedness – He revels in riotous living with his wives and concubines – Abinadi prophesies taht the people will be taken into bondage – His life is sought by King Noah.”

-183-  ‘Chapter 12’, “Abinadi is imprisoned for prophesyzing the destruction of the people and the death of King Noah  The false priests quote the scriptures and pretend to keep the law of Moses – Abinadi begins to teach them the Ten Commandments.”

‘Chapter 20’, “Lamanite daughters are abducted by the priests of Noah – The Lamanites wage war upon Limhi and his people – They are repulsed and pacified.”

‘Chapter 29’, “Mosiah proposes that the judges be chosen in place of a king - Unrighteous kings lead their people into sin – Alma the younger is chosen chief judge by the voice of the people – He is also the high priest over the Church – Alma the elder and Mosiah die.”  “The Book of Alma” – “The account of Alma, who was the son of Alma, the first and chief judge over the the people of Nephi.”

‘Chapter 4’, “Alma babtizes thousands of converts – Iniquity enters the Church, and the Churche’s progress is hindered – Nephihah is appointed chief judge – Alma, as high priest, devotes himself to the ministry.”

‘Chapter 9’, “Alma commands the people of Ammonihah to repent – The Lord will be merciful to the Lamanites in the last days – If the Nephites forsake the light, they shall be destroyed by the Lamanites – The Son of God soon cometh – He shall redeem those who repent and are babtized and faith in his name.”

‘Chapter 16’, “The Lamanites destroy the people of Ammonihah – Zoram leads the Nephites to victory over the Lamanites. Alma and Amulek and many others preach the word – They teach that after his resurrection Christ will appear to the Nephites.”

‘Chapter 17’, “The sons of Mosiah have the spirit of prophecy and of revelation  They go their several ways to declare the word to the Lamanites. Ammon goes to the land of Ishmael and becomes the servant of King Lamoni – Ammon saves the king’s flocks and slays his enemies at the waters of Sebus.”

‘Chapter 28’, “The Lamanites are defeated in a tremendous battle – Tens of thousands are slain – The wicked are consigned in a state of endless woe; the righteous atten a never-ending happiness.”

‘Chapter 37’, “The plates of brass and other scriptures are preserved to bring souls to salvation – The Jeredites were destroyed because of their wickedness – Their secret oaths and covenants must be kept from the people.”                                                                   -184-  ‘Chapter 43’, “Alma and his sons preach the word – The Zoramites and other Nephite dissenters become Lamanites – The Lamanites now againts the Nephites in war. Moroni arms the Nephites with defensive armor – The Lord reveals to Alma the strategy of Lamanites – The Nephites defend their homes, liberties, families, and religion – The armies of Moroni and Lehi surround the Lamanites.”

‘Chapter 46’, “Amalickiah conspires to be king – Moroni rises the title of liberty – He rallies the people to defend their religion – True believers are called Christians.”

‘Chapter 54’, “Ammoron and Moroni negotiate for the exchange of prisoners – Moroni demands that the Lamanites withdraw and cease their murderous attacks – Ammoron demands that the Nephites lay down their arms became subject to the Lamanites.”

‘Chapter 55’, “Moroni refuses to exchange prisoners – The Lamanite guards are enticed to become drunk, and the Nephite prisoners are freed – The city of Gid is taken without bloodshed.”

‘Chapter 56’, “Helaman sends an epistle to Moroni recounting the state of war with the Lamanites – Antipus and Helaman gain a great victory over the Lamanites – Helaman’s two thousand stripling sons fight withy miraculous power and none of them are slain.”

‘Chapter 58’, “Helaman, Gid and Teomner take the city of Manti by a stratagem – The Lamanites withdraw – The sons of the people of Ammon are preserved as they stand fast in defense of their liberty and faith.”

‘Chapter 59’, “Moroni asks Pahoran to strenghten the forces of Helaman – The Lamanites take the city of Nephihah – Moroni is angry with the government.”

‘Chapter 60’, “Moroni complains to Pahoran of the government’s neglect of the armies – The Lord suffers the righteous to be slain – The Nephites use all of their power and means to deliver themselves from their enemies – Moroni threatens to fight against the government unless help is supplied to his armies.”

‘Chapter 63’, “Shiblon and later Helaman take possession of the sacred records – Many Nephites travel to the land northward – Hagoth builds ships, which sail forth in the west sea – Moronihah defeats the Lamanites in battle.”  “The Book of Helaman” : An account of the Nephites. Their wars and contentions, and their dissensions. And also the prophecies of many holy prophets, before the coming of Christ, according to the records of Helaman, who was the son of Helaman, and also according to the records of his sons, even down to the coming of Christ.”

-185-

The Book of Third Nephi.” “And Helaman was the son of Helaman, who was the son of Alma, being a d